American Military University

Week 8: Assignment

Course Objectives:

CO6: Design a small business Exit/Harvesting strategy

Assignment Prompt:
This week you will develop an Exit or Harvesting Plan for the company you built a business model for in Week 6. There are many scenarios where a business owner would want (or need) to exit or downsize segments or product lines in his or her business, or possibly exit the entire business. Retirements, deaths, competitive changes, consumer needs, economic downturns, and loss of interest are only a few of the possible reasons for having an “exit or harvesting” plan roughed out and ready to implement. Before getting started on the exit plan portion of your model, make sure you review the resources in the Reading & Resources section of week eight’s lesson.

Assignment Instructions:
For this project, you will be creating a 15 to 20 slide PowerPoint program you will submit by this Sunday midnight. In your presentation, you will develop an exit strategy for your business model utilizing five different scenarios:

  • Scenario 1: A Major downturn in the economy that has caused cash flow to go negative and is expected to last for 2 to 3 years. As the entrepreneur, you have enough cash saved in the business to last 6 months at your current employment, inventory, and fixed overhead cost levels. What is your exit strategy
  • Scenario 2: There is a devastating natural disaster (hurricane or earthquake) that has ruined your facilities and completely interrupted your business. It will be months before insurance can be collected to rebuild your facilities, rolling-stock, and inventory. What is your exit strategy?
  • Scenario 3: A major operation has moved into your market area and the competitive pressure has caused you to reduce prices on one product line to the point that you are barely making a profit. This scenario is different, here you are asked to think and communicate what options are worth trying before “harvesting” that product line. Second, what steps are needed to harvest the struggling product line if your strategies don’t work.
  • Scenario 4:You have lost your financial backing from the institute you have been using for the past three years. As in scenario 3, what refinancing options are worth trying, how long do you give yourself to evaluate and investigate these options, and, finally, if nothing works, what is your exit strategy.
  • Scenario 5: You are approaching retirement age, have no heirs who which to run the business. You would like to sell the business and use the proceeds for your retirement. There are no “options” for this scenario, you are wanting to sell the business. Your job is to do some research about how to sell a small business, then put together a workable plan to sell the business looking at all of the options to sell that are possibly open to you.

A possible organization for your presentation is given below. However, you are free to add your own “touches” to this presentation so long as all of the bases (see below) are covered. You are also free to choose a business template you feel best supports your PowerPoint presentation. If you need to brush up on your skills with Microsoft PowerPoint, here is an excellent (no charge) resource to watch some very short videos on using Microsoft PowerPoint 2016 (365) GCFLearnFree.Org/Powerpoint16

  • 1 Presentation “Title slide” with your name, company name, and a Title for your presentation
  • 1 Slide with a short description of the Business
  • 1 Slide with your definition of an Exit/Harvesting Strategy
  • 1 Slide with all 5 Scenarios listed
  • 5 Sub-Title slides that separate the presentation into each of the five
  • 1 to 2 slides under each of the 5 sub-title slides defining your exit strategy for the scenario. Make sure you include a short paraphrase of the scenario as the title for each of the 1 or 2 pages .
  • 1 Slide for References (minimum 3)
  • Include speaker notes on all slides that further enhance your bullet points on the slides

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Week 8 Final Project – Strategic Assessment Project (PowerPoint presentation plus References page)

Goal: Develop and present via PowerPoint a strategic plan for your organization, integrating various concepts, components and processes presented throughout this course. Submit the presentation (ppt or pptx) along with a References page (.doc) that verifies sources used.

Introduction: Managers who want to improve the effectiveness of the future outcomes of their organization employ strategic planning. In a 20-25-slide PowerPoint presentation, present a strategic plan for your organization, accompanied by a References-only page as a Word.doc that contains the minimum 10 sources used in the development of the presentation. Your presentation may be a re-developed plan based on the plan your organization already uses. If you are in the military, you may elect to choose a company where you previously worked or select a company. In any case, you will need to begin by providing a brief history of the company, and then delve into the process detailed more fully below. Accompany your writing with a minimum five scholarly journal articles that support the assertions made in your strategic plan. You will also need to use at least five other sources—books, magazines, websites, and even interviews—to augment your data support for the presentation. 

Your strategic plan should address [Suggested number of PPT slides in brackets]:

The Name of the Company/Firm [1 PPT slide]

Brief History of the Company (or Organization), its Mission and Vision [2-3 PPT slides]

Organizational Analysis [5-6 PPT slides] : This section will present your identification of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses, which emanate from your value chain and functional analyses. There is a maximum of five strengths and five weaknesses and your presentation of them should be prioritized. Exhibits are effective tools to provide strong support for each strength and weakness. Please be as specific as possible and quantify your analysis where appropriate. This section will provide the first part of the foundation for your identification of strategic issues and related recommendations through your analysis of the organization’s core competencies, competitive advantages and organizational weaknesses. 

Environmental Analysis [5-6 PPT slides]: This section will present your identification of the major external threats and opportunities currently facing the organization. These will be generated from your analysis of the industry and general environmental factors in light of the organization’s strengths and weaknesses. A maximum of five threats and five opportunities should be identified and should be presented in a prioritized order. Use power point exhibits to support your analysis, be specific and quantify your analysis where possible. This section will provide the second part of the foundation for your identification of a strategic issue and the formulation of related recommendations through your analysis of driving forces, key success factors and industry attractiveness.

Strategic Issues And Recommendations [6-7 PPT slides]: Identify (with support) the most important strategic issue facing your organization. It is extremely important that you clearly integrate the strategic issue with your analysis to the organization’s SWOT. There may be interrelationships between particular weaknesses and threats or missed opportunities, which should be recognized. It may be possible that 2 different weaknesses, 1 threat and 1 opportunity could be combined, due to their relatedness, to form one strategic issue. Similarly, your recommendations should attempt to capitalize and build upon strengths, competitive advantages and opportunities that you identified. The point is to clearly ground your issue and recommendations with the internal and external analyses so that the presentation is clear.

Conclusion/Summary [1-2 PPT slides]

PowerPoint Suggestions:

  • The slides need to be detailed, ready for presentation, and professional in appearance. View the example in the attachment provided (below). Note how the citations are placed directly on the slides. Be sure to provide a separate references page that links to the citations on the PowerPoint. An example of how a references page should look is not provided, since you already should be able to construct that document as you would any other references page in APA.
  • The scholarship required for this project must be cited on the slides, i.e., 10 overall sources minimum, as specified in the Introduction above.
  • The PowerPoint rubric will be used instead of the Writing Rubric for all PPTs.
  • Upload your PPT and references (.doc) in the Assignment section, just as you would any other assignment.
  • NOTE about the use of pictures—the website upload limit per PPT is 25MB.
  • Always present in “third person”

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For this Module’s Discussion answer these questions: Is trying to address the root cause of terrorism an effective strategy and should this be considered counter-terrorism.  What do you thing are the best strategies for combating the threat from terrorism that we’re currently face? What would be the roles in of the federal, state and local governments in these strategies? What other stakeholders might also play an important role?

Student Post 1

Counterterrorism refers to proactive policies that specifically seek to eliminate terrorist environments and groups (Martin, 2020). Counterterrorism has a clear and ultimate goal to save lives by eliminating as many terrorist threats as possible. There is much debate about if solving the root cause of terrorism is an effective strategy. Economic and social conditions have been argued to be the cause of terrorism and why many resorts to finding other means. Terrorism is therefore perceived almost exclusively as a ‘security threat’ with no discernible socio-economic roots or links with deprivation (Taspinar, 2009). There is no unique or simple way to solve the causes of terrorism and put an end to it. It is crucial to come to a mutual understanding of how to put effort into counterterrorism strategies. Fighting radicalism with human development’ should emerge as a new public narrative and long-term objective for a smarter effort at strategic counter-terrorism (Taspinar, 2009). Those who want to combat terrorism by combating the root causes are not for counterterrorism. Rather, they want to combat the conditions that created terrorism from the start. The development agenda is not about terrorists themselves, but rather those most susceptible to the goals and messages of terrorism (Taspinar, 2009). Domestic terrorism is one of the biggest threats our country faces today. We are seeing a deterioration in the threats from outside our borders and the threat inside is growing. Domestic terrorism is nothing new and it is a constant and evolving threat. Addressing domestic terrorism is no easy task and recently, the White House outlined its approach to handling domestic threats.

After reading through the report, I could not agree more with the White House plans. At a policy level, this strategy demands that the broader federal government coordinate and collaborate on programmatic aspects of countering domestic terrorism, such as information sharing, training, prevention, and intervention efforts (National Security Council, 2021). This allows for the different government agencies to ensure current policies are up to date and allow law enforcement officials to carry out their job properly. There is too much confusion with different agencies having their agendas and there is no universal understanding: protecting the homeland. The White House will also build a community to address domestic terrorism that extends not only across the Federal Government but also to critical partners. That includes state, local, tribal, and territorial governments, as well as foreign allies and partners, civil society, the technology sector, academia, and more (NSC, 2021). Federal agencies can use these strategies to in-cooperate communities into combating domestic threats and keeping their eyes open for anything that might occur. With these different policies in place, it is also important for the government to keep in mind the civil rights and protections, that we as citizens, have and not invade privacy. Violence or insurrection is not protected by the First Amendment which gives the government the right to intervene. Our country and its laws leave wide open the space for political and ideological views and their articulation, including through peaceful protest. But they leave no room for unlawful violence (NSC, 2021). The stakeholders that would be impacted by this are the public. The local, state and government have enough on their plate as it is and they are relying on the public to play its role. The statement “if you see something say something” has been encouraged by the NYPD and NYC officials and is a method that should be used nationwide.


Martin, G. (2020). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues (7th ed.). SAGE

National Security Council. (2021, June). Domestic terrorism has no place in our society. National Strategy for Countering Domestic Terrorism. Retrieved October 28, 2021, from (Links to an external site.)

Taspinar, O. (2009). Fighting Radicalism, not ‘Terrorism’: Root Causes of an International Actor Redefined. Retrieved October 28, 2021, from 

Utilize proper citation

TITLE: Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues 7th Edition AUTHOR: Martin, GusPUBLISHER: Sage PublicationsDATE: 2020ISBN: 978-1544375861

Student Post #2

Addressing the root cause of terrorism is 100% a valid strategy and should be considered an aspect of counter-terrorism. Schroden, Rosenau, & Warner (2016) describe “root cause” counter-terrorism as follows: “In this school of thought, relevant counterterrorism approaches include the promotion of economic development, the rule of law, good governance, education, and social justice more generally. Without such systemic approaches, adherents argue, counterterrorism becomes an exercise in “mowing the grass” rather than performing the “weeding and landscaping” aimed at reducing if not eliminating the threat.”

The pathway to the 1998 Good Friday Peace Accords in Northern Ireland is an excellent example of a “root cause” counter-terrorism strategy. Forsythe (2004) describes the Good Friday Agreement as, “intended to form a basis for ending over 30 years of civil and sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland. It attempts to lay the foundations for peaceful co-existence between the two main traditions within Northern Ireland and to develop cooperation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The agreement addresses highly contentious issues such as human and civil rights, policing, prisoners, and weapons decommissioning.” Despite years of distrust, some missed milestones, and sectarian friction during the peace process, the Good Friday Agreement is considered a success due in large part to the United Kingdom’s commitment to a devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Republic as well as the Irish Republican Army’s (IRA) disarmament and commitment to the political process.

The United States should maintain a multilayered defensive and offensive counter-terrorism strategy to combat today’s threats. External to the U.S. (OCONUS), while we continue to withdraw military forces from Iraq and Afghanistan, maintaining the ability to neutralize terrorist leaders and operators (such as bomb makers) through continued military operations, including airstrikes, is essential to the security of the U.S. and its allies. Also, building strong diplomatic partnerships with countries most vulnerable to terrorist operations, such as countries in the Middle East and Africa, is essential to combating terrorists in sovereign countries that lack the resources and laws to arrest and prosecute terrorist actors on their own.

The federal government is responsible for funding diplomatic missions abroad, tasking government agencies to forge international partnerships, and where appropriate, invest money in both the security mission of a foreign country, but also humanitarian efforts such as education, infrastructure building, and economic development.

Domestically, the U.S. faces terrorism threats across the entire ideological spectrum. Focusing on one ideological threat over another leaves the public exposed to extreme acts of violence. We continue to experience Islamic terrorism such as the Pulse Nightclub shooting and Boulder (Colorado) grocery store shooting; right wing violence such as the El Paso Walmart shooting and Pittsburgh Tree of Life Synagogue shooting; and unafilaited gunmen such as those in Las Vegas, Parkland High School, and Newtown, Connecticut.

Aggressive community action that combines law enforcement interdictions with public/mental health services is the best way to combat domestic terrorism threats. Even when law enforcement is unable to gather enough evidence to charge individuals with a crime prior to an attack, it is essential that violent actors be identified and confronted.

Inside the U.S., federal, state, and local partners must engage with multifaith houses of worship as well as non-profit organizations that can assist in offramping individuals trapped in an extremist cycle before they commit crimes. In 2021, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) made “$20 million available through the Targeted Violence and Terrorism Prevention (TVTP) Grant Program to help communities across our country develop innovative capabilities to combat terrorism and targeted violence (DHS, 2021).” The TVTP Grant is intended to address the following priorities: “(1) preventing domestic violent extremism; (2) enhancing local threat assessment and management capabilities; (3) implementing innovative solutions for preventing targeted violence and terrorism; and (4) challenging online violence mobilization narratives for the first time through this program (DHS, 2021).”


Department of Homeland Security (DHS). (March 21, 2021). DHS Makes $20 Million in Funding Available for Targeted Violence and Terrorism Prevention Grant.…

Forsythe, A. M. (2004). Mapping the political language of the 1998 good friday agreement: Research and Reviews. Current Psychology, 23(3), 215-224.

Schroden, J., Rosenau, W., & Warner, E. (2016). Asking the right questions: a framework for assessing counterterrorism actions. CNA Analysis and Solutions Arlington United States.

Student post 3

The attack on the United States on September 11, 2001 claimed many innocent lives depicting that terrorism had morphed deep into the world and could cause massive destruction and pain. A counter-terrorism is an act of developing coordinated strategies to combat terror attacks. One of the best ways to address the concept of terrorism is addressing its root cause. Although there are many causes of terrorism, individual nations should identify their unique cause and address it diligently with the help of the United Nations and other international bodies that counter-terror attacks and engage in peace-keeping missions (Farrell, 2019). Other than the federal government, partners that promote counter-terrorism strategies include United Nations, Civil society, religious leaders, local authorities, prisons, and higher education and probation centers.

According to Obamamoye (2017), addressing counter-terrorism involves research on its root cause and violent extremism despite the rise of the pandemic and other social calamities. COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased discrimination, isolation, and inequality, along with the global shift into the online space, increased terror activities (Fishman, 2019). Social distancing reinforced terrorists’ capability to radicalize and apprentice more hate dialogue and advertising that flourishes on social media as the world is currently considered a small village. Terror activities are also motivated by xenophobia, intolerance, and racism. Also, the national government should tackle the documented connection between terror activities, planned crime and utilize the data for peace missions (Obamamoye, 2017). After the first attack in 2001by the Taliban, the United States increased its security by enhancing the size of its military, establishing a central intelligence Act, and creating a department known as the Department of Homeland security that counters terrorism.

The US government plays an important role in combating terror attacks within its borders and across regions. It created a body in 2001 whose role is to oversee the implementation of strategies and resolutions pertinent to preventing terrorism by all member states (Obamamoye, 2017). Through the FBI, a national law enforcement agency that deals with investigating and preventing terror attacks, the federal government can identify the root causes of terrorism and address them individually (Fishman, 2019). Since the invasion by the Taliban on September 11, 2001, and their removal from power after they refused to sign the peace treaty, the United States launched electronic surveillance to monitor suspected terrorists (Farrell, 2019). The federal government can also use the Patriot Act, as seen in the 2001 counter-terrorism strategy. The concept offers rewards to terrorists who turn themselves in and keep information on suspected terrorists private. Another advanced strategy that can be utilized by the federal government is opening its borders to better track alleged terrorists.

The federal government should adopt specific strategies that prevent and eliminate terrorists and attacks. Social media plays an important role in propagating terror attacks and threats. The choice of a strategy is dependent on the nature of the threat and previous terror attacks. First, the national government should create laws that define terrorism and standard measures to curb them. Programs and initiatives can be created to curb the financing of terrorism, such as the Bureau of counter-terror attacks. The FBI is a leading federal law enforcement agency to counter terrorism through investigations, prevention, and reporting. To prevent terrorism, a nation should adopt strategies such as using electronic technology to halt terror networks, deny terrorists the sanctuary and support of rogue states, and emphasize the proper use of elements of power to combat terrorism.


Farrell, W. R. (2019). The US Government Response to Terrorism: In Search of an Effective Strategy: In Search Of An Effective Strategy. Routledge.

Fishman, B. (2019). Crossroads: Counter-terrorism and the Internet (February 2019). Texas National Security Review.

Obamamoye, B. F. (2017). Counter-terrorism, Multinational Joint Task Force and the missing components. African identities, 15(4), 428-440. 

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Assignment 5: Effective Communication in Intimate Relationships

Imagine a scenario in which two partners are discussing getting tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this scenario, the partners demonstrate through discussion their understanding of the symptoms of STIs, the methods used to test for STIs, and the way in which STIs are treated as well as their capacity to engage in effective communication with one another about this sensitive topic.

Write out a role-play conversation between the partners in which they make use of effective verbal and nonverbal communication strategies (including active listening, “I” statements, and emotional validation) to discuss getting tested for and the possibility of getting treated for STIs. At the end of your role play, produce a brief, 1-paragraph summary of how effective communication was used.

Your script must be at least 650 words long. Your script should demonstrate accurate knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and how to test for them as well as knowledge of communication strategies. Use at least 2 references to support your work.

If you would like, you may write a script for a couple that differs from your personal experience (culturally or in terms of orientation, for example) or even write a script detailing how you would convince two clients of yours to get tested.

All assignments and forums in the class are designed for you to demonstrate your understanding and your knowledge of the material content. It is never acceptable or appropriate to simply provide information that is copied and pasted from a source – any source. Even if the information were cited properly, copying and pasting does not demonstrate knowledge.

All assignments are submitted to Turnitin, which is a plagiarism checking tool. Any assignment receiving a score of 30% or better raises serious concerns about the originality of your work. An originality score should generally be no more than 20%. Assignments with originality scores between 20 and 50% will have points deducted. Any originality score over 50% after review will be graded with a 0. Please keep this in mind as you are submitting work.

Grading Rubric

Week 5: Conflict Resolution – Setting Ground Rules

Possible Points

Student Points

The script demonstrated an understanding of effective communication strategies. Paper includes a 1 paragraph summary of communication strategies used in the script.


The script demonstrated accurate knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and how to test for them.


At least two appropriate references are included and follows APA 6th ed. formatting style.

Citations are included in the body of the paper to show how and where the references are used.


Writing structure is consistent and clear. Spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar rules are followed.


The script meets the minimum 650-word count requirement.




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Art Museum Assignment

Course Objective(s): 

CO-1: Identify major works of Western and Non-Western art from the Neo-Lithic to the Post-Modern periods.

CO-2: Identify major artists and their time periods in Western and Non-Western art.

CO-3: Interpret art terminology in relationship to works of art.

  • CO-4: Describe major works of art.
  • CO-5: Compare and contrast works of art.
  • CO-6: Analyze works of art within their social and historical contexts.
  • Write a 2 page description, formal analysis, interpretation and evaluation of one work of art from a virtual museum online. Visit the museum virtually.  Please visit an art museum, not a children’s museum for this project.  Use the Week 1 How to Write a Critique format. You are writing in an informal manner and are discussing/describing the object with us. Be sure to review the lesson of Description, Formal Analyze, Interpretation and Evaluation learned in Unit 2. It may be helpful to review the Third of May, 1808 short videos in Unit 2 lecture. 
  • Include in your paper an additional introductory paragraph describing the museum you visited.
  • Submit your work in the Museum Assignment section. Optionally: also post your paper to the Week 5 Forum designed for the papers.  

Museum Paper Grading Rubric:
The Museum Paper is an analysis paper, not a history or research paper. It is worth 100 points.

60 points: If the student demonstrates a clear understanding of the topic being discussed and addresses all required points in the writing prompt.  Be sure to describe the artwork, name and discuss line, texture, space, color and shape, and arrive at an interpretation.  What does the artwork say to you personally?  Be sure that the paper is two full pages aside from the description of the museum. The museum description should not be included as part of the two page length requirement. Try to choose a museum locally so that you can visit in person at some point and see the artwork that you wrote about.  Have fun!

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Marketing Budget

A marketing budget can be compared to a personal budget – if the budget is not solid, you could accidentally or unknowingly overspend on expenses, such as marketing costs. The amount required for a marketing budget can be difficult to define, so entrepreneurs should consider using a mix of directional, creative, and call-to-action advertising. Something to keep in mind is that while each category has traditional methods, those methods can overlap; it depends on the purpose of the platform. For instance, social media may be used in any of the three categories.


Directional advertising is for customers who already know what they need and turn to advertising that directs them to the exact business they are looking for.


Creative advertising is any type of advertising that can be used for branding, such as billboards, radio, and television. This is a powerful method to build the business over the long run.


CTA, or call-to-action advertising, is any advertising that encourages the customer to make an immediate buying decision. Traditionally, this has included direct mail, coupons, newspaper, or in-store ads.

Marketing Budget Continued…

A common tactic for establishing a marketing budget is to designate a certain percentage of gross revenues to marketing. This usually ranges from 2% to 5% for marketing. However, these are not set percentages, as this will really depend on the industry you are in, the size of your business, and the growth stage of your business. If you are in the initial start-up phase of your business you may spend up to 20% to help with brand building.

Here’s an example: Gross revenues for the upcoming year are expected to be $100,000 for a start-up business. You decide to allocate 5% for the marketing budget, which may look like this:

  • Expected gross revenues = $100,000
  • 5% dedicated to marketing = $5,000 budget
  • Direct Advertising = 25% of marketing budget (of the $5,000) = $1,250
  • Creative Advertising = 50% of marketing budget (of the $5,000) = $2,500
    • Television = $2,000 in a local, specific market to keep costs down and directed at target customer.
    • e-mail newsletters = $500
      • Free to create and post (no tangible materials)
      • $250 in employee labor and time to create
      • $250 in computer software to create the newsletters.
    • Creative advertising has a main purpose of building the brand.
  • Call-to-Action Advertising = 25% of marketing budget (of the $5,000) = $1,250
    • In-store ads = $1,250 for the year; various promotions to occur once a quarter.
    • Using for promoting the business.
    • Yellow pages = $1,000 during slow sales month to try to increase sales
    • Twitter = Free to post, $250 in employee labor and time to post and track Twitter account
    • Using for promoting the business. 

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(LO8) Explain how to manage the growth and other challenges that arise from an entrepreneurial venture

(LO9) Demonstrate knowledge of the fundamentals of entrepreneurship 

Final Paper 

in week seven we want you to create a business plan for the venture you have been working on throughout the class.  We ask that you research and provide analysis of the following areas for your propose business venture.


An opening statement where you provide the name of the business and the essence of your vision and mission statements. As well as your assessment as to why this business venture has a better than average chance to succeed.

Background of this venture

Briefly describe an your entrepreneurial venture (business) please include in this section: (a) a detailed description of the venture’s products and/or services this company would provide; (b) the target markets and customer demographics you would sell to;(c) what advantage this venture would offer that makes it competitive; (d) what skills, knowledge, experience, or talents do you (as the entrepreneur/owner) bring to the venture; (e) what benefits (tangible and intangible) does this venture have for your potential customers; and (f) how do you propose getting products or services marketed? You are not supplying a business plan, however, from the information you supply should be complete enough to eventually develop a business plan. Do not limit your narrative to the items above (a through e), be creative in your description of your possible venture. But make sure to back up what you say with research.

Industry and competitive analysis

Provide an overview as to why this business venture is or will be in demand based on the research you have performed please include; An industry overview in the U.S. and in the location, you will potentially start this business.  Information regarding the competitive environment in that location.  An analysis of the market that identifies risks, opportunities, trends in growth

Risk analysis 

in this section we ask that you address the risks that must be considered both to the start-up and to the long-term viability of this venture? In some detail, identify the market segments and the trends in those markets. Include expert assessment of the potential for your venture, and the risks and potential stumbling blocks to entry. Provide evidence that a new player is needed in your local market by doing some market research that identifies competitors already in your region. Please also perform a quick cost analysis on how much money this venture would need to start. Look for credible sources and research to support and explain what this business venture is and how it works in the economy. 

Market Trends

Describe in detail your target market location is, and why you have selected it. What is the demographic your business will address? Investigate and describe your competitors in this specific market and what are their strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities? Devise a strategy for entering this market and what are the specific barriers and risks to entry. What specific marketing (advertising) needs do you believe will garner attention as you enter this market with your new venture?


Please provide well-written summary of the ideas presented which easily walks us through why this venture will be successful or if your research and analysis determines that it would not be successful please state why.  


Please use the attached APA formatted Essay Template for this assignment with the above titles for each section of the paper. Be sure to properly cite your resources throughout the entire paper using APA 7th citations rules. Also, use proper APA referencing guidelines in your “References” (bibliography) section at the end of your papers. Your written weekly assignment paper should be 5 to 7 pages not including the title page or the reference listing and should include a minimum of 7 cited credible reference sources.

This assignment is due on Day 7 of Week 7, by 11:59pm ET.

Additional information for the paper

Elevator pitched used in previous week for business

Come escape the stress of your daily grind in “Game Time” a tech café in midtown. I opened the café when I realized my favorite evenings were spent in my game room drinking beer and challenging my friends to online matches. “Game Time” offers the largest line of on-tap craft beer in the city, upscale bites and the ability to join Madden, COD and League of Legends tournaments starting at 5 every night of the week. Stop by if you’re ever in the area. I’m sure you’ll love it.

The name of the gaming lounge is “Game Time”

These are the references I would like to use: Feel free to add more as you sit fit according to the topic

The advantages & disadvantages of internet cafes. Techwalla. (n.d.).

Gamers Xperience. (n.d.).

Harrison, D. (n.d.). How to start your own gaming lounge. Rangewell.

Livefreeandplayhard. (2018, September 11). Tips to open a successful gaming lounge. Medium.

Martins, A. T. (2021, April 27). Video game LOUNGE business Plan [Sample template For 2021]Ajaero Tony Martins. ProfitableVenture.

Richlands, T. L. (2017, December 21). Benefits of playing at a gaming bar and lounge. Medium.

Richlands, T. L. (2017, December 21). Benefits of playing at a gaming bar and lounge. Medium.

Start a gaming lounge business – business ideas. Starter Story RSS. (n.d.).

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You have acquired a vast knowledge about multiple topics relevant to managers and HR employees. Below, you will find a list of what some refer as pressing issues and trends facing HR professionals in 2020 and you are asked by senior management to weigh in on—from educating and discussing the implications for the organization to providing solutions in which the organization can implement.

For your final paper, you are being asked to weigh in on one of these issues or trends, defining and educating management exactly what the challenge or trend is, analyzing and discussing the implications for organizations, and what can be done. Do not limit yourself in these approach elements, as you want to make sure that the executive management would have all the information they need to make a decision or take action.

  • Pressing Issues
    • Corona Virus Pandemic
    • Closing the skills gap
    • Modernizing employment-based immigration
    • Creating organizational cultures that prevent workplace harassment
    • Improving the employee experience (i.e. employee engagement)
  • Trends
    • Fostering the relationship between workers and robots
    • Creating flexible work schedules and environments
    • Taking a stand on social issues, i.e. employer/employee activism
    • Improving gender diversity
    • Investing in mental health and wellbeing of employees
    • Addressing the loneliness of remote workers
    • Upskilling the workforce
    • Focusing on soft skills
    • Preparing for Generation Z
    • Preventing employee burnout
    • Helping managers to manage (i.e. how HR can help managers manage)
    • Holistic HR
    • People Analytics to Analytics for the People

This is not an exhaustive list. If you find one outside of this list, please send me a message with your request.

Write an 8-10 page research paper in APA format, 7th edition (excluding the title page, abstract and reference pages) on the topic of your choice from the list above. You are to create an analytical study to evaluate your recommendation, showing and demonstrating a measurable performance impact it would create for the organization. For example, if your intention and recommendation is to reduce turnover and improve performance, then you need to provide both hard and soft data to support your assertions and recommendation, and, in turn, anyone reviewing your report would draw the same conclusions.

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Research Assignment 2: Week 6


Pay for Performance in America’s public schools is an extremely controversial issue. Although the process has made inroads in business and is a means to help determine promotions, pay, and retention, pay for performance has not been consistently well received in the Public school systems. There are some successful examples where teacher pay has been linked to student test scores. In Minnesota for example, some districts have stopped giving automatic raises for seniority and base 60% of all pay increases on employee performance. In Denver, unions and school districts designed an incentive program where teachers receive bonuses for student achievement and for earning national teaching certificates. On the other hand, some plans have not worked. For example, Cincinnati teachers voted against a merit pay proposal and Philadelphia teachers gave their bonus checks to charity rather than cashing them. It appears that having teachers involved in planning the incentive system is one key factor to success. The same can be said for all incentive plans – if employees do not buy into them, they will not work.


You have been asked by the organization’s senior leadership to explore the practicality of implementing such a program for your organization.

Questions to Research:

  1. How could an organization measure the effectiveness of their pay-for-performance plans?
  2. From an employee’s perspective, what are the advantages and disadvantages of using a pay-for-performance plan?
  3. From an employer’s perspective, what are the advantages and disadvantages of using a pay-for-performance plan?


  • The assignment is due Sunday, 11:59 PM EST
  • Submitted as an MS Word attachment in either a .doc, .docx, or .rtf format.
  • Your paper should be a minimum of five (5) full pages of double spaced content in 12-point font. This excludes your title page, abstract, and reference pages.
  • Include a properly formatted APA cover page, an abstract, a properly formatted Introduction and Conclusion, and a minimum of 5 references to support your work, and 3 of those 5 need to be peer-reviewed.
  • Please refer the assignment tips for your Week 3 – Assignment 1 for additional guidance in researching and preparing your paper.

The course objectives addressed by this assignment are as follows:

  • Explain the various classifications of rewards.
  • Describe competency-based compensation programs.
  • Describe relative standards in the performance management system.
  • Discuss ethical issues in HRM

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Answer Initial Discussion question 250 words. Respond to 4 classmates 250 Words each

For your initial discussion this week, discuss:

1) What is the state action doctrine?

2) Find and share a news article in which someone is alleging the violation of his or her Constitutional rights. Apply the state action doctrine to the allegations. Does the state action doctrine apply? Could the complaint about the violation of Constitutional rights be valid?

Classmate 1 Adam: Greetings Classmates and welcome to my week 4 post. This week’s topic (at least to me) was slightly more complicated than previous weeks due to the simple yet complex nature of the state action doctrine. So first off, what is the state action doctrine?

Well, it is a key component of the Fourteenth Amendment or a threshold requirement that must be satisfied before triggering protection of our fundamental rights. The state action doctrine does not protect the rights of individuals to be free of governmental control, but rather the right of the people to democratically determine, for themselves, what kind of society they wish to live in. Out of all of the material I read on the topic, I have come out feeling like the true purpose of the state action doctrine is to serve the principle of democratic choice, meaning that the doctrine carves out certain fields within which the people have the right to democratically govern themselves.

Moving on in this week’s topic, I found an article in which someone was alleging violation of their constitutional rights. In the article I chose, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to take up a case over whether to make it easier to hold municipalities liable for civil rights violations committed by their police, rejecting an appeal involving a man fatally shot by an officer in Ohio.

An application of this state action doctrine is seen here and is connected with the rule that only injuries resulting from intentional actions of the state create a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. However, when the state’s action was not intended to inflict the injury complained of, the courts here refuse to acknowledge that the state conduct is its legal cause. Essentially we have the state action doctrine stopping the 14th amendment rights from kicking in because the state law provides for the police officers to be able to take x,y, and z actions and eventually led up to the point that is being contested.

Honestly, in my perspective, the complaint about the violation of constitutional rights could absolutely be valid however in this situation we clearly have the state action doctrine applying and protecting this police officer from being further persecuted.

I look forward to reading a lot more about this topic this week and to reading others postings to gain more insight on the topic. Thank you for reading.

Classmate 2 Sherron: Good morning,

The state action doctrine refers to the requirement that in order for a plaintiff to have standing to sue over a law being violated, the plaintiff must demonstrate that the government (local, state, or federal), was responsible for the violation, rather than a private actor.

The case that I chose to discuss this week is Ashker v. Governor of California. This case is interesting because the state action doctrine does apply and it does not apply. It confused me at first because the prisoners filed suit against the Governor of California but the case deals with the violation at California’s Pelican Bay State Prison which is controlled by California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. The case charges that prolonged solitary confinement violates the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment, and that the absence of meaningful review for SHU placement violates the prisoners’ rights to due process. Security Housing Unit (SHU) prisoners spend 22 ½ to 24 hours every day in a cramped, concrete, windowless cell. They are denied telephone calls, contact visits, and vocational, recreational, or educational programming[1]. Hundreds of Pelican Bay SHU prisoners have been isolated under these conditions for over 10 years and dozens for more than 20 years, causing harmful and predictable psychological deterioration. In fact, solitary confinement for as little as 15 days is now widely recognized to cause lasting psychological damage and can constitute torture under international law.

The state action doctrine applies in this case because the Pelican Bay State Prison is a government entity and is controlled by the Governor of California. If this was a privatize prison, the state doctrine would not apply because it would be a private sector. The psychological harm caused by the prolonged confinement was cruel and unusual under the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments.

Classmate 3 Jeffery: The State Action Doctrine is a constitutional concept that needs to be understood more in society. The doctrine delineates that Constitution governs the actions of the Government and not private citizens. The language of the Constitution is written towards directing what states and state actors are unable to do. The Fourteenth Amendment hammers home the point of the State Action Doctrine. The Fourteen Amendment states “NO STATE SHALL make or enforce any law that abridges the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US”. The State Action Doctrine does not only apply to actions taken by Federal and State governments but municipal and any actors working under the law.

For example, the State Action Doctrine applies to public school systems. If a teacher unlawfully suppressed a student’s First Amendment rights, that student would have a claim to First Amendment protections against the Government. An example of this occurred in Maryland when a public-school student refused to follow a teacher’s assignment and profess that their Christian beliefs were inferior to Islam. In contrast, a private school system is within its right to practice religious beliefs as the school and staff are non-government actors.

In May 2020 Laura Loomer attempted to sue Facebook, Twitter, Apple, and Google for what she believed was a First Amendment violation. This was in response to her Twitter account being blocked and other social media being restricted for her anti-Muslim hate speech. She chained herself to Twitter headquarters and filed a suit through District Court against the company. Her case was dismissed and she appealed through the United States Court of Appeals in Washington D.C who affirmed the District Court and threw the case out.

A popular misconception in society is that social media companies violate the First Amendment when they place restrictions on what you can post. There are several Facebook groups and class-action lawsuits calling to sue Facebook and Mark Zuckerberg who they believe to be a violation of their First Amendment rights. These people all consistently fail because social media and technology companies are private corporations separate from the United States Government. They do not operate as an actor of any Government and have absolute latitude over the content they wish to show.

The Fourteen Amendment and the State Action Doctrine make clear that the Constitution only governs the Government and its actors. Facebook or Twitter can ban or restrict your content if you violate their terms. They are the interpreters of their own terms and if you violate them, they can suppress your content. I believe this separation is proper and is good that private companies are separate from the Constitution. Private companies already follow laws passed by Congress and their states, they should be allowed to operate and expand in their own vision.


Adi Robertson, Social media bias lawsuits keep failing in court, The Verge (May. 27, 2020),

Erik Larson, Twitter, Facebook Win Appeal in Anticonservative-Bias Suit, Yahoo Finance (May. 27, 2020),

Maryland High School Punishes Christian Student For Refusing To Profess Her Faith In Islam, Threatens To Arrest Her Father For Making A Stink About It, Shoebat (Jan. 30, 2016),

U.S. Const. amend XIV.

Classmate 4 Crystal: The state action doctrine is a policy that requires a plaintiff only being able to suggest a law or right has been violated if the actual government was responsible as oppose to a private actor or person. This means that the local, state, or federal government has to have acted in the case. This doctrine suggests that items such as the Fourteenth Amendment only applies when it comes to the State vs. an individual as opposed to an individual versus another individual.

For this weeks post, I am glad that I was able to work ahead because the state action doctrine can be applies as it relates to the student speech case that is being heard before the Supreme Court. The article I found as it relates to this case by the Chicago Tribune (Sherman, 2021), gives information on the Brandi Levy case. This then 14 year old sent a “Snap” off duty that had profanity, which was then given to coaches at the school. She was suspended from the cheerleading team. Because of her arguing that this violated her rights as it relates to Speech. This case is being considered one of the most significant cases on student speech in more than 50 years. The question rose as to whether schools (public) can discipline their students on things that happen, or are said, why they are not on the school campus. There was an argument on this case that cited the Des Moines, Iowa case that ruled that students “don’t shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate” (Sherman, 2021). Levy’s parents filed a federal lawsuit based on the speech rights being violated.

This case has the state action doctrine applied to it because the school is a public school and is therefore a part of the government. If the school was a private school, it would be different. The state action does apply because the individual is claiming a government entity (the school) is at fault. I do believe that the complaint about the violation of freedom of Speech is valid and the parents have a leg to stand on.

Reference and the Article:

Sherman, M. (2021, April 26). A teen was suspended from her cheerleading team for cursing on a Snapchat video. now she’ll be heard by the Supreme Court. Retrieved May 18, 2021, from

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go the the following link and watch the TED Talk by Sam Harris entitled Science Can Answer Moral Questions

Afterward, please write an essay addressing the following questions.

1. Freedom of speech, freedom of expression, and freedom of association are all values that we as Americans hold dear. Yet, we sometimes encounter ethical quandaries when individuals or groups who seek to proliferate ideas that the majority would consider nefarious demand statuses of recognition and privilege normally reserved for more widely-accepted perspectives. Consider the article on the implications of 501(c)(3) tax status awards for racist, white-nationalist propaganda organizations titled Four white nationalist groups given nonprofit status, permission to raise nearly $8M in tax-deductible donations. Consider the arguments on both sides of this public debate. On one hand, you have the argument that all Americans (and organizations) should be afforded equal rights, notwithstanding different points of view (remember Evelyn Beatrice Hall: “I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it”). On the other hand, you have the arguments that government tax incentives should not be subsidizing hate groups, and that the groups in question are unworthy of non-profit status because they operate in a deceptive manner (with misleadingly benign names) and are not really “educating” as the spirit of the law intended. What say you on this issue? Did the IRS err in these cases? To what rights are such groups entitled? What statuses would you—or would you not—confer upon such groups?

2. Suppose that someone who reads your answers to the first part of this assignment accuses you of bias. Another reader states that your answer is “just your opinion,” and that there is nothing that makes your opinion more valid than anyone else’s. Defend your position. How would you counter such charges? What makes your answer more than just opinion?

Submission Instructions:

This assignment should at a minimum contain 2,000 words of content (double spaced). Word count does not include headings, cover pages, references, or question text (if you choose to include it in your paper); I am looking for 2,000 words of substance. Your paper should be in APA format including a properly formatted cover page (abstracts are optional) and a reference page with at least three (3) NEW references (“new” here means references that you have not already used in previous assignments in this course). Providing additional references to your assignments demonstrates your desire to conduct additional research on the topic area, and can improve your research skills.

With all assignments, include properly formatted in-text citations within the body of your work for each of your listed references so the reader can ascertain your original thoughts or ideas as well as the portion of your work that is credited to credible sources. It is very important to identify work from other sources to ensure that proper credit is provided to researchers in the field. This assignment uses Turn It In for originality verification.

Submit the weekly written assignment as an MS Word attachment (.doc or .docx format). A recommended font is 12pt Times New Roman. DO NOT include discussion board answers with your formally written assignment submission.

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Identify an issue that is facing our society today that is in some way related to sex and/or gender and has opposing sides. Consider a law that was recently put into or taken out of effect or is being debated. You could also look to the statements or actions of a public figure or organization that has generated significant attention from the media. The issue you select should have ample material from which you may pull to gain insight into the details surrounding it.

Explore multiple sides of the issue you have selected until you have a good understanding as to why each side believes it is right. Research the historical events that have caused the circumstances of this issue. Engage in discussions with others who have strong feelings about the issue to learn the reasons why they feel they way they do.

Make sure to research both sides thoroughly as the goal with this paper will be to write it in a manner that does not allow the reader to know which side of the issue that you are on. You will not be condoning or condemning either side- your goal is to be as objective as possible in reviewing the issue you select.

Construct a 1,000-1,250 word essay that demonstrates your understanding of the following:

  • The issue that you have identified (a concise synopsis of what the issue is)
  • Historical context (previous events in history that have contributed to the rise of the issue)
  • Both sides of the current argument (provide an objective review- the reader should not know which side of the issue that you personally are on)
  • At least two possible resolutions to the issue (include the potential ramifications of each resolution for both sides)

Your paper should include an introduction and conclusion, at least 5 cited references (only 2 of which may be your discussions with others, excluding those identified as subject matter experts in your writing), and must adhere to APA formatting.

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Instructions: Analyze the impact that various sentencing models have had on corrections. As part of your analysis you must discuss at least two (2) different sentencing models.

Each assignment is due Sunday, 11:59 pm EST of the appropriate week. The assignment covers the material from the textbook(s) and the supplemental citations. Each student submission to the assignment needs to be 2-3 pages with APA 7th ed. citations and references. Do not use any other form of referencing. Each student submission MUST be uploaded as a Word Doc attachment. 

All assignments must be written in an academic tone. You are not to write in the first person. Instead you need to use third person. Remember, an academic essay is not to be written like you are having a casual conversation with your friends. Do not include slang or foul language unless you are quoting someone.

Large word-for-word quotes are not permitted as well. Direct quotes, if used need to be only a sentence or two long. Instead, most cited material needs to be paraphrased. For more information on properly citing sources in your assignments please refer to the APA 7th edition manual. While the assignments are to include an examination on current research of a particular problem, they also need include the student’s careful and informed analysis of the problem. 

Remember each assignment must be submitted as a Word Doc attachment. The assignment needs be written in 12 point font, using Times Roman. Margins will also need to be 1’ inch.

Each assignment will need to include the following:

  • The original question at the top of the essay (serves as the abstract)
  • The body of your answer in several paragraphs
  • A titled reference section that has been formatted according to APA 7th ed style.     
  • A minimum of two references per assignment. One reference can include the textbook. However, you will need to include other additional academic sources. These sources should consist of scholarly journals that have been peer reviewed and academically based books. Web sources can be used, though they should come from credible sources such as government agencies, academics and private agencies with a strong reputation within the community they serve. If you have a question Examples of peer reviewed scholarly based journals include:

                    Journal of Criminology

                    Crime and Public Opinion

                   Journal of Criminal Justice and Public Policy

                   Justice Quarterly: JQ

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For the company you chose:

Choice Hotels International Inc.: For my Financial Analysis research, I chose the company Choice Hotels International. I chose this company based on the amount of travel I have experienced over the past few years. I have reached a point where I am looking into investments, and this is one that has caught my eye. I’ve used many of the choice hotel lodging and recently became a preferred Choice Privilege member. Although, I have a new membership, the rewards are countless. I feel that this company will help me in the decision process of investing in this company and the longevity of the company.

Use concepts learned about present value to estimate a value of the company’s stock. See H-3 in Week 3’s Homework to get an idea of what you should do, as well as my posted example.

H3 – Value a Constant Growth Stock Financial analysts forecast Safeco Corp. (SAF) growth for the future to be 5 percent. Safeco’s recent dividend was $3.00. What is the value of Safeco stock when the required return is 14 percent?

g = 5% = 0.05

r = 14% = 0.14

D0 = $3

D1 = D0(1 + g) = 3 (1 + 0.05) = 3.15

Using the Equation

= 3.15/ (0.14 – 0.05)

= 35

Use equation:

Constant growth model = P0 =

D0 (1+ g ) i g

Note that you will need to estimate the appropriate cost of capital or discount rate for your analysis based on the firm’s risk, based on its industry and individual characteristics. You will also need to estimate a growth rate for the firm’s Dividend, as well as finding what Dividend they have been paying (perhaps past Dividend history can help in estimating a growth rate). Sites such as GuruFocus and ReadyRatios may be useful. Provide explanations of how you determined each variable. Once you estimate the Stock price, compare it to the actual stock price from current markets. Comment on the comparison (is it lower or higher and why).

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Answer the Primary Questions (250 words). Respond to 3 classmate post (250 words each)the following questions:

Also remember these comprise what is referred to as the “primary post”, i.e., these should be posted in a single post with one response on top of the other. Each should be numbered to clearly show where the response to #1 ends and the response to #2 starts.

  1. Compare today’s new officers to those who came into the police agency 10, 20 or even 40 years ago. How are they similar? How do they differ?
  2. What are the most common errors in decision making? What can the police administrator do to avoid these common errors?

Classmate 1 Max:

  1. Compare today’s new officers to those who came into the police agency 10, 20 or even 40 years ago. How are they similar? How do they differ?

Comparing police officers of different decades is, in large part, a comparison of the different societies and cultures in which they worked. For example, we’ve discussed the high crime rate in the 90s and how that created a society that wanted to establish “law and order”. This was manifested through the introduction of tools like CompStat, a national push to hire more law enforcement officers, and an adoption and allowance of more aggressive policing methods, such as the Broken Windows Theory in New York City. The national mindset was clear: we need to empower law enforcement so that they can fight the scourge of criminality. Contrast that with today, where law enforcement no longer enjoys the widespread support of the public and you can see the very different habitats in which police officers develop. An officer in the 90’s would likely be more proactive and assertive while an officer today is less likely to seek out crime and more likely to be accommodating and acquiescent. Additionally, as time goes on the court system also amends the framework in which police officers operate through its precedent-setting decisions. For example, before Tennessee v. Garner it was permissible to shoot a non-violent fleeing felon. Today, that is considered an obvious use of excessive force that would likely result in prison time for the officer. This provides another glimpse into how the mindset of an officer in 1981 would differ from an officer today.

Yet another difference that bears mentioning is that of the educational level of society and, in turn, its officers. For example, in 1940 only 5% of the population had completed at least 4 years of college whereas in 2019 nearly 37% had (Bonn & Roberg, 2004). Some police departments even require a 4-year degree now, but even those that don’t will enjoy more educated officers based on societal makeup. To me, this is an important difference because studies that have examined the relationship between higher education and performance reveal the following: those officers with a higher degree were more flexible, less authoritarian, more aware of social, cultural, and ethnic problems, had a greater acceptance of minorities, more professional in their behavior, more understanding of human behavior, more likely to receive better evaluations from supervisors, have fewer citizen complaints, fewer disciplinary actions, tend to use less force, and are less likely to be involved in cases of individual liability.

Despite the aforementioned differences, I think there are several similarities that still exist between officers across the decades. The most important one is the desire to help people. Whether someone is a tactical military veteran who dreams to be a SWAT officer or just someone who liked the idea of helping people with their problems, those who become police officers know that they’re joining a profession whose job it is to help people in emergencies. Beyond that, many also view the job as a stable career that will allow them to provide for themselves and family. These are two of the most likely similarities that I think will remain constant over the years.

Roberg, R., & Bonn, S. (2004). Higher education and policing: Where are we now?

Policing, 27(4), 469-486.

2. What are the most common errors in decision making? What can the police administrator do to avoid these common errors?

It’s a daunting task to identify the common errors in a police officer’s decision making because every situation is different and every officer is different, with their own aptitudes, biases, and life experiences informing how they process and view information. And more than that, it’s important to assess a decision in the context in which it was made. As the Supreme Court wisely noted in its decision on Graham v. Connor, “…police officers are often forced to make split-second judgments – in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving – about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation.” And so decisions, and what makes them good or not, must be viewed with the understanding that time is not usually a luxury available during the decision-making process. Furthermore, Herbert Simon identified a limiting factor in decision making he called “bounded rationality”, which posits that there is so much potentially relevant information available to a decision maker that it is impossible for the human brain to know or process it all. For example, police officers are introduced to case law that covers a variety of nuanced interactions they may encounter in the field but when faced with a fleeing criminal it’s easy to understand how an officer might not have time to carefully review the holdings from each case in his mind.

That all being said, sometimes officers’ decisions are wrong even when viewed with the aforementioned considerations. Some apparent causes of these errors could come from knowledge gaps, such as in not knowing emerging restrictions set by case law; emotional responses, such as reacting in anger; biases or generalizing based on life experiences; or physical mistakes such as drawing a firearm when you intended to draw a taser. And more specifically to police, a study in Police Quarterly showed that “Dispatch Priming” can occur, which is when an officer’s decision to shoot is heavily influenced by the dispatched information. Finally, law enforcement is an inherently stressful profession and, as such, police officers are exposed and vulnerable to mental disorders as a result. PTSD, anxiety, sleepiness, and fatigue are all common ailments that can plague a police officer.

What the police administrator can do to address these issues is varied, but a robust training program will help address common errors like knowledge gaps and muscle memory flaws. Frequent review of constitutional limitations would help equip officers with an immediate “rolodex”, so to speak, of actions based on the facts and circumstances. Additionally, increased use of force training will help avoid misidentifying tools and using an excessive level of force. With sleepiness and fatigue, the problem can most quickly be addressed by setting limits on the amount of hours that can be worked in a given period of time. That can mean a cap on total hours in a week, or a required amount of time off before working again, or the amount of hours an officer can work consecutively. While potentially more disruptive, a commuting distance can be implemented so that officers aren’t driving an hour to and from work, thereby losing out on time to sleep. In regards to the mental stress and its effects, administrators need to make health and well-being services available to its officers. That could include basic things like gym memberships and training on proper coping mechanisms, as well as counseling services and anxiety-managing skills.

Bate, L., Hutchinson, A., Underhill, J., & Maskrey, N. (2012). How clinical decisions are made. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 74(4), 614–620.

Lees, T., Elliott, J. L., Gunning, S., Newton, P. J., Rai, T., & Lal, S. (2019). A systematic review of the current evidence regarding interventions for anxiety, PTSD, sleepiness and fatigue in the law enforcement workplace. Industrial health, 57(6), 655–667.

Taylor, P. L. (2020). Dispatch Priming and the Police Decision to Use Deadly Force. Police Quarterly, 23(3), 311–332.

Taylor, P. L. (2019). Beyond false positives: A typology of police shooting errors. Criminology & Public Policy, 18(4), 807–822.

Classmate 2 Michael:

  1. Compare today’s new officers to those who came into the police agency 10, 20 or even 40 years ago. How are they similar? How do they differ?

Culture and professionalism are at the core of police officers today, and this holds true to those who entered the career up to forty years ago. Many elements change from governmental political affiliation, societal norms, training, knowledge, experience, policies, standards, case law, personality, and many others. The continued professionalization of Policing and the growing expectation for career development and practices stand at the forefront of individual and organizational composition (Hanson & McKenna, 2011). In addition to organizational change, individual change occurs within new officers associated with many of the aforementioned elements. Training, knowledge and experience affect outlooks and performance of officers, as well as personality traits (Masood, et al., 2017). In 2015, 21stCentury Policing through the efforts of President Obama’s Task Force, became an organizational and a societal influence on policing in how it is viewed and how it is performed. Problem oriented policing and community policing has contributed to these impacts through this initiative as well.

It wasn’t until the year 1960 until formal police academies were established in the United States. This is despite the fact that professional police services were around for almost 150 years (White & Escobar, 2008). Recruiting has always been a challenge for many reasons and is becoming more difficult. Diversity and finding willing and capable candidates have always been a difficulty in recruiting and still holds true today. Social, political and religious factors play a part in those considering joining the force. Racial and ethnic belief systems also play a role in those deciding to join or not. Education is a main factor in today’s society, as society has become increasingly educated (White & Escobar, 2008). The demands are becoming more and more difficult. Recruiting issues remain the same, the causation of the problem is different

Officers coming into the job today are products of the times, just as they were twenty and forty years ago. A common factor is the reason for doing the job. This always boils down to policing is the preservation of a valued way of life and protection of those who cannot protect themselves (Loftus, 2010). This is often referred to the “thin blue line”, representing the fine line between order and chaos and/or good and evil (Loftus, 2010). Police work is a calling and a “lifestyle” that takes special people to do it. This is something that has remained consistent throughout time.

Some of the biggest differences in today’s police officer’s compared to officers in the past is personality traits and communication abilities affecting performance (Masood, et al., 2017). With technology and social media, personalities and abilities to communicate are reflective of this. New recruits are used to communicating “blindly” from behind a cellphone and/or computer screen. This cultural element poses a problem in an era of community policing and problem oriented policing. Officers are becoming substantively involved in community problems requiring in-person contact and conflict resolution skills (Vaughn, 1992). Problem solving and conflict resolution seems to also pose issues for newer police officers, as there is only so much that can be taught. This is likely due to recruits growing up in the United States during “everyone gets a trophy” and the “helicopter parenting” era. As a police instructor, I have witnessed the personalities and have direct contact with newer and veteran officers. The level of “life experience” differs greatly between generations. Newer officers need instructions and explanation when training, as well as constant recognition and praise for doing things correctly. The culture of the police academy has had to adapt to accommodate the generation of “feelings”. When speaking to veterans, they would have never thought of quitting or giving up when things were difficult. Psychology and personality are predictors of job performance and in this case, the success of police recruits (Masood, et al., 2017). I can say from personal experiences, more recruits have resigned and/or been terminated in the last 5 years than in previous years. The emotional ability to manage unavoidable stressors impacts recruits, as well as the realized unpredictable risks of the job (Ricciardelli, 2018). Surprisingly, many recruits come into the profession not fully realizing what the job entails. During the academy the “induced stress” through scenario-based training, in many cases is too much for recruits. Those recruits who did not grow up with strong character, life experience, and the ability to be self-reliant, are those who do not do well. Despite having greater levels of education, recruits lack life experiences or “survival” instincts equating to “street smarts” (White & Escobar, 2008). Police recruits reasons for wanting to help others and protecting the weak haven’t changed much, but the abilities of recruits to do so have changed drastically. Let’s just say the personalities of WW2 era individuals are very different than those in 1960 and 2021. Culturally, politically and socially Americans constantly change. This is certainly reflective of police agencies and the recruits signing up.

  1. What are the most common errors in decision making? What can the police administrator do to avoid these common errors?

There are many contributing factors to errors in decision making in policing. These errors range from administrative paperwork, misinterpretation of policy/law, miscommunication, and poor operational decisions being made. Most of these errors are not egregious, life-threatening, or beyond repair. Knowledge, skills, and personality types (attitude and work ethic) play an important role in job performance (Masood, et al., 2017). The better prepared for duty an officer is, the less likely he/she will make a mistake. Training, being prepared for duty, and having the resources to perform reduce mistakes and errors in many ways. Officers who are trained and mentally prepared for duty are more effective. Knowledge and job experience plays a vital role in this as well. Officers who make mistakes on administrative paperwork, are those who do not frequently use a particular citation or form on a regular basis, or in cases where forms and documentation are updated without proper exposure. Administrative paperwork that have multiple lines and an abundance of information, sometimes inadvertently cause officers to make errors in placement of information or unintentionally leaving spaces blank. Offering a training opportunity or a counseling session on how to properly fill out the form usually reconciled the issue.

Training is paramount in decision making. An agency who establishes a subculture of professionalism and expertise, is one that relies heavily on education and training (Daroch & Mazerolle, 2013). Training and educating officers to the highest standards and requiring the highest expectations reduce occurrences of errors and mistakes inherently. Officers who are willing, able and capable in their duties will naturally perform better. Training specific employees to do specific jobs and working with sufficient manpower assist in ensuring tasks are completed timely and accurately (Ricciardelli, 2018). Specific roles in an agency assist in preventing errors and mistakes by having a “safety net”. Supervisors and administrative Records Staff, Crime Scene Staff, and others are mechanisms built into the agencies to identify and rectify any mistakes or errors with documentation or procedural issues prior to court. These individuals are trained specifically in the requirements for evidence and other documentation vital for court proceedings and public transparency. Having these staff members are important in maintaining a professional police organization. This holds true to members in the Criminal Investigations Section (CIS), Street Crimes Unit (SCU), and Directed Patrol Units (PDT). Having the highest quality of staff handling important and specific roles, contributes greatly to preventing mistakes and producing the highest quality performance (Darroch & Mazerolle, 2013).

Being prepared for duty mentally and physically is equally important. Internal and external factors regarding stress and overall outlook weighs heavily on a police officer. These factors play on the mind and body and affect performance. Officers who are overworked are tired, angry, and do not want to be at work (Ricciardelli, 2018). Naturally, if a person doesn’t feel good, need to sleep, or are in a bad mood, something bad is going to happen. Proactivity and attention to detail will diminish for sure. Having a bad attitude and outlook will likely cause a confrontation and inevitably result in a complaint to a supervisor. Police officers are human and have to maintain a “higher standard” at all times, on an off duty. Mistakes are made more on a bad day, than on a good day. Society and supervisors need to understand that every person is human, and humans are imperfect. People will make mistakes and errors naturally. It is up to management and supervision to ensure mistakes are minimized and rectified to prevent the same mistakes from occurring again by encouraging the best decisions.

Police administrators are responsible for preventing, identifying and rectifying errors, mistakes, and vulnerabilities. Hiring capable and competent staff both sworn and civilian sets the basis for organizational success. Establishing sound policies and procedures that are clearly communicated and understood is also essential. Creating a culture of success where all members contribute to innovation and growth will build a stronger “team environment” proves successful for entire agency (Darroch & Mazerolle, p.19, 2013). This solid foundation will allow for improved understanding, communication, and “buy in” to professional excellence. Preparing staff through initial and on-going training will only contribute to the continued growth and achievement of success. Policies preparing officers and staff for success are equally important to those regarding working conditions and resources. Sworn and civilian staff need to be treated fair and appreciated for their work. Policies should reflect the realities of providing the agencies with the tools, equipment and resources to perform their jobs efficiently and effectively. For example, crime analysts need computers and software, where police officers need Tasers and long guns. Officers have an array of situations to encounter from non-lethal encounters to active shooters. Having the training and equipment not only prepares them operationally, but also provides a peace of mind to knowing that the tools are available when needed (Ricciardelli, 2018). Police administrators hold a very important role in a police agency. Leading from the front and implementing innovation and effecting organizational change is a promising way to set standards, minimize errors, and prepare subordinates to make the best decisions (Daroch & Mazerolle, 2013).



Darroch, S., & Mazerolle, L. (2013). Intelligence-Led Policing: A Comparative Analysis of Organizational Factors Influencing Innovation Uptake. Police Quarterly, 16(1), 3–37.

Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Retrieved July 19, 2021, from…

Hanson, R., & McKenna, P. (2011). Respectful Leadership: The Emergence of Upward Nobility as a Way of Life in Policing. Policing : a Journal of Policy and Practice, 5(4), 287–299.

Loftus, B. (2010). Police occupational culture: classic themes, altered times. Policing & Society, 20(1), 1–20.

Masood, A., Rafique, R., Qaisar, S., and Musarat, R. (2017). Personality Traits as Predictor of Job Performance in Police Officers. Bahria Journal of Professional Psychology.

Ricciardelli, R. (2018). “Risk It Out, Risk It Out”: Occupational and Organizational Stresses in Rural Policing. Police Quarterly, 21(4), 415–439.

Vaughn, M. (1992). Problem-oriented policing : A Philosophy Of Policing For The 21st Century: Psychology of policing. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19(3), 343–354.

White, M. D., & Escobar, G. (2008). Making Good Cops In The Twenty-First Century: Emerging Issues For The Effective Recruitment, Selection And Training Of Police In The United States And Abroad. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 22(1-2), 119–.

Classmate 3 Hannah:

1. Compare today’s new officers to those who came into the police agency 10, 20 or even 40 years ago. How are they similar? How do they differ?

The overall role that police officers fulfill in society has not changed over the years, but the targeted applicants (White & Escobar, 2008), level of education and competence (Hilal, Densley & Zhao, 2013), and the pursuit of a more professional force that is open to research-based tactics (Potts, 2017) has developed significantly. First, the intentional actions by police departments across the United States to hire a more diverse force via a proactive approach (White & Escobar, 2008) will create a department that is more flexible, culturally sensitive, and more connected to the community it serves. Not only will a more diverse cast more accurately represent the community, it will also increase the pool of applicants to choose from. When the pool of applicants increases, the policing agency will have a greater ability to pick the cream of the crop. Second, although a four-year degree is not commonly a prerequisite to obtaining a badge, the percentage of police officers with four-year degrees has increased from 23% in 1990 to 25-30% in 2010 (Bruns & Magnan, 2014). There is no significant correlation between a four-year degree and personal benefits for police, but there is a correlation between police officers with a four-year degree and 1. appropriate responses to mentally distressed individuals; 2. transferrable study skills that help individuals during promotional exams; 3. a lowered propensity for use of force and involvement in shooting incidents than their less educated peers (Hilal, Densley & Zhao, 2013). The benefits to the public of a more educated policing force are numerous, as they tend to expose members to a more diverse environment of peers, which makes the law enforcement officer both more compassionate and less likely to view members of the community they serve that are different from them as “other.” Finally, the push for research-based policing tactics is hinged on the practice being recognized as a profession, which would rely on a nation-wide standardization of the profession such that doctors, lawyers, and other such professionals are subjected to (Potts, 2017). Potts continues to prove this point by alluding to how sexual assault victims that expressed recollections later in an interview were historically perceived to be fabricating a tale, yet research on this subject over the last two decades has proven that memories associated with traumatic events are not linear. Thus, as a result of applying research-based concepts, investigators now are less likely to dismiss a case of sexual assault when further details are later revealed by the victim. This is but one example of how law enforcement departments can question and amend the policing tactics of today in order to provide a better service to the public that they serve.

Bruns, D., & Magnan, K. (2014). Police officer perspectives on higher education: Is the degree a necessary ingredient for the performance and behavior of police officers. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 2(2), 27-45.

Hilal, S., Densley, J. & Zhao, R. (2013). Cops in College: Police Officers’ Perceptions on Formal Education. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 24(4), 461-477.

Potts, J. (2017). The benefits, challenges, and lessons of evidence-based policing. The Journal of California Law Enforcement, 51(2), 1-8.

White, M. & Escobar, G. (2008). Making good cops in the twenty-first century: Emerging issues for the effective recruitment, selection and training of police in the United States and abroad. International Review of Law, Computers and Technology, 22(1), 119-134.

2. What are the most common errors in decision making? What can the police administrator do to avoid these common errors?

Police officers can best respond to an array of scenarios that are high stress by having a firm grasp on the laws that govern their actions and those they serve and also by being well-versed on their standard operating procedures (Shortland, Thompson & Alison, 2020). When the enforcers of the law are themselves breaking the law by violating a citizen’s constitutional rights, the faith that the public has in this policing force weakens and becomes fragmented. As the opinions and trust of the public is imperative for a successful police department (through informants, a trust that the police are effective, and a belief that police officers work in good faith), law enforcement officers are tasked with keeping up with court decisions and changes in local policy so that they may keep from making decision errors when faced with different circumstances. Finally, investing in the individual police officer’s education – whether formal or informal on the job training – is instrumental in curbing the rate of errors that occur while responding to a multitude of types of crimes in high-stress situations.

Shortland, N., Thompson, L., & Alison, L. (2020). Police perfection: Examining the effect of trait maximization on police decision-making. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

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Answer discussion questionon 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 words each.

Discussion #7: This week’s readings provide an overview of treatment of many of these disorders that this class examined. Identify one disorder of your choice and provide evidence that either supports or refutes that treatment can be effective for this disorder. For example you might cite that pedophiliacs are not treatable and cite evidence to support that, be sure to debate amongst yourselves if you agree or disagree with your peer’s assessment of the disorder.


CO1: Summarize the link between mental illness and criminal behavior.

CO2: Debate how mental health issues influence behavior.

CO3: Synthesize the mental health diagnosis of conduct disorder.

Classmate 1 Kassy: There have been a plethora of various mental disorders that have been brought up during this course. A mental disorder that stands out is sexual sadism due to the severe nature of this mental disorder. According to the DSM-5, the definition of sexual sadism is “Characterized by the involvement of reoccurring and extreme arousal sexually from the psychological and or physical anguish of another person which can be expressed through varying behaviors, sexual urges and dreamed up fantasies by a person suffering from sexual sadism. In addition to the aforementioned definition, sexual sadism is also defined as a person who acts on the sexual urges with a partner who does not consent to the outlined paraphilia, the fantasies and urges of a sexual nature may cause considerable distress, the fantasies and urges of a sexual nature may also inflict social impairment, the fantasies and urges of a sexual nature may also cause occupational difficulties, and the fantasies and urges of a sexual nature may also inhibit the function and development of significant parts of the brain” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 695).

The treatment of paraphilic mental illnesses such as sexual sadism can be done through psychotherapeutic and pharmacological methods. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and antiandrogen treatments are amongst the most common treatments. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are commonly referred to as anti-depressants and can be utilized to treat more mild forms of paraphilia as well as when the treatment is for juvenile patients being treated for more mild forms of paraphilia. In addition to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, antiandrogen treatments (commonly referred to as testosterone blockers or even commonly referred to as androgen antagonists). In order to try to minimize re-offense and victimization, androgen antagonists target the sexual urges that are inherently problematic. Androgen antagonists are utilized for more severe cases which include diagnosed sexual sadists in addition to sexual offenders. However, the most effective results for sexual sadism treatments are stemmed from the utilization of both androgen treatments in culmination to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor usage (Garcia, 2013).

It is likely through medicinal breakthroughs and the coming years that sexual sadism will continue to be treated pharmaceutically and psychotherapeutically. However some of the more common sexual sadism activities are becoming normalized and it is possible that sexual sadism will soon no longer be considered a mental illness or even deviant behavior (Berner, Berger, & Hill, 2003). Taking into consideration the normalization that is starting to occur from the term sexual sadism, it seems fair that it cannot truly be treated as opposed to just keeping symptoms at bay. Or it can be taken into account that maybe people do not want treatment because sexual sadism is now something that people are becoming more accepting of.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(5th ed.) (DSM‐5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Berner, W., Berger, P., & Hill, A. (2003). Sexual sadism. International Journal of Offender

Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(4), 383-395.

Garcia, F.D., Delavenne, H.G., Assumpção, A.F.A. et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2013) 15:


Classmate 2 Brennyn: I am currently serving a temporary assignment as a School Resource Officer, so conduct disorder really caught my attention when looking into the subject earlier in the course. Many of the students that I seem to be dealing with on frequent basis, I believe, may have some diagnosed or undiagnosed emotional/behavioral disorder(s). For this reason, I researched the treatment of conduct disorder and how effective the different approaches may be, particularly when the treatment is implemented at different ages. Overall, however, I do believe that the symptoms of conduct disorder can be mitigated and managed through treatment.

Children diagnosed with conduct disorder also have a high incidence of comorbid mental disorder diagnoses, such as major depressive disorder and ADHD. In fact, cases of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder are almost invariably associated with other comorbid conditions (Kazdin, 2010). For this reason, treatment of conduct disorder is oftentimes concurrent with treatment of these comorbid disorders. Unfortunately, several studies have found that treatment methods such as pharmacology and cognitive-behavioral therapeutic techniques seem to have a more significant impact on the comorbid diagnoses than they do on the symptoms of conduct disorder, especially when treatment efforts are focused on the comorbid conditions (Rohde et al., 2004).

Several intervention options are available and can potentially have a significant impact on the problems that present in children diagnosed with conduct disorder. Treatment options may include cognitive problem-solving skills training as well as parent management training (Kazdin, 2010). When used in conjunction with one another, the child has the highest probability of success in managing their symptoms. The goal of treatment is to teach the children the skills that they lack that are believed to be the primary cause of their behavior problems, specifically interpersonal and problem solving skills (Tcheremissine & Lieving, 2006). Parent training and education programs were found to have a short-term positive effect on the child’s behavior, lasting up to four months. More intensive intervention programs that consisted of longer contact hours with families and additional child involvement tended to be more effective (Dretzke et al., 2005). Multisystemic therapy has been found to be effective in reducing recurrent behavioral problems in delinquent adolescents by combining family therapy, behavioral parent training, interpersonal skills and behavioral training, and marital therapy. Multidimensional treatment foster care targets children in foster homes and includes family therapy and school intervention elements. Such treatment has been shown to be more effective than community group home services in reducing problematic behaviors (Tcheremissine & Lieving, 2006).

Management of conduct disorder differs dependent on the developmental period of the affected child. Treatment most commonly includes psychosocial family-based interventions that involves the parents and/or primary caregivers at every age; however, additional interventions vary dependent on the age of the patient as well as the presence or absence of callous-unemotional traits or comorbid psychiatric disorders (Fairchild et al., 2019). Early to middle childhood psychosocial intervention options tend to focus on parental training and empathy training for the child. Late childhood and adolescence psychosocial intervention options focus more on skills training for the child (Fairchild et al., 2019). Supplemental pharmacologic treatment options for conduct disorder include antipsychotics for children with severe patterns of aggression and disruptive behavior. Additional medications that may be utilized include mood stabilizers, antidepressants, stimulants, and an adrenergic agent. Each category of medication has been found to have some sort of positive effect on the symptoms of conduct disorder including an increase in impulse control and self-restraint, improvement in overt aggression, and reductions in conduct problems and hyperactivity (Tcheremissine & Lieving, 2006).

The cost of a diagnosis of conduct disorder is elevated, with one study suggesting that by age 28, individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder cost approximately ten times as much as an individual with no problems. These costs are primarily incurred by the resulting criminality, educational provisions, and out-of-home care options. Health services make up only a small portion of these costs (Dretzke et al., 2005). Dretzke et al. (2005) found that parent training and education programs appear to be effective and offer a potentially cost-effective treatment option for children diagnosed with conduct disorder. Fairchild et al. (2019) also suggest that the most cost-effective treatment options for conduct disorder focus on the quality of parenting in early and middle childhood. Overall, however, treatment options for conduct disorder do seem to have a positive effect on the prevalence and severity of symptoms, particularly when addressed early on in the development of the disorder.


Dretzke, J., Frew, E., Davenport, C., Barlow, J., Stewart-Brown, S., Sandercock, J., Bayliss, S., Raftery, J., Hyde, C., & Taylor, R. (2005). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children. Health Technology Assessment, 9(50), 1-233.

Fairchild, G., Hawes, D. J., Frick, P. J., Copeland, W. E., Odgers, C. L., Franke, B., Freitag, C. M., & De Brito, S. A. (2019). Conduct disorder. Nature Reviews: Disease Primers, 5(43), 1-25.

Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Problem-solving skills training and parent management training for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 211-226). The Guilford Press.

Rohde, P., Clarke, G. N., Mace, D. E., Jorgensen, J. S., & Seeley, J. R. (2004). An efficacy/effectiveness study of cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with comorbid major depression and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(6), 660-668.

Tcheremissine, O. V. & Lieving, L. M. (2006). Pharmacological aspects of the treatment of conduct disorder in children and adolescents. CNS Drugs, 20(7), 549-565.

Classmate 3 Natalie: The mental disorder that I am focusing on this week is, Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another. Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another is formerly known as Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. Regardless, this mental disorder is where an individual, “acts as if an individual he or she is caring for has a physical or mental illness when the person is not really sick” (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). In cases, it is often that this mental illness is displayed between an adult and a child, where the adult acts as if the child has an illness by lies or producing the overall thought. This illness can also be displayed in the relationship between an adult and the elderly (Cleveland Clinic, 2021).

While this disorder can be correlated with abuse, which is common, the amount of cases reported in regard to this mental disorder is extremely rare. Despite this disorder often going undetected as stated previously, it can be suggested that, “about 1,000 of the 2.5 million cases of child abuse reported annually are related to FDIA” (Cleveland Clinic, 2021). One reason why this disorder goes undetected is because it is difficult to notice symptoms due to the lengths and levels of deception that the adult perpetrator produces. Some signs and symptoms include extensive knowledge of medical terms and diseases, frequent stays in the hospital, many surgical scars or evidence of numerous procedures (Mayo Clinic, 2019).

A prime example of this type of mental disorder is the infamous case of Gypsy Rose Blanchard and her mother Dee Dee Blanchard. This story can also be seen through the show, The Act. Nonetheless, Dee Dee made countless claims about her daughter, Gypsy Rose’s state of health. Dee Dee induced leukemia and muscular dystrophy on Gypsy Rose at eight years old, claiming she required a feeding tube and wheel chair (Kettler, 2021). In addition, Gypsy Rose’s mother made her use a breathing machine whenever she slept, as well as, take various types of medications, and undergo unnecessary surgeries. Due to these actions, Gypsy’s teeth would rot and she would have to eventually have them pulled out, in addition to having a bald head because Dee Dee shaved it, not because of actual cancer.

Gypsy also endured sitting in a wheel chair the majority of her youth, even though she could walk, and was stuck with a feeding tube, despite the fact that she did not need it, nor was it pertinent to her health. The television show, as mentioned earlier, would display Gypsy Rose tasting frosting off of a cupcake and Dee Dee catching her and franticly running towards her with an epi-pen and stabbing her with it, claiming that she was allergic. While watching the show it is evident that Dee Dee is mentally unstable, however, to the neighbors in the show, Dee Dee seemed like a devoted mother to her child’s health and well-being. This facade enabled society to view Dee Dee in this same light. Therefore, “Gypsy and Dee Dee… received benefits that included charity-sponsored visits… a new home… built by Habitat for Humanity… (Kettler, 2021). It was not until, “Gypsy was 14, she saw a neurologist… who came to believe she was a victim of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. However, this doctor never reported it” (Kettler, 2021).

This example of the relationship between this mother and daughter demonstrates the mental disorder FDIA, along with everything it entails, such as symptoms. In this case, the “treatment” option that Gypsy chose was to have her boyfriend kill her mother. However, actual treatment options for FDIA are slim to none. “Studies show that the only currently available effective treatment… is psychotherapy” (Carnahan & Jhan, 2021). Medications were a possible treatment option due to some diagnosed with the disorder, suffering from depression, but, it “does not significantly improve symptoms” (Carnahan & Jhan, 2021). A downfall to possible treatment is the unwillingness of those diagnosed. “Oftentimes patients with FDIA will deny their behavior and refuse treatment when confronted” (Carnahan & Jhan, 2021). Therefore, the recommended approach by health care providers is to be straight forward and concise, in addition, to initially trying to build a relationship with the patient, rather than strictly treating the patient.

Based on the information previously discussed, I do not believe that any treatment can help an individual diagnosed with FDIA. The factor that makes me believe that treatment would not be effective is the unwillingness of the individual. Even in previous lessons and knowledge on the mental disorders, it was evident that for treatment to have the potential to work, the patient has to want to change for the better. I also think that the level of deception that these individuals base their lives on is too strong to unravel. In addition, it is evident that due to the level of deception and secrecy, patients are not even diagnosed, therefore, the likelihood of the patient voluntarily opening up about this disorder is extremely low. Even in Gypsy Rose’s case, it is apparent that her mother lacked remorse in regard to her daughter being forced to undergo surgeries, so why would she ask for help.


Carnahan, K. T., & Jha, A. (2021, August 09). Factitious Disorder. Retrieved from

Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Factitious Disorder (Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy). Retrieved from

Kettler, S. (2021, June 03). The Story of Gypsy Rose Blanchard and Her Mother. Retrieved from

Mayo Clinic. (2019, December 14). Factitious disorder. Retrieved from

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American Military University

What are the limits to the U.S. long-term economic growth? Is there anything that our government can do to address these limits, or would it be a bad idea to try? 250+ words 


Hello Class,

Economic growth is an increase in the real level of national output of a country, as measured by GDP (Wiki, 2016). Basically the more revenue a country is able to produce, the more the national economy grows. In regards to long-term growth, a huge limit to this idea is the concept of economic development. This is the measure of the “quality” of a nation as a whole versus the produced “quantity” of revenue. Economic growth and development are directly proportional to each other and have vital influences on the outcome of an economy. A few other limitations I researched are natural, human, technological, and institutional factors. Natural limitations are normally in the form of the agricultural businesses considering a vast majority of the nation’s GDP is all made up of raw materials. When the arable land is affected by natural disasters, unfavorable weather conditions, or even uncontrolled wildlife management, it ultimately affects the output of an economy. Human factors are simple in nature, but are sometimes unavoidable. The amount of poverty and quality of living conditions affect the manpower utilized for labor to actually produce the goods/services. This ties into the institutional structures responsible for health care, local infrastructure and most importantly the educational system. These institutions have the potential to provide a positive or extremely negative affect to the labor force; thus delaying economic growth in the long-run. Last is the technological limitations in the form of roads, sanitation services, and industrial utility support (electrical, natural gas, etc.).

After previously taking a critical thinking class, I am confident to say that our government has viable options out there to assist the economy in the long-term aspect. The problem is, every action that the government could take has a consequence in the short run. For instance, I think most people would agree that extending the unemployment benefits was a bad call. When citizens can get paid more for simply staying at home in comfort versus getting paid less at a job they don’t care for, they will have no desire to go back to work. The concern here is that the global pandemic kept a numerous amount of people out of work in fear of catching the contagious “COVID” virus. Once employers were able to let their guard down, it was already too late. People were taking advantage of a system that pays better. You can’t blame the citizens for thinking that way. It’s almost common sense to make that decision. Overall, I think it would be a bad idea for the government to incorporate more policies to help boost the economic growth. The fact of the matter is our economy started with a small amount of people that all were willing to put in work to provide for the common good. As the economy grew, you got people with the mindset of “someone else will do it,” and that mindset spread to other individuals. Now, you have working class citizens and unemployed citizens living off of the government. I understand not all of the circumstances are the same and I am definitely not trying to attack anyone for being on welfare or being on unemployment.


Wiki (2016)

Hello Class,

This weeks topic to discuss is the limits of the United States Economic growth and whether or not the government can do anything about it. At first glance one might ask themselves, “Why would we want to limit long term economic growth”? The content in this weeks topic brought up some good points that might sway someone into believing that the government might want to step in. I think its ironic that a few of them were caused by the government intervention but that opinion is up to the reader. One of the limits to our long term economic growth is we have wage requirements set forth by the government. This makes other countries more desirable to produce goods and turn a higher profit. One of the ways we could make this turn into our advantage is to innovate to make the things we need and desire cheaper to produce and in turn produce growth here. Climate change was also brought up. Some argue that if we don’t take action soon then we might not have a future to worry about. The government has tax incentives to purchase “green” energy but there’s an issue with that. We still use fossil fuels to develop that technology and most of the technology used comes from natural resources. Instead of incentivizing trading one fossil fuel burner for the other, maybe the government should look into what is destroying the climate. The gases that are released into the air is what is destabilizing the natural state of air composition. Maybe a filter for fossil burning tools should be incentivized. Another theory is that a more educated population can sustain growth. The government is trying to step in and make free college for everyone. At first glance this sounds like a great idea because it would make our population more educated. The problem I see with that, is if everyone can get a college education for free, then where is the incentive to compete for scholarships? I also have never seen someone care about something as much as when they earn it. When I was a recruiter and I had to interact with hundreds of thousands of today’s youth, if they didn’t care enough to get into college when they were in high school, they didn’t all the sudden figure it out and care in college. Make it free and you will not get the outcome you are looking for. Keep the competition in schools and you will see the competitive people do as they always do. The top 10 percent will always do 90 percent of the work. The rest of the people will follow and be employees and continue to make our country great.

The answer is never as simple as should the government intervene or not. We should continue to push for good policies to keep our country at a moderate gain and allow people to innovate and compete with the least amount of regulations possible so that no one destroys our planet or our way of life.


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American Military University

Answer Discussion question 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 words each.

Discussion #3: Identify and discuss the two types of conduct disorder that are commonly identified by therapists. Assess the similarities and differences between the two. Discuss the prevalence of these disorders amongst the general population and treatment options. Identify and discuss the link to criminal behavior.


CO1: Summarize the link between mental illness and criminal behavior.

CO2: Debate how mental health issues influence behavior.

CO3: Synthesize the mental health diagnosis of conduct disorder.

Classmate 1 Angela: Two types of conduct disorders that immediately come to mind after this week’s reading are antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder. Antisocial personality disorder is marked by aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, lack of concern for other people’s feelings, substance use or abuse, and according to the Mayo Clinic, tend to antagonize and manipulate those around them. Persons with antisocial personality disorder also tend to have little or no remorse for their actions. They lie easily and usually are quite effective, giving them an advantage when it comes to criminal behavior, as they feel no remorse about lying. The NCBI states that antisocial personality disorder has a 1-4% prevalence within the general population.

The second type of conduct disorder is one that is frequently seen in conjunction with antisocial personality disorder, and that is substance use disorder. Substance use, specifically alcohol use disorder affects 5.3% of the general population and is marked by a compulsion or need to continue drinking. Similarly, substance use disorder occurs in 14.8% of adults aged 18-25, and 6.4% of adults over the age of 25 (American Addiction Centers, 2021).

Similarities between the two disorders include a lack of remorse, the lack of concern for the consequences of their actions, and a continued pattern of law break despite law enforcement intervention. The differences between the two is that substance use disorder tends to have a higher treatment response than antisocial personality disorder.

Treatment options for antisocial personality disorder include cognitive behavioral therapy and medications for mood or antipsychotics. Treatments for substance use disorders include a variety of therapies and from medications such as Antabuse to prevent people from drinking.

The link between these disorders and criminal activity with substance use is the desire to continue using various illicit substances which are inherently illegal, and people may resort to further criminal behavior in an effort to continue to obtain the substances. With antisocial personality disorder, criminal behavior is due to the lack of remorse, the aggressive or violent behavior, and lack of inhibition. These tendencies lead to criminal behaviors such as destruction of property, assault, and other more serious crimes. Because these people find no difficulty or reluctance to lie to the police about these crimes, they often do not find punishment as much of a deterrent. With serious crimes such as serial killers, once they “get away with murder” they seem to have less and less fear of being caught.

American Addiction Center. (2021). Addiction statistics | Drug & substance abuse statistics. American Addiction Centers.

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Antisocial personality disorder – Symptoms and causes.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Alcohol facts and statistics. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).

Sher, K., & Trull, T. (1994). Personality and disinhibitory psychopathology: Alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder.

Werner, K. (2015). Epidemiology, comorbidity, and behavioral genetics of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. PubMed Central (PMC).

Classmate 2 Mark: Last week we wrote about Anti-social personality disorder, which is only diagnosable in young adults at least eighteen years of age. However, a similar disorder, known as conduct disorder, can be seen in childhood through adolescence. Since most children and teenagers have behavior problems at some point in their lives, it’s important to understand that not all kids who act up have a disorder. Conduct disorder is charactered as a long-term behavioral problem, which can be both disruptive and violent. This behavior can vary in severity but can be classified under four different categories. The categories of behavior are aggressive, destructive, deceitful, and rule breaking. People that suffer from conduct disorder often have accompanying illnesses such as ADHD and depression (Frick 1991).

Like many mental illnesses, the cause of conduct disorder is not known. However, there are many factors that experts believe increase the risk of a child developing conduct disorder. Perhaps the most common factor is the role that genetics play. Studies have shown that many children who have conduct disorder also have close family members who suffer from mental illnesses. Environmental factors can also play a role, since children tend to mimic behaviors that they see while growing up. For example, if a child’s father has anger issues, and often loses his temper, a child may think this is acceptable behavior. Parenting can have a huge impact on a child’s mental well-being and is linked to several mental illnesses which affect kids. Child neglect/abuse, absent parents, and harsh or inconsistent discipline can all negatively affect a child’s development. In a small portion of cases, children with conduct disorder were found to have injuries or birth defects to the brain (Roisman 2010).

Conduct disorder can be broken down into two subtypes. The subtype which a person falls under depends on when they started showing symptoms. If a child begins to show symptoms before the age of 10, they fall under the “child-onset type”. If they show symptoms after age 10, they fall under the “adolescent-onset type”. Both types have similar symptoms, but the adolescent-onset is said to be less severe. Many children who develop the child-onset type typically have more family problems, and experience more related conditions such as depression or anxiety. Children suffering from the adolescent-onset type have been shown to have better success with therapy (Raine 2011).

Roughly 8% of the children in the US suffer from varying levels of conduct disorder. Although difficult to treat, the best option is cognitive behavioral therapy. This therapy can help a child communicate better, and deal with anger in a healthy way. In more extreme cases, a child may be prescribed medication to help treat depression and anxiety, so that therapy is more effective. Family therapy can also be a great tool when the disruptive behavior is affecting more than just the child. Plus, this can give parents the proper education and tools to help deal with the illness inside the home (Murrihy 2010). Many parents who live with out-of-control kids often call the police because they do not know what to do. At work, I have personally responded to hundreds of calls over the years where parents were completely lost about how to handle their child’s behavior. A lot of them do not have health insurance and are very poor. They have very little resources and are often times single parent households. These kids will skip school, join gangs, commit crimes, and physically assault their parent. I can’t tell you how many times I have seen a 6ft tall teenager assault his 5ft tall 100-pound mother, because she tried to implement new rules in an effort to reign in their child. The juvenile justice system here in California is supposed to focus more on helping troubled youth who suffer from mental illnesses, rather than punish them. I think sometimes the system is quick to label a child with a mental illness, even though they simply may just need to be disciplined. I also think the opposite is true. I think some juvenile halls are quick to discipline children, rather than screen them for mental illnesses.


Frick P. J.; Kamphaus R. W.; Lahey B. B.; Christ M. A.; Hart E. L.; Tannenbaum T. E. (1991). “the vast majority of these have ADHD. Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Raine A (2011). “An amygdale structural abnormality common to two subtypes of conduct disorder: A neurodevelopmental conundrum”. American Journal of Psychiatry. 168 (6): 569–571.

Roisman G. I.; Monahan K. C.; Campbell S. B.; Steinberg L.; Cauffman E.; Early Child Care Research Network (2010). “Is adolescence-onset antisocial behavior developmentally normative?”. Development and Psychopathology. 22 (2): 295–311.

Murrihy, R., Kidman, A., & Ollendick, T (2010). Clinical Handbook of Assessing and Treating Conduct Problems in Youth. Springer: New York.

Classmate 3 Allen: Behavioral disorders among children are a frequent pattern of conduct that is disruptive, inappropriate, and deviant from societal standards and norms. They disorders may include inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, defiant behavior, elicit drug use, and criminal activity. The three most common types of behavioral disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder. (Behavioral Disorders, 2017)

One in six children alone in the United States have a documented mental, behavioral, or developmental disorder. (Cree et al, 2018) It was determined that approximately 7.4% (4.5 million) children between the ages of 3-17 years have been diagnosed with a behavior problem. (Ghandour et al, 2017)

Johns Hopkins University (n.d.) provides an overview of conduct disorder and what a patient or parent may expect to see or to look for when considering if their child has conduct disorder. Acts that may present in children who have conduct disorder may include but are not limited to a lack of responsibility, truancy, tardiness, theft, and committing violent acts against animals or people.

The main two types of conduct disorder that are commonly identified by therapists are early-onset or adolescence onset. The two are similar in that the behaviors and actions of the child or adolescent may present the exact same. But it is how the disorder is manifested and at what age that makes the difference. It has been argued that early onset is caused by an issue with neuro development in children where the adolescent onset emerges from the social surroundings and influences of other people. Despite this theory, Passamonti et al (2010) conducted testing of seventy-five male adolescents and young men from ages 16-21. There was an almost even split among early onset and adolescent onset. This test resulted in both types were associated with antisocial behavior and both were concluded to have neurophysiological abnormalities. Lastly, there was hypofunction in the amygdala found with early onset which could explain why the early onset is more severe and persistent.

Before looking into the treatment options for Conduct Disorder, it is important to share the diagnostic criteria in order to understand why these treatment options are utilized for their patients. Conduct disorder is ”A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the presence of three (or more) of the following criteria in the past 12 months, with at least one criterion present in the past six months”

Some of the criterion listed includes aggression towards people and animals, bullying others, initiating physical altercations at school, using weapons, has deliberately destroyed property, has broken into private places to steal property, and is extremely defiant to include running away and staying away for days at a time. (Searight, Rottnek, and Abby, 2001)

Most behavior disorders are treated in the same manner. A combination of family therapy and behavior modification over a long period of time can yield exceptional results. In some cases, prescription medicine may aid the family and child.

In my professional experience in dealing with children who seem to exhibit some of the symptoms listed of conduct disorder, it is extremely hard on the parents and family, especially working-class single parents whom I have met. In one case, a single mother of four children live in an apartment complex where I work. We have responded because the second youngest child has caused issues to the point where the family is scared of being evicted from the complex. This young woman has broken into the leasing office, other apartments, and unlocked vehicles in order to steal. She causes fights with her mother to where the ambulance had been requested due to significant injuries to both mom and daughter. Mom does not have the resources, or the finances to send her daughter away for special programs. The young girl has been transported to mental health facilities but has no plan for long term treatment and care. What makes treatment most difficult is that mom can not convince nor force her daughter to make treatment visits as she has other children who do not cause issues and need care of their own. Her daughter will simply run away. My best recommendation for mom was to try and get the school involved and to make as much time as she has available to make and attend the treatment visits. Also to see if there is better ways for mom to communicate with her daughter that may keep the anger and physical violence to a minimum.

Thanks for reading.


Behavioral Disorders. (2017). Found in Retrieved from

Cree, R. A., Bitsko, R. H., Robinson, L. R., Holbrook, J. R., Danielson, M. L., Smith, C., … & Peacock,

G. (2018). Health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders and poverty among children aged 2–8 years—United States, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(50), 1377.

Ghandour, R. M., Sherman, L. J., Vladutiu, C. J., Ali, M. M., Lynch, S. E., Bitsko, R. H., & Blumberg, S.

J. (2019). Prevalence and treatment of depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in US children. The Journal of pediatrics, 206, 256-267.

Johns Hopkins University (n.d). Conduct Disorder. Retrieved from

Passamonti, L., Fairchild, G., Goodyer, I. M., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., Rowe, J. B., & Calder, A. J.

(2010). Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(7), 729-738.

Searight, H. R., Rottnek, F., & Abby, S. (2001). Conduct disorder: Diagnosis and treatment in primary

care. American Family Physician, 63(8), 1579.

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GOAL: Create an 800-1,000 word paper that presents a compare and contrast of three companies’ mission/vision/values statements, utilizing the tools of strategic planning. 

Instructions:Write a 800-1,000 word paper (body content length) based on researched artifacts from three companies in the same sector of private or non-profit industry (e.g., restaurants, services, products, hospitals, etc.) and their individual presentation of mission, vision, and values. After presenting each company’s brief history, mission, vision, and values, compare and contrast the various features and differences between the selected same-sector companies. Using relevant research via peer-reviewed journals from the online library, conclude your paper with a scholarly assessment about the strengths and weaknesses of the mission, vision, and values of the companies researched. Make sure to emphasize the compare/contrast element of this assignment as you look at the companies alongside each other—that is where the analytical assessment comes into play; that is the place to demonstrate your ability to think and write critically. 

Suggestions to help your writing: 

Use level headings (APA) to distinguish the various parts of your paper. No abstract is required, but a title page and references page are required.

Visit the following website to help you set up your APA paper: APA Format and Citation

You may use any level of sources—scholarly, popular press, or websites—to provide foundational information used to inform you about each organization. However, make sure to properly cite and reference these sources according to chapter seven of APA.

Regardless what sources you use to gain information about the companies, you are still required to list and use three scholarly journal sources in the assertions you provide at the end of your paper. Be careful to differentiate between “trade” journals and genuine “peer-reviewed” sources so that your compare and contrast is based upon theoretical foundations instead of opinions or advertisements.

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Initial Post Question: You read Christian Legal Society Chapter v Martinez this week. This cases was split 5-4.

In your initial discussion post discuss:

1) What were the facts and the ruling in the case?

2) Research and share an example of how another college or university has dealt with a similar controversy. Do you think the school handled the controversy correctly?

Classmate 1 Jenkins: 1) What were the facts and the ruling in the case?

The case of Christian Legal Society Chapter v. Martinez involved the  Christian Legal Society Chapter of  University of California, Hasting College of Law suing the school over freedom of religion issues.  The university refused to recognize the CLS as an official student organization due to the membership requirements.  The organization required members to practicing and devout Christians and did not open themselves up to anyone who thought or believed otherwise.  California state law required all registered student organizations to be inclusive to any and all students regardless of beliefs.  The CLS argued that failure to recognize them as an official student organization based off of their religious beliefs were a violation of their First Amendment rights against religious persecution.  The district court dismissed the case, with the decision being affirmed on appeal with the U.S. Court of Appeals with the Ninth Circuit.  The court held “that the school’s conditions on recognizing student groups were viewpoint neutral and reasonable. Therefore, the school’s conditions did not violate the CLS’s First Amendment rights” (  The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the verdict with a majority decision of five to four.  

2) Research and share an example of how another college or university has dealt with a similar controversy. Do you think the school handled the controversy correctly?

In the case of Uzuegbunam v. Preczewski, Georgia Gwinnett College student Chike Uzuegbunam was distributing religious material in an outdoor plaza in the campus of the college.  He was confronted by a campus police officer and ordered to stop distributing the material. The officers informed him that, according to the school’s “Freedom of Expression” policy, there were only two zones on campus where students were allowed to engage in expressive activities, and this was not one of those zones. The zones also had to be reserved in advance. Uzuegbunam later reserved one of the zones but was once again stopped by campus police after he began distributing religious material.  They informed him that he had exceeded the scope of his reservation by speaking in addition to handing out literature.  Uzuegbunam, along with another student named Joseph Bradford, filed a lawsuit against the school seeking a court judgement that the school’s policy their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.  They sought for a revision of the policy, as well as nominal damages to be paid by the school. Georgia Gwinnett College filed a motion to dismiss the claim, and while it was being litigated, changed their freedom of Expression policy to include students being allowed to express themselves on any area of the campus.  The school took this action with the hope of the case ultimately being dismissed because the cause of the claim had now ben changed and allowance was granted, basically making the claim moot. The district court dismissed the case for that very reason, and the decision was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit.  However, in a vote of 8 to 1, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the decision.  They stated that just because a school changes its policies in the middle of a case that favors, it does not change the fact that that school is still responsible for nominal damages sought beforehand.

The entire situation surrounding this case was wrong from the beginning.  If freedom of expression was allowed in certain areas of the campus, then it should have been allowed in all areas, depending on what the action was.  What this student was doing was not egregious or dangerous, and the actions of the police bordered on harassment, especially the second time.  By them changing their policy in the middle of the case was a sign of them knowing the police was wrong in the first place. The high court made the right decision in this case.

Redden, E. (2021, March 9). “Supreme court sides with students in speech zone case”.

Classmate 2 Sherron: Christian Legal Society v. Martinez[1] emerged after the University of California Hastings College of the Law denied official recognition to a Christian student group, the Christian Legal Society (CLS). The case began during the 2004-2005 academic year, when the Hastings chapter of CLS applied to become a Registered Student Organization (RSO), a status that would allow the group to use university facilities and university e-mail systems, and to become eligible for funding to host speakers and to travel. Consistent with national CLS policy, Hastings’ CLS chapter required students who wanted to be voting members or leaders of the organization to sign a Statement of Faith outlining CLS particular understanding of Christian doctrine.

Though voting members and leaders were required to sign the statement, the group allowed all students, regardless of belief, to attend meetings and participate in group activities. Hastings denied CLS application for RSO status because, according to Hastings, CLS Statement of Faith violated Hastings non-discrimination policy by allegedly discriminating on the basis of religion and sexual orientation. Later, once litigation commenced, Hastings argued that it had denied CLS official recognition not because of the non-discrimination policy, but instead because CLS violated the school’s “all comers” policy, which requires any RSO to admit any student as a voting member or leader.

Because Hastings refused to recognize CLS as an RSO, CLS sued Hastings in federal district court, arguing that the refusal violated the group’s rights to freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of religion, and equal protection under the law. The district court ruled against CLS, holding that the denial of recognition had no significant impact on the group and that Hastings had an interest in prohibiting discrimination. CLS then appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, but in a cursory opinion of just two sentences, the Ninth Circuit also found in favor of Hastings. Finally, CLS petitioned for the Supreme Court to hear its case, and the Supreme Court agreed. The Supreme Court ruled that Hastings did not violate CLS First Amendment rights by denying it official recognition under an “all comers” policy. In a sharply divided 5-4 vote, the Court held that a public university could require its student organizations to accept any student as a voting member or leader, regardless of whether the student openly disagrees with or is even hostile to the group’s fundamental beliefs[2].

I found a similar controversy at Seattle Pacific University (SPU). They have two lawsuits pending for policies that illegally discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation. The school’s founding denomination is the Free Methodist Church, and bylaws stipulate that at least one-third of the trustees must be members of that denomination The school’s “Statement on Human Sexuality” affirms that marriage and sex are intended only between a man and a woman. Its “Employee Lifestyle Expectations” prohibit sexually immoral behavior which is inconsistent with Biblical standards. A former staff member of SPU Dyana Herron was told not to forward gay candidates for interviews, nor to inform candidates about those expectations[3]. Another staff member filed a lawsuit accusing SPU of discriminating against him because of his sexual orientation. He says his application for a full-time, tenured position was rejected because he is gay.

And despite an overwhelming vote of no confidence from the Faculty Senate, trustees have declined to change the employment policy or elaborate on that decision. In an April 26 email to faculty, board Chair Cedric Davis wrote that ongoing litigation prevented the board from speaking further, but said it would convene “with a goal of working out a process for dialogue with the community[4].” In my opinion, that is too weak a commitment in response to such heated debate.

[1] Christian Legal Society v. Martinez, 561 U.S. 661 (2010)

[2] Id.

[3] Dyana Herron, SPU must confront a hiring policy that discriminates based on sexual orientation, The Seattle Times,  April 23, 2021

[4] SPU should listen and be transparent about LGBTQ policies, The Seattle Times,, May 5th, 2021

Classmate 3 Crystal: Good evening, class!

The facts of this case are that the district court allowed the University of California at Hastings, a law school, to deny recognizing the Christian Legal Society (CLS) as a registered student organization (RSO). The reason why University of California at Hastings refused to recognize CLS is because they restricted its members. The university required compliance with a nondiscrimination policy that covered religion and sexual orientation and that membership in these organization had to be open to all, both leadership and membership. The CLS had a statement of faith that required sex be restricted only if it was between a man and a woman whom were married and they tried to use this as an exemption, but the university refused to allow them that exemption. The US Court of Appeals affirmed the denial and stated that the school’s condition that organizations needed to be unexclusive, so the CLS’s First Amendment rights were not violated. The Supreme Court ruled that a public college does not curtail the First Amendment by declining to acknowledge a student group that refuses to permit all students to join the group, accordance with state law (Christian Legal Society Chapter v. Martin, n.d.).

I did some research for an example of a college or university that has had a similar controversy. I wanted to bring attention to Baylor University and their treatment of LGBTQ students. These students are waiting for policy change and more rights at the college. Their journey is ever changing. The language of “homosexual acts” as “misuses of God’s gift,” had been removed from the school’s code of conduct, but these students are unable to form student groups and can’t get activity funding, nor can they reserve space on the campus for it’s meetings. They have been denied formalization of their group, which they have named Gamma Alpha Upsilon (translated to GAY in Greek). The reason the school seems to not acknowledge these individuals in the LGBTQ community is because it would put a damper on their religious affiliation. They are simply asking Baylor to revise the school’s policies on various items. Greta Hays, whom is a  spokeswoman for the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities, said all private higher education institutions “have the right and ability to ensure that officially recognized student groups are consistent with” their missions.” She wet o to say that this also includes religious convictions and beliefs. While the university in the Christian Legal Society Chapter v Martinez case wanted it to be unexclusive, Baylor has exclusive ideas and a code of conduct. 

As of May 14th, 2021, the school board passed a resolution that states that Baylor has a responsibility for all students regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. I think after the various meetings, petitions, and strides that students and faculty made at the school, they made the right decision. With their new policy, sexual relations OF ANY KIND outside of marriage still is questionable, though the Bible mentions only marriage between a man and a woman. Baylor has moved more towards “human sexuality” as opposed to acknowledging LGBTQ students. I think it is a step in the right direction, but they have taken their freedom of religion to an extreme. There even is a website:, which is a site that emphasizes Baylor family members who “affirm that all Baylor students should be treated with equal dignity and respect, regardless of sexual orientation or gender idenity.”

Baylor is making good strives, but it is still not equal, and I think the slow tick of “handling the controversy” is doing the bare minimum.


Christian Legal Society Chapter v. Martinez. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved May 21, 2021, from

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Answer Initial Discussion question 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 Words each

For your reading this week you read Bush v Gore. Let’s talk about presidential elections.

For initial discussion post discuss:

1) What is the electoral college and how does it work?

2) Do you agree with the concept of electoral votes? Why or why not?

3) Do you agree with the ruling in Bush v Gore? Why or why not?

Classmate 1 Jeffrey: The electoral college is a very criticized, yet crucial component of our democratic process. The past few elections along with ease of information access with an ever-increasing internet from just a few presidential elections ago give the American people a basic understanding of what the electoral college is. Although, we generally understand what electoral votes are and the need to wait for a candidate to receive 270 of those votes many of us still find how those votes are actually decided to be vague.

The electoral college was created in 1787 in Article II, section 1 of the Constitution. The original purpose of the electoral college was the belief a popular vote was too reckless; allowing a few populated areas to determine an entire election. Currently, the electoral college has 538 electoral votes distributed to states depending on the population that shifts slightly every 10 years due to the national census bureau results. A total of 538 electoral votes was determined by 535 members of the House of Representatives and the Senate and an additional three votes who those who represent Washington D.C.

For the most part, a popular vote is conducted in each state with the winner of that popular vote earning all of that state’s electoral votes. For example, if two candidates were competing for California’s 55 electoral votes the candidate with even one more vote than the other would earn all 55 electoral votes regardless of how many the losing candidate earned. This system is in place to give smaller states more power in determining an election and not to be ignored by a candidate.

How the electors are chosen has changed over the centuries. Article II, section 1 of the Constitution; states electors cannot be members of Congress or hold Federal office. The Fourteen Amendment adds the electors cannot have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or given aid or comfort to its enemies. Individual states are responsible for how they appoint their electors as long as they follow this guidance. Popular methods include choosing electors by state party conventions or vote in a smaller state convention committee.

I agree with the concept of an electoral college. It can seem unconstitutional when a presidential candidate loses the election, even though they won the popular vote and did not gain enough electors. This has happened recently in the 2000 election when George W. Bush beat Al Gore even though Al Gore had more individual votes. Even more recently in 2016 when Hillary Clinton earned more votes than Donald Trump, however, once again did not gain enough electoral votes. If a popular vote was law candidates would likely ignore rural states completely. From the 2020 National Census, 80% of Americans live in urban areas overshadowing the voting power of rural regions. This is not guaranteed, however, the only way to know this for sure would be to enact the law which could have unforeseen consequences.

Bush v. Gore (2000) was a case that brought many questions as to the involvement the United States Supreme Court should have in presidential elections. The 2000 election between Al Gore and George W. Bush came to what was a tie with the determining factor being the state of Florida and who would win its 25 electoral votes. On the first count, George W. Bush won the state by a margin of fewer than 2,000 votes out of over six million. Florida law requires a recount when a margin is less than half of one percent meaning a recount was required. When the recount was complete in all but one country Bush’s lead slimed down to winning by only 327 votes. At this time Al Gore exercised his right under Florida law to demand a hand recount in his choice of four historically democratic counties.

Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris who worked on the Bush campaign gave counties a deadline of November 18, 2000, to submit their recounts. The Florida Supreme Court extended this deadline to November 26, 2000. After several extensions and petitions, the Florida Supreme Court demanded all votes not counted by machines had to be hand-counted on December 8, 2000. George W. Bush appealed this decision to the United States Supreme Court, and the case was heard immediately after.

George W. Bush advocated that the recounts violated the Fourteenth Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause. In a 7-2 vote, the United States Supreme Court sided with George W. Bush agreeing that the Equal Protection Clause was violated because they viewed the recount gave special treatment to certain ballots and jurisdictions over others. This decision sealed George W. Bush’s presidential victory making him the new president-elect. To this day people speak out against this decision with many believing the Supreme Court was able to interpret the law in any way they wanted to effectively choose who they wanted to be President of the United States.

Regardless of who you support in this case, it can be difficult to outwardly support the outcome. A quick decision was necessary due to the inauguration being one month away. I do not think the case had to go to the United States Supreme Court. The Florida Supreme Court had already established deadlines for ballots, even though some counties missed it. To answer the question if I support the decision, I have to put myself in the shoes of the justices and agree they acted appropriately. A decision was necessary and picking and choosing where you want recounts and unclear ballots can prove to violate the Equal Protection Clause.


Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000).

Sarah Pruitt, How Are Electoral College Electors Chosen, History (Oct. 21, 2020),

U.S. Cities Factsheet, University of Michigan (last visited May. 16, 2021),

U.S. Const. amend XIV.

U.S Const. art. II, sec 1.

Classmate 2 Adam: Greetings Classmates,Welcome to my week 3 forum posting. I always love looking at the new topics in this class so far because some would say they are a bit controversial at the moment, and like your boss would tell you, avoid talking about politics, religion, etc in your place of business however, I digress. This week we will discuss the electoral college and the ruling in Bush vs. Gore.

To start off before I get to answering the opinion-based questions, run through what the definition of the electoral college is;

When your average American voter goes out to the local poll, that voter is actually voting for your state representative to then cast their vote based on how the state populous voted. The word “college” is just referring to a number of people sharing a task. These Congressman are elected officials themselves, who are serving a function to then choose the president and vice-president (and I use choose loosely because the choice is not really theirs).

The electoral college meets every election year, just after the election to carry out said duties. The number of electors each state gets is based upon the size of said states population. “Each state gets as many electors as it has lawmakers in the US Congress (representatives in the House and senators)”. At the end of the day, a candidate needs to gain a majority of the votes (270 or more) to win the presidency.

To get into my opinion, where to start. First of all, I would agree with one side of the argument that the system unto itself is a bit archaic, yes. It was created when the constitution was written up and the times were drastically different at that point in our history. But there is another side that I can see where this system still sees smaller states have more of a voice than a nationwide popular vote to decide the president. I myself am from the great state of Maine, which I would like to point out is roughly the least biased state in a certain sense as we had enough common sense to be able to split up our electoral vote based on the popular vote turn out in the state (a novel concept that would likely solve a lot of issues and complaints with our present day electoral college system).

My thought process is that sure, a vast majority of the population lives in the major cities in a few states, but those members of society live exponentially different lives and have exponentially different values and priorities than people in my state and region may have and that a large majority of those that do not live in those cities represent vast swathes of territory none the less and are governed under the same rule as those in a condensed smaller zone, but all areas of the country should be represented more equally not essentially all people needing to be represented equally. But again, this was an opinion-based question so moving on. Personally, I feel pushing all of the states to dole out electoral votes based on popular vote (in their state) as Maine and Nebraska currently do would be the best way to adjust for modern times.

Lastly to touch on Bush vs. Gore, bearing in mind that I had no dog in this fight, I absolutely agree with the Supreme courts decision on recount as the State itself had not voted or enacted in new election law and that the Supreme court of Florida (not elected officials) essentially made up a new law as they saw fit to meet the circumstances. Although of late it seems our Congress pushes new law whenever they see fit with or without the will of the people behind them, the premise of our nation was built on the fact that the elected officials were meant to be the voice of the people and were to put laws in place for the good of the people, it was not up to an un-elected official to impose their will or collective wills. I think the US Supreme court got it right here.

I look forward to reading others postings in this divisive topic week 😉.

Classmate 3 Sherron: The Electoral College chooses the president of the United States. When an American citizen casts their vote, they are not directly choosing a presidential candidate. Instead, they are choosing an official, who will represent them in the “college”. The word college translates to a large group of people (the elected officials) who have the job of choosing the president, and this role is carried out a few weeks after the results of the Election Day. The more people who live in a state, the more electors there are for that state. So, California for example, with a population of 38.8 million, has 55 votes while Delaware, (pop. 936,000), has just three votes. There are currently 538 electors in total, corresponding to the 435 Representatives (congressmen and women) and 100 Senators, plus the three additional electors from the District of Columbia[1]. The Constitution prohibits any federal official, elected or appointed, from being an elector. The candidate with the most electors wins all the state’s Electoral College votes and the first candidate to win enough states to get to 270 electoral votes is elected to that office.

In my opinion the popular vote should win the election. The Electoral College seems less democratic than a popular vote. Not only can someone win the presidency without winning the popular vote, another consequence is that it influences how and where candidates campaign. Under the current system, if it seems clear that one candidate is likely to win a particular state, there is no reason for the other candidate to campaign in that state and try to capture any votes. As a result, rather than visiting as many states as they can, candidates end up focusing their time and resources on a small number of swing states. (Swing states are states that can reasonably be won by either the Democratic or Republican Presidential candidate.) This practice contradicts the idea that Presidential candidates should share their platform and seek as many votes as possible in every state across the whole country.

Here is a brief recap of the 2000’s election. On November 8, 2000, a preliminary vote tally in Florida showed Bush leading Gore by about 1,700 votes in the state. With its 25 electoral votes up for grabs, the winner in Florida would become the next President of the United States. The initial vote tally was so close in Florida, with a less than 0.5 percent difference, that Florida’s state laws triggered an automatic machine recount. The first recount left Bush with just a 317-vote margin over Gore. Gore asked for a manual recount in four counties as allowed under Florida’s law. Over the next weeks, Democrats and state officials fought over deadlines related to the recount and the need for deadline extensions. On November 26, 2000, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified that Bush had won the election by a 537-vote margin. Gore then sued Harris because all of the recounts had not been completed when she certified the results. On December 8, 2000, the Florida Supreme Court sided with Gore, ordering that all statewide undervote ballots, or punch-card ballots that had been cast but not registered because of a problem called a “hanging chad,” needed to be recounted[2]. Bush immediately appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which ordered the recount halted on December 9, 2000 until it could hear arguments in the case[3].

This is where I disagree with the ruling. In my opinion the Supreme Court should not have stopped the counting of legal votes. A stay should have not be granted unless Bush made a substantial showing of irreparable harm. Counting every legally cast vote did not constitute irreparable harm. Preventing the recount from being completed has cast a cloud on the legitimacy of that election.


[1] National Archives, Distribution of Electoral Votes, (2021)

[2] “Supreme Court of Florida No. SC00-2431 Gore v. Harris 772 S2d 1243”. Findlaw. December 8, 2000

[3] Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000)

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Goal: Conduct/construct an experiential evaluation/assessment of the business model of your organization (or one with which you are closely familiar) using the business model canvas and related text.

Introduction: Managers who want to improve the effectiveness of their business model and organization, as well as to increase their own ability to manage, use diagnostics/assessments to determine the reality of business effectiveness in comparison to what they originally envisioned. Good feedback contributes to the development of plans to improve business/organizational effectiveness and management performance.

Instructions: Students will write a 2500-3000 word (about 10 pages in the main body) properly formatted APA paper (including a title page and references page, but no abstract) that evaluates/assesses the overall effectiveness of the business model used by your organization. This is the third of three assignments that draws from your association with your organization. The previous two “canvas” assignments flow into this one. Identify one or more of the building blocks from the business model canvas where modification should be recommended. Be careful to avoid bias in determining the issue/problem identified by using the canvas. Do not merely critique, but contribute to your organization’s overall success. This paper should be the culmination of the overall work you have done with the business model canvas so that all the pieces go together. 

Your final paper should include:

  • Your business model canvas – Post-It notes discussion/observations (week 2)—summarize this area, but provide the initial canvas.
  • Identification of theoretical/behavioral trends that you observe in the business model and organization (week 5)—summarize this, do not merely cut and paste.
  • Discussion of appropriate theory, metaphors, and frames with which to describe your business model in operation, as well as to identify areas needing improvement and how to get there.
  • Use of the Osterwalder/Pigneur text to evaluate and diagnose your organization’s business model, as well as an integration of the course materials into your writing and consideration.
  • Recommendations for improvements identified using the canvas, theories, and assessment tools used in this course. What are the expected outcomes.
  • Use eight scholarly sources besides our textbook (especially case studies) to undergird your assertions from peer-reviewed literature.
  • Thoroughly familiarize yourself with the assignment specs and ask questions if you are unsure of expectations.

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Learning Objectives:

Describe the purpose and contents of the income statements and balance sheets.

Prepare Income Statements and Balance Sheets for a hypothetical business.

Read the following situation then complete the three (3) financial statement items below.

9.2 Financial Accounting Statements – Exercises from Chapter 9, Accounting and Cash Flow of your textbook Small Business Management in the 21st Century

Edwina Haskell was an accomplished high school student who looked forward to attending Southern New England University (SNEU). SNEU was unique in that it operated on a trimester basis, its policy was to actively foster independent development among the students. Edwina’s mother and father each own their own small businesses. Soon after freshman orientation at SNEU, Edwina recognized a need among the students that could be the basis for developing a small business. Freshman students could not bring their cars on the campus. In effect, they were confined to the dorm; if they wished to travel, they had to take school-provided buses that operated on a fixed schedule. Further, the university’s cafeteria closed at eight in the evening. Students who wanted to have some food or snacks after 8:00 p.m. had to call local restaurants that delivered. The few restaurants in the neighborhood around SNEU that had delivery services often were late in their deliveries, and hot food, such as pizza, was frequently delivered cold.

Edwina felt that there was a niche market on the campus. She believed that students would be interested in ordering sandwiches, snacks, and sodas from a fellow student provided that the food could be delivered in a timely fashion. After talking with several students in her dorm complex, she believed that offering a package of a sandwich, a soda, and a small snack, such as potato chips, for $5 and a guaranteed delivery of 15 minutes or less would be a winner. Because her dorm complex consisted of four large adjoining buildings that house nearly 1,600 students, she felt that there would be sufficient demand to make the concept profitable. She talked about this concept with her roommates and with her parents. Her roommates were willing to help prepare the sandwiches and deliver them. She planned on paying each of them $250 per trimester for taking orders, making sandwiches, and delivering them. All three roommates, whom she knew from high school, were willing to be paid at the end of the trimester.

Edwina recognized that for this business plan to work, she would have to have a sufficient inventory of cold cuts, lettuce, tomatoes, soda, chips, and condiments to be able to meet student demands. The small refrigerators in the dorm rooms would not be sufficient. After talking to her parents, they were willing to help her set up her business. They would lend her $1,000 to buy a larger refrigerator to place in her dorm room. She did not have to repay this loan until she graduated in four years, but her parents wanted her to appreciate the challenges of operating a small business. They set up several conditions. First, although she did not have to pay back the $1,000 for the refrigerator for four years, she had to pay interest on this “loan.” She had to repay 3 percent of this loan each trimester. Further, they reminded her that although she could pay her friends at the end of the semester, she would need funds to buy the cold cuts, bread, rolls, soda, snacks, condiments, and supplies such as foil to wrap the sandwiches, plus plates and paper bags. Although Edwina was putting $500 of her own money into her business, her parents felt that she might need an infusion of cash during the first year (i.e., the first three trimesters). They were willing to operate as her bank—lending her money, if needed, during the trimesters. However, she had to pay the loan(s) back by the end of the year. They also agreed that the loan(s) would be at a rate of 2 percent per trimester.

Within the first three weeks of her first trimester at SNEU, Edwina purchased the $1,000 refrigerator with the money provided by her parents and installed it in her dorm. She also went out and purchased $180 worth of supplies consisting of paper bags; paper plates; and plastic knives, spoons, and forks. She paid for these supplies out of her original $500 personal investment. She and her roommates would go out once or twice a week, using the SNEU bus system to buy what they thought would be the required amount of cold cuts, bread, rolls, and condiments. The first few weeks’ worth of supplies were purchased out of the remainder of the $500. Students paid in cash for the sandwiches. After the first two weeks, Edwina would pay for the food supplies out of the cash from sales.

In the first trimester, Edwina and her roommates sold 640 sandwich packages, generating revenue of $3,200. During this first trimester, she purchased $1,710 worth of food supplies. She used $1,660 to make the 640 sandwich packages. Fortunately, the $50 of supplies were condiments and therefore would last during the two-week break between the trimesters. Only $80 worth of the paper products were used for the 640 sandwich packages. Edwina spent $75 putting up posters and flyers around the campus promoting her new business. She anticipated that the tax rate would be approximately 35 percent of her earnings before taxes. She estimated this number at the end of the first trimester and put that money away so as to be able to pay her tax bill.

During the two weeks off between the first and second trimester, Edwina and her roommates talked about how they could improve business operations. Several students had asked about the possibility of having warm sandwiches. Edwina decided that she would purchase two Panini makers. So at the beginning of the second trimester, she tapped into her parents’ line of credit for two Panini grills, which in total cost $150. To make sure that the sandwiches would be delivered warm, she and her roommates spent $100 on insulated wrappings. The $100 came from cash. The second trimester proved to be even more successful. The business sold 808 sandwiches, generating revenue of $4,040. During this second trimester, the business purchased $2,100 worth of food supplies, using $2,020 of that to actually create the 808 sandwich packages. They estimated that during the second trimester, they used $101 worth of supplies in creating the sandwich packages.

There was only a one-week break between the second and third trimesters, and the young women were quite busy in developing ideas on how to further expand the business. One of the first decisions was to raise the semester salary of each roommate to $300 apiece. More and more students had been asking for a greater selection of warm sandwiches. Edwina and her roommates decided to do some cooking in the dorms so as to be able to provide meatball and sausage sandwiches. Edwina once again tapped into her parents’ line of credit to purchase $275 worth of cooking supplies. One of the problems they noticed was that sometimes students would place calls to order a sandwich package, but the phones were busy. Edwina hired a fellow student to develop a website where students could place an order and select the time that they would like a sandwich package to be delivered. The cost of creating and operating this website for this third trimester was $300.

This last semester of Edwina’s freshman year proved to be the most successful in terms of sales. They were able to fulfill orders for 1,105 sandwich packages, generating revenue of $5,525. Edwina determined that the direct cost of food for these sandwich packages came out to be $2,928.25. The direct cost of paper supplies was $165.75. At the end of her freshman year, Edwina repaid her parents the $425 that came from her credit line that was used to purchase the Panini makers and the cooking utensils.

Instructions & Deliverables:

Develop an Excel spreadsheet with one tab for each of the three (3) statements within the same spreadsheet document.

Prepare a beginning balance sheet for the first day of Edwina’s business (Statement #1). 

Prepare an income statement for the end of each trimester (Statement #2).

Prepare a balance sheet for the end of each semester (Statement #3).

  • NOTE: Please make sure you use the spreadsheet formulas for evidence of your calculations. See these two (2) Excel video tutorials that show you how to create a balance sheet and how to develop your formulas. Use this same process for developing your Income Statements and even a Cash Flow Statement if you wish. 


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1)Problem 10.49: Ethyl chloride (boiling point, 13 °C) is used as a local anesthetic. When the liquid is sprayed on the skin, it cools the skin enough to freeze and numb it. Explain the cooling effect of liquid ethyl chloride.

Answer: When Ethyl Chloride evaporates, it absorbs the heat from the hand which, in turn, makes the skin cooler.

Problem 10.76: Describe the crystal structure of Pt, which crystallizes with four equivalent metal atoms in a cubic unit cell.

Answer: Unit cells are simple, small, repeating, and have 3 types: simple crib, body-centered, and face-centered.

  • Simple cubic-atoms are present at the corners
  • Body-centered: atoms are present in the corners and the body center
  • Face-centered: atoms are present at the corners and center of each face

In a face-centered unit cell, 1/8 of an atom is present and 1/2 of an atom is present at the center of the face of every cube. The total number of atoms in a front-centered cubic cell is 4. Pt crystallizes with 4 atoms in a unit cell, so the crystal structure is face-centered cubic.

2)10.37- Why does spilled gasoline evaporate more rapidly on a hot day than a cold day?

Answer; When the outside temperature increases, the average kinetic energy of the collective molecules of gasoline increases more quickly because of the weak intermolecular attractions between the molecules, therefore allowing a greater number of molecules to gain sufficient energy to escape from the liquid as vapors.

10.95- As minerals were formed from molten magma, different ions occupied the same cities in the crystals. Lithium often occurs along with Magnesium in minerals despite the different charge of their ions. Suggest an explanation?

Answer: Since the arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice depends on the size of their cations, and Mg and Lithium have similar size cations, the Mg and Lithium ions can be easily interchanged without altering the structure of the crystals. Mg (2+) and Lithium (1+) often occur together in minerals despite the difference of their charged particles.

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In this module’s discussion question is pretty straightforward.  How has the globalization of mass media, and the development of social media and Web 2.0 affected terrorist and their organizations reaching the real targets on their attack?  Has this resulted in the change in the tactics they employ?  Discuss at least three specific terrorist attacks to support your answer.

I will need responses in this format I will post the responses in the drop down below. For your “Question/Comment”, answer any question I pose to your initial post, ask a question of comment on the other student’s post on your discussion team. For your “Response Posts” respond to and questions or comments on your initial post from the other students.

Utilize proper citation

TITLE: Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues 7th Edition AUTHOR: Martin, GusPUBLISHER: Sage PublicationsDATE: 2020ISBN: 978-1544375861

Post 1 

 How has the globalization of mass media, and the development of social media and Web 2.0 affected terrorist and their organizations reaching the real targets on their attack?  Has this resulted in the change in the tactics they employ?  Discuss at least three specific terrorist attacks to support your answer.          The use and expansion of social media and the internet on a global scale has led to changes in terrorism and terrorist organizations. In the previous discussion on the four waves of terrorism, I had made the argument that widespread shifts in technology and the use of media will or may have already led us into a new fifth wave. It is important for law enforcement and counter-terror agencies to consider the effect of media and technology when analyzing and identifying terrorist threats. According to a site published by the Council on Foreign Relations terrorists can use the internet to, “share information, coordinate attacks, spread propaganda, raise funds, and recruit.” (Kaplan, 2009)         Terrorist websites can be used for long distance communication among members of a terrorist organization, where new information regarding targets or training in tactics can be shared. Communication between terrorist cells is now especially dangerous, as the internet allows leaders to plan out and plot new attacks without the challenge of distance. The 2015 Paris ISIS attacks for example, were a series of bombings, shootings and hostage takings that were plotted in Syria but shared to an ISIS cell in Belgium to be carried out in Paris, France. ISIS leaders in Syria were able to successfully devise a plan and used the internet as a means of communication to ensure it was carried out in France. Social media and the internet can also be used by terrorist organizations to spread propaganda to recruit potential followers around the world. White nationalist and far-right terrorist groups most notably have had success using the internet and social media to spread their ideologies among like-minded people which has led to successfully carried out terror attacks. The Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand were a string of far-right inspired shootings carried out by a lone attacker, Brenton Tarrant, who had been using social media and extreme right wing blog sites to sympathize with islamophobic ideologies. Following the attacks, investigators had found online conversations on social media sites like Facebook and YouTube and far-right webpages where Tarrant would discuss killing Muslims and made threats to carry out shootings with other users.          The most important use of social media and the internet is to increase the fear factor that is the major goal of most terrorist attacks. Terrorist often carry out attacks and use terror among the public to bring attention to their causes and ideologies. Social media and mass media allows for the instant sharing of ongoing terrorist attacks which can easily create a sense of fear among a group of people. Professor Cozine makes this argument in his article Social Media and the Globalization of the Sicarii, stating that terrorist groups seek to create a spectacle with their attacks and “want it to be broadcast around the world, and view the media as an essential means of furthering their agenda and spreading their message.” (Cozine, 2016) The role of mass media and social media in the spectacle of terrorism is clear and Professor Cozine goes on to state, “the media covers sensational events regardless of the cause or origin, and while people have the right to know what is going on around them, media coverage does amplify terrorist attacks.” (2016)          An example of one such attack that was amplified by media coverage is the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, in which the perpetrator Stephen Paddock, opened fire on a festival concert from an elevated position killing 58 people. Social media coverage of the attack was widely shared during and after the attack, with people in the concert providing live coverage on their social media accounts. Mary Blakenship discussed the use of the site Twitter in the coverage of the shooting stating that, “the first public account of the shooting came from a tweet about ten minutes after the first shots began” and that Twitter was the “crucial element in the communications of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD) throughout the emergency and the investigation that followed. (Blakenship, 2020) Blakenship states that as helpful as Twitter was in this attack, it also created “chaos and confusion” at the scene, and misinformation began to quickly spread online, “there was a huge variety in the accusations, conspiracies, and falsehoods that were spread online concerning the shooting.” (2020) Some of these included the possibility of multiple shooters and misinformation on the identity of the shooter as either a Muslim extremist with ties to ISIS or a far-left extremist who acted on anti-Trump ideologies. The 2017 Las Vegas shooting shows how social media can elevate an already critical situation into one of confusion and fear through the spread of misinformation. While mass media and social media is a great way for people to get real time updates on events as they happen, it can also be a source of fear and chaos, which only adds to the spectacle of terrorist attacks and furthers the goal of terror in terrorism.Blankenship, M. (2020). How misinformation spreads through Twitter – UNLV Libraries. How Misinformation Spreads on Twitter.Cozine, K. (2016) Social Media and the Globalization of the Sicarii. Global Security Studies . Winter2016, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p1-12. 12p.Kaplan, E. (2009). Terrorists and the internet. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved October 18, 2021, from 

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In Module I you were asked to select a terrorist attack that has occurred over the past 4 years and do your best to describe it in terms of the “Units or Instruction” 2 through 10 as listed on the course syllabus.  For this Module’s discussion post I would like you to go back to that same attack and analyze the attack in terms of the Three Ts (Type, Tactic and Target).  What was the ideology behind the behind the attack and how was that related to the goals of the attack (Type). What was the Tactic that was employed? Why was that particular target chosen?  Are the Type, Tactic and Target inter-related if so how, if so how? Please draw your answer from the required readings and at least one outside source.

I will need responses in the Following format I will post them in the drop down below

“Question/Comment”, answer any question I pose to your initial post, ask a question of comment on the other student’s post on your discussion team. For your “Response Posts” respond to and questions or comments on your initial post from the other students.

Utilize proper citation

TITLE: Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues 7th Edition AUTHOR: Martin, GusPUBLISHER: Sage PublicationsDATE: 2020ISBN: 978-1544375861

Post 1 ask a question of comment on the other student’s post on your discussion teamThe National Thowhead Jamath was behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings. It was founded by Zahran Hashim, however, it was said he was expelled from the NTJ after creating hate speeches (BBC, 2019). The Sri Lankan government stated that there had been several warnings from foreign intelligence agencies about the impending attacks (BBC, 2019). Investigations conducted after the bombings linked numerous families to each other as they acted as a unit. Each unit liaised with other radicalized family groups, forming larger networks. The supposition goes that information was tightly protected within networks of loyalty that transcended ideology (Ethirajan, 2019). National Thowheeth Jama’ath was known mainly for vandalizing Buddhist statues. In March 2017, the group was involved in a violent clash in Kattankudy (Bradsher & Garcia, 2019). The National Thowheeth Jama’ath appeared to consist almost entirely of young people, especially recent graduates of Islamic schools. The group appears to have little hierarchy or organizational structure, and no older leaders (Bradsher & Garcia, 2019). The bombings appeared to have been aimed at an international audience, with the targets chosen for their links to liberalism and western ideas (Drieschova, 2019). A message was meant to be sent to the Catholic community and being the Catholic population in Sri Lanka is so small they were intended to be hurt. Threats were made 10 days before the attacks against Churches from the NJT. The bombings came as Christians and other religious groups have been increasingly targeted in South Asia, where a mix of surging nationalism, faith-based identity politics, and social media rumor-mongering has created a combustible atmosphere (Bastians et al, 2019). The target selection and attack type make me very skeptical that this was carried out by a local group without any outside involvement (Bradsher & Garcia, 2019). Whoever designed the suicide vests used in the Easter Sunday blasts showed considerable expertise and photographs indicate that the bombmaker had access to a lot of military-grade high explosives (Bradsher & Garcia, 2019). Sources:Bastians, D., Gettleman, J., & Schultz, K. (2019, April 21). Blasts targeting Christians kill hundreds in Sri Lanka. The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from (2019, April 28). Sri Lanka attacks: Who are national Thowheed Jamath? BBC News. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from BBC. (2019, April 28). Sri Lanka attacks: Who are national Thowheed Jamath? BBC News. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from Bradsher, K., & Garcia, S. E. (2019, April 22). Local Group is blamed for attacks, but Sri Lanka suspects ‘International Network’. The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from ?Drieschova , A. (2020, February 12). Sri Lanka’s Easter Sunday attacks were meant for international audience, but have local consequences. The Conversation Lecturer in International Relations. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from Ethirajan, A. (2019, May 10). Sri Lanka attacks: The family networks behind the bombings. BBC News. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from 

Post 2 ask a question of comment on the other student’s post on your discussion teamHi everyone,At the beginning of the semester, the terrorist attack I chose to discuss in Module I is the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. The Youtube video titled, “New Terror Tactic Used in Istanbul Attacks” discusses a fairly recent terror tactic called “Inghimasi.” There is an argument that this tactic of “running up to the enemy and hugging them” is used to achieve the narrative sought out by terrorist organizations. Larger numbers of casualties from terrorist attacks result in more media coverage, further pushing the narratives terrorists intend to put forth. The tactic of Inghimasi is difficult to disrupt in open places, as it is hard to stop an individual from shooting into an open area and quickly running toward the “enemy” to detonate a bomb. The three T’s are type, target, and tactic. Type refers to the group’s ideology, goals, and members. Targets are often related to the group’s ideology, in which one should ask if the target is selected for strategic value. Lastly, tactics may relate to the group’s ideology and possess symbolic meaning, as well as may instill fear into people. According to Gus Martin, “Terrorist violence is rarely random. Targets are specifically selected and represent the outcome of careful deliberation” (“Understanding Terrorism,” 2021, p. 272). This is accurate, as terrorist violence must be carefully thought out and planned with regard to who the target will be, what tactics will be used, and what type of ideologies and goals will be achieved as a result of terrorist attacks.The ideology behind the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting involved the shooter, Nikolas Cruz’s extreme beliefs and viewpoints. According to CNN, “In a private Instagram group chat, confessed school shooter Nikolas Cruz repeatedly espoused racist, homophobic and anti-Semitic views and displayed an obsession with violence and guns” (“Exclusive: Group Chat Messages Show School Shooter Obsessed with Race, Violence and Guns,” 2018). Furthermore, Cruz is known to have expressed hatred toward groups of people such as African Americans, Jewish people, and immigrants. Furthermore, Ivy Schamis, a teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, who taught Holocaust History, unfortunately witnessed students being shot through the window of her classroom. According to a news article, “After the shooting it was revealed he’d scrawled a swastika, the Nazi symbol, onto one of his ammunition magazines, though Schamis does not believe he was aware he was firing into a Holocaust class” (“Holocaust History Came Alive In Parkland Shooting,” 2018). Cruz is also noted to have had Swastikas drawn onto the magazines of his weapons. The tactic employed by Cruz during the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting was that of an armed assault. Cruz was armed with an AR-15, a semi-automatic assault rifle, which was used to evoke fear among his classmates and commit the violence he performed. The targets of Cruz’s attack were his classmates, teachers, high school staff, and community, all of which were either killed, physically injured, fearful, or mentally and emotionally scarred following the shooting. Armed hostage attacks, as revealed in the class lecture, range from large scale attacks that are carried out by multiple terrorist organizations or individuals, to smaller attacks carried out by lone wolves. I believe Nikolas chose his peers as a particular target because he wanted to convey a message to those he encountered in school on a daily basis. I also believe he knew his actions would evoke fear in, and harm not only all individuals who were shot or injured, but also their families and the nation, which attracted immense media attention. With that being said, the type, tactic, and target are interrelated. Most terrorists or terrorist organizations will specifically decide on the tactics used to harm or cause fear in their target(s), which are often specific to said target(s). The type can affect the tactics and target in that in pursuit of a specific goal, an individual or terrorist group may use a certain tactic to target its audience. ReferencesCBS Miami. (2018, April 26). Holocaust History Came Alive in Parkland Shooting. CBS Miami. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from CNN. (2016, June 29). New terror tactic used in Istanbul attacks. YouTube. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from  Martin, G. (2021). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE Publications, Inc. Murphy, P. P. (2018, February 18). Exclusive: Group Chat Messages Show School Shooter Obsessed with Race, Violence, and Guns. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from

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full research section and include comprehensive review of the literature in the field and include documentation to make sure you are fully knowledgeable about the alternatives under consideration.

Topic Criminal Justice Reform in NY

Current Criminal Justice Reform in NY. etc

Student Response  Current Policy for illegal substances sentencing For half a century, America has maintained the stance of being tough on crime which has been expressed with the sentencing regulations. When it comes to the federal standards the true turn of the tide occurred when Ronald Regan assumed his presidency. According to the history on the drug war, “The presidency of Ronald Reagan marked the start of a long period of skyrocketing rates of incarceration, largely thanks to his unprecedented expansion of the drug war. The number of people behind bars for nonviolent drug law offenses increased from 50,000 in 1980 to over 400,000 by 1997 (Drug Policy Alliance, 2021).” In the early 90’s there was an opportunity for a politician to address the harsh punishments of imprisonment at a federal level but this was not done. For example, “Although Bill Clinton advocated for treatment instead of incarceration during his 1992 presidential campaign, after his first few months in the White House he reverted to the drug war strategies of his Republican predecessors by continuing to escalate the drug war. Notoriously, Clinton rejected a U.S. Sentencing Commission recommendation to eliminate the disparity between crack and powder cocaine sentences (Drug Policy Alliance, 2021).” This now brings us to the early 2000’s in which no federal drug reform was created but George W. Bush still maintained the position in opposition of drugs and continued the harsh sentencing guidelines that were already in place. In the article it states that, “The era of George W. Bush also witnessed the rapid escalation of the militarization of domestic drug law enforcement. By the end of Bush’s term, there were about 40,000 paramilitary-style SWAT raids on Americans every year – mostly for nonviolent drug law offenses, often misdemeanors. While federal reform mostly stalled under Bush, state-level reforms finally began to slow the growth of the drug war (Drug Policy Alliance, 2021).” If you look at the political influence of federal sentencing guidelines for drug offenses sentencing you can see a slight shift within the Obama administration but it was still not enough to make any significant changes. Unfortunately, as recent as just 4 years ago, the Trump Administration wasted no time at all in staying stringent on federal drug policies that were established back in the 1980’s. It is said that, “President Trump started building a wall to keep drugs out of the country, and called for harsher sentences for drug law violations and the death penalty for people who sell drugs. He also resurrected disproven “just say no” messaging aimed at youth (Drug Policy Alliance, 2021).” With the assault from the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, it was shown quickly just how much the drug epidemic and the mass population of prisons due to drug sentencing had permeated the United States. Despite these obstacles, “We at the Drug Policy Alliance pushed forward with monumental drug policy reforms in the 2020 elections. In a historic, paradigm-shifting win and arguably the biggest blow to the war on drugs to date, Oregon voters passed Measure 110, the nation’s first all-drug decriminalization measure. This confirms a substantial shift in public support in favor of treating drug use with health services rather than with criminalization. Marijuana reform also won big. Voters in Arizona, New Jersey, Montana, and South Dakota passed measures to legalize marijuana for adult use. It was also a historic year for medical marijuana, with victories in Mississippi and South Dakota (Drug Policy Alliance, 2021).” This is a huge turning point in the possibilities of federal drug policies changes to come and it is up to the recent Joe Biden Administration to affect the trajectory and change history. By legal definition the term federal sentencing guidelines is, “are non-binding rules that set out a uniform sentencing policy for defendants convicted in the United States federal court system that became effective in 1987. The Guidelines provide for “very precise calibration of sentences, depending upon a number of factors (” The federal sentencing guidelines for drug offenses still remain the same and the only progressive change that has been made as stated before has been done at the state level. 2.    Legalizing/Decriminalizing Schedule I and II drugs The efforts towards the legalization or decriminalization of schedule I and II drugs have become a recent endeavor. As we have displayed the history of drugs and what it has done to our country, individuals are starting to wake up and realize that what has been occurring for the past 50 years or so isn’t yielding a positive response. According to the DEA, “Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote (U.S. Department of Justice).” The schedule II drugs according to the DEA, “Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are: Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin (U.S. Department of Justice).” As it stands, both schedule I and II drug categories hold lengthy and harsh federal sentencing guidelines (all dependent on certain factors of course). These factors can include; the amount within the individual’s possession, was a person(s) injured in the process of obtaining or maintaining these substances, and of course if any profit is being made by selling them to other individuals (i.e., trafficking). After reviewing the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of the 117th Congress, the most significant change in the decriminalization of schedule I and II drugs at the state level is within the policy of marijuana. It has been shown that, “the increasing divergence between federal and state law in the area of marijuana regulation. As of December 2020, 15 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws removing state prohibitions on medical and recreational marijuana use by adults age 21 or older. An additional 33 states have passed laws permitting medical use of marijuana or the marijuana-derived compound cannabidiol (CBD). However, marijuana remains a Schedule I controlled substance under federal law, and state legislation decriminalizing marijuana has no effect on that status (Congressional Research Service, 2021).” In other words, despite the legalization within many states, the federal government still views it as a Schedule I substance that can still be punishable under the same current policy. Despite the federal and state levels of government being on the same page, this is hope for the future in that eventually the voices of the people will be heard and marijuana will be decriminalized. As for the other substances listed as Schedule I and II drugs, no significant changes have been made and the policies still stand. 3.    Accessibility to rehabilitative resources Throughout the journey that the United States has undertaken with the “war on drugs” and being “tough on crime” there have been rehabilitative resources offered along the way. The need for rehabilitation versus retribution has been especially obvious within the last couple of years. In order to change the trajectory of where drug offenses and abuse has taken us concerning the overpopulation of prisoners and recidivism, the accessibility to rehabilitative resources are essential. The resources that the government has currently employed for individuals charged with drug offenses include drug courts, prison-based treatment programs, and federal funding for recovery houses. According to a study conducted by    it was expressed through public opinion that, “current policies suggest that the preferred treatment of drug criminals is incarceration, but this study found that this is not the case. When surveyed, the vast majority of people preferred that people convicted of drug crimes received drug treatment and therapy instead of incarceration. In other words, the majority of people favored rehabilitation over retribution 89.25% of those surveyed. This is a direct disagreement with the current “tough-on-crime” policies in place (Bernard, J., 2017).” It has been established that generally speaking the public, individuals who work in the criminal justice field, and those that are currently going through the system all feel as though rehabilitation would serve a better purpose than retribution. When it comes to the accessibility of these resources several factors can come into play to prevent the success of any of these programs. For example, “First, despite widespread referral to drug treatment within the criminal justice system, there is a shortage of available slots and those in need often do not get drug treatment services. Second, and relatedly, some have argued that drug treatment programs and the criminal justice-involved people enrolled in them are not properly matched, resulting in ill-fitting treatment modalities and treatment for those who do not need it. Finally, the uptake of evidence-based treatment options that recognize addiction as a chronic, relapsing disease has been slow within the network of service providers accessed through the criminal justice system, exemplified by the limited provision of medication-assisted treatment (Rosenberg, A., 2019).” It has been recognized that there is an issue solely based on the high majority of those incarcerated for such an offense, but I think now the question becomes how can we effectively administer these resources and properly. When individuals are properly vetted, are receiving individualized care, and also have a program where there is follow through (after release) the likelihood of success would increase. 4.    Elimination of Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing for non-violent drug offendersThe implementation of federal mandatory minimum sentencing has been established since 1986 and 1988 by Congress. When these bills were originally established, “The most commonly prosecuted drug offenses that carry mandatory minimum penalties are 21 U.S.C. §§ 841 and 960. Section 841which prohibits the knowing or intentional manufacture, distribution, dispensation, or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute or dispense a controlled substance. Section 960 prohibits the knowing and intentional importation or exportation of a controlled substance (Pryor, W., 2017).” With these guidelines, it was the beginning of a slippery slope with mass incarceration. The intention of Congress was to focus on kingpins, individuals trafficking huge amounts of drugs, and also individuals who were also manufacturing large amounts of these illegal substances but that is not all who were convicted under these federal mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines. There are many caveats to the bill which state that, “Under both provisions, mandatory minimum penalties are tied to the quantity and type of controlled substance involved in the offense. When certain quantity thresholds are met, a five-year mandatory minimum penalty and a maximum term of 40 years applies, while larger amounts increase the mandatory minimum to ten years, with a maximum of life imprisonment. These penalties may be enhanced further based on an offender’s record of previous drug offenses (Pryor, W., 2017).” This is why the vicious cycle of mass incarceration and recidivism occur in our correctional facilities today.Despite the fact that these federal mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines in the 1980’s to get “tough on crime” with those at the highest criminal level of drug offenses, it has become so much more than that. These guidelines are also being utilized to this day for lower-level drug offenders and even those of a nonviolent nature. For example, “Nearly one-third (32.2%) of Couriers and more than one-quarter of Mules (25.4%) were convicted of such offenses (Pryor, W., 2017).” When the government does a “one size fits all” rhetoric, this can attribute to the overall issue of recidivism. If we look at the population of the federal prison system as a whole, “As of September 30, 2016, almost three-quarters (72.3%) were convicted of an offense carrying a mandatory minimum penalty, and more than half (50.4%) remained subject to that penalty at sentencing (Pryor, W., 2017).” These sentencing mandates need to be reevaluated in order to reduce the overall unnecessary drug offense population within the criminal justice system. This is a continuing work in progress and with this knowledge the intention should be rehabilitation versus retribution.5.    Take political stance of assistance and not harsh punishment: The Future Legalization of Marijuana We have seen the historical events and consequences when the United States and its government chooses to take a politically harsh punishment stance when it comes to drugs. The question now becomes how do we reverse the over 50 years of mass incarceration and recidivism in America. When it comes to the federal government no significant changes have been made yet but as far as the legalization of any substances that are labeled as Schedule I and II but as far as the state level governments there has been some changes. The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of conversation since 2012, weather it is for medicinal purposes or recreational this process has been slow moving. To show how the legalization and decriminalization of marijuana would have on the criminal justice system, a study was conducted in 2019 to research the impact that it may have weather it be positive or negative. In the article it states that, “The analysis was focused on drug possession, which represented the largest portion of arrests. Of the 16 other types of drugs tracked in the Washington arrest data file, heroin and amphetamine/ methamphetamine were the two most common drugs, after marijuana, for which arrests were reported. These were utilized for comparisons with marijuana arrests (Farley, E., 2019).” The 11 states that legalized marijuana showed lower arrest levels than other drugs and it remained at its lowest in over 3 years. Based on what we can see from this research and the trends that legalization of marijuana creates, it is shown that a steady decrease in arrests that remains low will have a positive affect on the criminal justice system and the lives of many Americans. This will create more space within the correctional facilities and also save the government millions of dollars being that they will not have to support all of these additional inmates. If we can keep individuals from being incarcerated then recidivism will also not be an issue due to the fact that they have not been institutionalized or labeled for the rest of their lives. The research is relatively new and slim but what is being shown is promising for the future of the criminal justice system. ReferencesAlana R, Robert H, Danya K, Allison G, & Kim B. Drug Treatment Accessed through the Criminal Justice System: Participants’ Perspectives and Uses. J Urban Health. 2019 Jun; 96(3): 390–399. Published online 2018 Sep 6. DOI: 10.1007/s11524-018-0308-9Congressional Research Service. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA): A Legal Overview for the 117th Congress. (2021). Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.)Cornell Law School. Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.)Drug Policy Alliance. A Brief History of the Drug Wat. (2021). Retrieved from:…Erin F., Stan O. Measuring the Criminal Justice System Impacts of Marijuana Legalization and Decriminalization Using State Data. (2019). Justice Research and Statistics Association. James B, Katie H, Brian S, Georgie A W. Perceptions of Rehabilitation and Retribution in the Criminal Justice System: A Comparison of Public Opinion and Previous Literature. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Inves. 2017; 5(3): 555669. DOI:10.19080/JFSCI.2017.05.555669.U.S. Department of Justice. Drug Scheduling. Retrieved from:…William P, Rachel B, Charles B, Danny R, Patricia S, Zachary B. Mandatory Minimum Penalties for Drug Offenses in the Federal Criminal Justice System. (2017). United States Sentencing Commission. Retrieved from:…

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American Military University

Instructions: In this course, we look at a verity of different interview techniques and styles. We also look at the different kinds of perspectives on ethical issues and how they fit into properly conducting interviews.

For this paper, you will pick a course related topic to discuss, but one that is not a specific topic addressed in our readings. Be creative! I do not want you to reiterate the readings, but choose a topic and expand on it. Some examples are given below, but it is recommended that you choose to write on a topic you have already encountered or you have thought about previously. Of necessity, the instructions for this assignment are somewhat vague. Each student will have to explore different resources and will need to develop an individual approach to the subject. The goal is a brief but detailed exploration of some narrowly defined aspect of Interviewing Practices.

Identify, specifically, the strengths of your topic and what some weaknesses are. Drawing on various sources, explain the details of your topic. Assume I know nothing about this topic and share your research on it with me. Why is it important? What have you learned? What are the Pro’s and Con’s? When would this be used? What is the history on this topic?

Research papers are generally divided into two main categories: informative or argumentative. Informative papers generally demonstrate your understanding of a subject, simply reflecting what information is out there. Or you can choose to write an argumentative paper. You could information, offering commentary and opinions though taking no clear position, or you may offer a solution to a problem or argue that a law is having an unwanted effect.

The more specific you can be the better, and feel free to include examples that will strengthen your account.

Possible Topics
Selection Interviews
Negotiating Interviews
Police Interrogation Interviews
Health Care Interviews
The Employment Interview
The Persuasive Interview
The Performance Interview
Screening Interviews

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American Military University

Answer the Primary Questions (250 words). Respond to 3 classmate post (250 words each)the following questions:

Also remember these comprise what is referred to as the “primary post”, i.e., these should be posted in a single post with one response on top of the other. Each should be numbered to clearly show where the response to #1 ends and the response to #2 starts.

1.Select a more recent Supreme Court decisions (less than 2 years old) that had a significant impact on law enforcement. What are the facts of the case and what are the impacts of the decision on the police administrator?

2.Describe the relationship between the police agency/police administrator and the media. In what ways are there conflicts? In what ways are there partnerships?

Classmate 1 Lauren: You are led to believe that the media sway our stance on law enforcement. When studied, there are no significant effects of exposure to an image of police officers interacting with civilians on respondents’ perceptions of police misconduct, police bias, or evaluation of how police complete routine tasks and responsibilities. That public opinion about the police is primarily shaped by personal experiences with the police, unique demographic and ideological characteristics, and routine, self-selected news consumption habits. That group identities maybe even more important than personal experiences with the police, as political partisanship, political ideology, race/ethnicity, and age were the most consistent predictors of variation on attitudes toward the police in our regressions (Wozniak, Drakulich, & Calfano, 2021).

It would seem social learning theory is in place for people’s perceptions of police. As we become more inundated with social networks, that media could sway people’s perceptions of police. Social media is still not heavily regulated, and people can write whatever they want to, and others will believe them.

The U.S. Supreme Court extended the capability of people to sue police for excessive force. The 5-3 decision allowed Roxanne Torres to pursue her lawsuit, blaming the New Mexico State Police. The court determined that to sue for excessive force under the Fourth Amendment, it is not essential for a plaintiff to have been tangibly detained by law enforcement. (Hurley, 2021).

The ability to sue for excessive force makes law enforcement more accountable for their action. No one should be above the law, police officers included. Everyone has a right to a trial not to be hurt or possibly killed by police officers. If someone is running away and the police officer can not catch them, they should radio in the description of the offender. Show the body cam footage to their department. They should put a warrant out for their arrest not, a bullet to the chest.


Hurley, L. (2021, March 25). U.S. Supreme Court widens ability to sue police for excessive force. Retrieved from Reuters:…

Wozniak, K. H., Drakulich, K. M., & Calfano, B. R. (2021). Do photos of police-civilian interactions influence public opinion about the police? A multimethod test of media effects. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 17, 239-265. doi:10.1007/s11292-020-09415-0

Classmate 2 Michael: 1. Select a more recent Supreme Court decisions (less than 2 years old) that had a significant impact on law enforcement. What are the facts of the case and what are the impacts of the decision on the police administrator?

On May 8, 2020 the Fourth Circuit of Appeals, made a decision in the case of United States v. Ruffin distinguishing the levels of officer’s encounters under the Fourth Amendment and how it applies and progresses during police encounters (Batterton, 2020). This impacts law enforcement greatly, as it establishes the required Reasonable Articulable Suspicion (RAS) that is needed for a detention beyond a mere Casual Encounter. The facts of this case are interesting and evolved quickly. The Fourth Circuit, which is in my jurisdiction, I believe made the right call in reference to the decision and based on the facts that transpired.

In the early morning hours of November 24, 2016 Tiffany Farmer of Wilson, North Carolina discovered that her vehicle was broken into and several items stolen, including her cell phone. Officers arrived on scene and noticed several of the stolen items belonging to Farmer was scattered in a grassy area nearby. K-9 Officer Emory responded to the scene with his partner Jaxx who was duel-trained in Controlled Dangerous Substance (CDS) detection and Human Tracking. Officer Emory and Jaxx conducted a “track” and Jaxx led officers on a scent through the woods and into a nearby neighborhood. Upon emerging from the woods, officers spotted Ruffin hunched over near a wheelchair ramp in the apartment complex.

Ruffin stood up and attempted to walk away from the ramp when officers spotted numerous objects under the ramp where Ruffin was observed. Ruffin was bending down near the ramp at this time. Officers inherently believed that Ruffin was the scent that Jaxx was tracking, and that the items observed were associated with the Theft From Motor Vehicle (TFMV) incident. It should be noted that Ruffin was the only person in the area at this time. Officer Ochoa approached Ruffin and spoke to him, who was nervous and failed to provide his name. Ruffin stated that he did not live in the area and he was waiting for his child to use the bathroom in the woods, at which he kept staring at and looking around suspiciously. It was ultimately untrue about his child and the stuttering was indicative that this was as a lie. Ruffin consented to a “Pat Down” or Terry Frisk for weapons, as Ruffin appeared to be looking for an escape route for an opportunity to flee. Ruffin was informed by Officer Ochoa advised Ruffin he was not free to leave and was being detained. Officer Ochoa retrieved his handcuffs and attempted to place Ruffin in handcuffs to detain him, preventing him from running. Ruffin stiffened his arm and pulled away and a struggle ensued.

Ochoa was successful in placing Ruffin in handcuffs and radioed other officers to respond, and Ruffin was placed under arrest for Obstructing a Public Officer, N.C Gen Stat. 14-233 (Batterton, 2020). Ruffin’s person was searched Incident to Arrest and numerous denominations of $2,082.37 in U.S currency was recovered. The area underneath the wheelchair ramps was also searched and a white grocery bag and black sock were located. Hundreds of grams of cocaine, a digital scale, and other paraphernalia were contained within. Ruffin contested being charged with federal drug charges and sought to suppress the evidence. The court ruled that the Fourth Amendment was not violated during the detention throughout the incident. It was determined that Ruffin was formally detained when RAS was achieved to do so, subsequent to the initial Casual Encounter. The arrest was ruled to be lawful, including the subsequent search incident to arrest.

The impacts of this case is beneficial for police officers and will impact police administrators in several ways. General Orders (G.O.’s) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) will need updated and revised. In addition to policy changes, training standards and implementation will also have to take place in order to prepare officers for practical application. This is a difficult aspect of these changes that require a timely and thorough approach. In the case of Ruffin, there are four stages of Ruffin’s detention and distinctions as to what they mean for officers. The court ruled that stage one occurred when Officer Ochoa initially encountered Ruffin and began questioning. This is where Ochoa received consent to “Pat Down” Ruffin for weapons and did not initiate a “Terry Frisk” based on RAS as it was not required at this stage.

Stage two was the portion of the encounter where the court determined that a seizure occurred under the Fourth Amendment. This is when Officer Ochoa physically placed his hand on Ruffin to place him in handcuffs and verbally informed him he was being detained. The court ruled that there was sufficient RAS to detain Ruffin at this stage. Facts considered were the time of day, the location of Ruffin in reference to the original TFMV call, Ruffin being the only person in the area, Ruffin’s constructive possession of the CDS located underneath the wheelchair ramp where he was observed, Ruffin’s behavior exhibiting nervousness, and Ruffin’s deceit and physical separation from the wheelchair ramp where the CDS was located. These facts are important elements of the case law, as they will be the foundation of detention training. Some key points to note from stage two is that handcuffing does not elevate a detention into an arrest and was reasonable based on the circumstances and officer safety in this case.

Stage three involved the arrest of Ruffin for Obstructing a Public Officer, N.C Gen Stat. 14-233 (Batterton, 2020). The court ruled that Officer Ochoa had ample suspicion to detain Ruffin for the TFMV incident previously reported, Officer Ochoa verbally advised Ruffin he was being detained, and Ruffin physically struggled attempting to prevent being handcuffed. The key points of this stage for training is that Ruffin’s “resistance” to a lawful detention, authorized an arrest under the North Carolina Statute, Obstructing a Public Officer, N.C Gen Stat. 14-233 (Batterton, 2020). This is extremely important as it establishes that “resistance” of a lawful detention is considered a violation of the above statute. This statute is comparable to other state legislation, similar to Maryland’s obstructing and hindering law. This case is out of the Fourth Circuit which incorporates Maryland, setting precedent for and a groundwork for the judgement to Fourth Amendment standards.

Lastly, stage four was considered to be the search incident to arrest. To make it simple, the arrest was good, therefore, the search Incident to Arrest is good as well. This is a sound standard that has been established through judgements regarding the “Fruit of the Poisonous Tree”. There was nothing poisonous about this case and the ruling is actually fruitfully delicious. The search Incident to Arrest is a “warrantless exception” to the warrant requirement to recover evidence and weapons that may pose a threat to officer safety. The court addressed the “constructive possession” standard as well, in reference to the Incident to Arrest. This exception includes the search of the arrestee and the area within their immediate control (Batterton, 2020). In this case specifically, it was the area of the wheelchair ramp where Ruffin was observed bending down near. When implementing the training aspect of this stage, refresher training and re-emphasis on the important elements of the above topics should be addressed as well. Case law is rapidly changing and a daunting task for police administrators and trainers. It is important for command-level officers and leadership to be informed and well versed on changing trends, topics, and legislation. Creating a culture of experts and “practitioners” in policing is beneficial for the entire agency and profession as a whole.

2. Describe the relationship between the police agency/police administrator and the media. In what ways are there conflicts? In what ways are there partnerships?

The relationship between police agencies and the media, is solely based on police administrators and direction of the Chief of Police. Public Information Officers are assigned as the liaison between the police department and the media. The media comprises many representations of news, fiction, and entertainment, causing police sensitivity about their public image (Huey & Broll, 2012). The political ideology of the police department’s culture and the associations of the media outlet plays a huge role. Media outlets are overwhelming in favor of the left and at its core, democratic policing involves public involved decision making (Bonner, 2020). This is a dangerous realm as media outlets are businesses interested in making money, and will do so by any means. In order to make money, the media has to be entertaining and spark interest in their audience. Like the media, government administrations express views and make decisions reflective of political sacrifices in the interest of, essentially, the popular vote (Bonner 2020). What this means is, especially today, is that whatever is trendy or controversial, these stances will be taken whether the person or group actually believes in the message or not. This affects police-media relations and rightfully so, as it is compared to a “stormy marriage” or love-hate relationship (Huey & Broll, p.385, 2012).

There are positives and negatives involving the relationship between the media and police. The mass media portrayal of policing is extremely important, as media is the primary source of information to the public (Huey & Broll, 2012). Depending on how the police are portrayed in the news, movies, TV, and music, this is likely to influence public perception whether the information is accurate or not (Stefanovska, 2015). As a response, police agencies may exclude information to protect the integrity of investigations and police operations, or sometimes just to discourage the media, knowing the public has an insatiable desire for crime related stories (Huey & Broll, 2012). Without the police and providing the information, the business aspect of the media source is jeopardized. It is difficult to find a balance when the average of media publications contain ninety percent (90%) of articles containing discriminatory and unfair actions of police involving the public (Stefanovska, 2015). In recent years, this contemporary culture has exacerbated this stance and public viewpoint. The partnership is an unnecessary evil to promote a positive image and share information with the public. With social media and departments being selective of which media outlets information is shared, a balance can be made. Social media and the internet make it possible for police agencies to control the media release of information and become the sole proprietor of that information ( Live Press Releases, Website Releases, and use of PIO’s). Transparency occurs with the most current and factual information. This information is controlled solely by the agency to ensure the most accurate information is being shared and it is coming from the “horse’s mouth”. There is no business interest involved and depending on the political climate of the agency, it may very well allow for a fair assessment of the facts being disseminated.



Batterton, B. (2021). Fourth Circuit Discusses The Three Levels Of Officer Citizen Encounters – LLRMI – Training and Expert Services for Law Enforcement, Jails & Corrections, Insurance Pools, Risk Managers, and Attorneys. Retrieved July 12, 2021, from

Bonner, M. D. (2020). What Democratic Policing Is … And Is Not. Policing & Society, 30(9), 1044–1060.

Huey, L., & Broll, R. (2012). “All It Takes Is One TV Show to Ruin It”: a Police Perspective on Police-Media Relations in the Era of Expanding Prime Time Crime Markets. Policing & Society, 22(4), 384–396.

Stefanovska, V. (2015). The Image of the Police in the Printed Media. Balkan Social Science Review, 6, 75–91.

Classmate 3 Hannah: 1. Select a more recent Supreme Court decisions (less than 2 years old) that had a significant impact on law enforcement. What are the facts of the case and what are the impacts of the decision on the police administrator?

In the case, Lange v. California, Mr. Arthur Lange asserted that his Fourth Amendment right was violated by a California highway patrol member when the latter entered the former’s garage without a warrant, yet the First District Court of Appeals has ruled that the search was legal because the officer demonstrated their intent to investigate while Mr. Lange was still on public property and the officer had probable cause. When a Mr. Lange was observed driving his vehicle while behaving in an eradicate manner, the highway patrol member pursued the car and signaled for Mr. Lange to pull over by turning on the overhead lights. Mr. Lange refused to pull over, and instead proceeded to drive to his home garage. When both parties arrived at the house, the patrol member entered the suspect’s garage where they observed indications that Mr. Lange was under the influence, and so a field sobriety test was initiated. After Mr. Lange failed the field test, the patrol member noticed that there were containers of alcohol in the vehicle, and Mr. Lange was put under arrest for driving under the influence and another misdemeanor related to his loud music.

This case is of importance in how it relates to the balance between a police officer’s pursuit of justice and a civilians’s right to privacy and protection from undue searches. Mr. Lange and his attorney called upon the ruling of another Court case, United States v. Santana, in which Ms. Santana was arrested within her private residence after attempting to retreat into her home when she realized the individuals she was selling heroin to were undercover officers (1976). As a result of Ms. Santana entering into a sale of heroin from her doorway, which was deemed by the Court to be a public space, and the officers had begun the arrest prior to Ms. Santana’s withdrawal into the house, the officers acted under “hot pursuit,” and so the arrest was justified. Mr. Lange argued that Ms. Santana was being arrested for a felony whereas he was only being charged with a misdemeanor, and he should therefore fall outside of the range of the “hot pursuit” doctrine (Crabb Brown James Team, 2021). Ultimately, the Court did not decide to bind the “hot pursuit” doctrine to a specific category of crime, but instead purported that the following need to occur for a legal warrantless arrest on private property: 1. the police officer’s expression of intent to pursue and/or investigate a suspect while both parties are still in a public space; 2. a failure on the suspect’s part to adhere to or acknowledge the lawful orders of the police officer; 3. the officer pursues the suspect into their private residence in “hot pursuit” (meaning reason to believe violence and/or destruction of evidence will follow if a warrant must first be administered) (CBJ Team, 2021).

The Lange v. California ruling allows for police officers to be more flexible while also requiring them to be booksmart – in keeping up with recent cases such as this one and knowing how it affects their job – and also to be able to critically analyze each scenario as they are presented. It is imperative that police officers maintain a firm grip on legal literature so that they can justly uphold the balance between order and privacy. Moreover, to be able to apply such rulings in the plethora of scenarios that a member is faced with is a necessity. Meaning, law enforcement officers need not only be up to date on the most recent rulings, but thoroughly conceptualize the laws so that they can aptly apply them in their everyday life.

CBJ Team. (2021 March 02). Case Watch: Lange v. California – Supreme Court Revisits the Hot Pursuit Doctrine.Crabb Brown James.

Lange v. California, 20 U.S. 18 (2021).

United States v. Santana, 427 U.S. 38 (1976).

2. Describe the relationship between the police agency/police administrator and the media. In what ways are there conflicts? In what ways are there partnerships?

Police agencies and the press have utilized one another over the years, and the advancements in technology over the past several decades has resulted in the creation of a position within the police department: the Public Information Officer (PIO). Motschall and Cao speak of an PIO’s role as being “designed to inform the media and the general public about agency operations, events, and activities,” (2002, p. 153). The PIO is a liaison of sorts between the police department and the news media. The police and the news media are described by Kääriäinen, Isotalus, and Thomassen (2016) as being engaged in a mutually beneficial relationship, which allows for the news to be pumped full of highly entertaining stories of criminals while shining the police in the image that they seek for public approval. Further into their survey, the authors found that news coverage of a case of police misconduct does not have sway over the individual’s perception, but that the news sources (which tends to be related to an individual’s political party) may have a much stronger pull. This makes sense, as news outlets, regardless of whether they claim to be unbiased and fair, tend to cater to one of the two largest political parties of the United States or the other. And so, the individual consuming the coverage has already subscribed to a biased retelling of the scenario, and a spin that matches the individual’s perception of the world will be included. Therefore, those more concerned with safety will be relieved by accounts relating to police officers being tough on crime, whereas their counterparts who are more concerned with human rights will be more and more disturbed with the state of the police (Fine, Rowan & Simmons, 2019). With this in mind, it is understandable that there would be instances of both partnership and conflict within the relationship between police agencies and the news media, as the consumers of the media will usually already have a preconceived idea of a policing failure or success. Furthermore, while these news media sources are catering to their intended audience, the story will be sensationalized either way. Such an example of this occurring can be found in the aftermath of George Floyd’s death. News media outlets on both sides of the political spectrum acknowledged that George Floyd should not have been killed, and rioting and looting is criminal, yet what was focused on most often depended on the political affiliation of the news source (Phillips, 2020). Thus, those who lean more conservative were supportive of the police officers who were fighting against the burning of cities, while those who lean more liberal were angered and distraught over the killing of an innocent man. Even with the same overall story being covered, there are both instances of partnership and conflict between police agencies and the news media.

Fine, A., Rowan, Z., & Simmons, C. (2019). Do politics Trump race in determining America’s youths’ perceptions of law enforcement? Journal of Criminal Justice, 61, 48-57.

Kääriäinen, J., Isotalus P. & Thomassen, G. (2016). Does public criticism Erode trust in the police? The case of Jari Aarnio in the Finnish news media and its effects on the public’s attitudes toward the police. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology & Crime Prevention, 17(1), 70-85.

Motschall, M. & Cao, L. (2002). An analysis of the public relations role of the police public information officer. Police Quarterly, 5(2), 152-180.

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go the the following link and read the essay by Carl Sagan entitled A New Way To Think About Rules To Live By

Afterward, please write an essay addressing the following questions.

1.Which rule(s) do you live by personally? Give specific examples of how you apply the rules you identified in your life. Why do you choose these rules over others? Defend your personal position with sound reasoning.

2. Red Corp hires you to consult on an ethical issue they are facing. Red Corp recently discovered that its customer database has been hacked and published online, along with the customer database of its biggest competitor, Blue Corp. Red Corp had no prior knowledge of or involvement with the hacking until a Red Corp employee stumbled upon the files published on the internet and brought it to the attention of Red Corp management.

Red Corp has no idea how the files were hacked and published, or by whom. Obviously, since Blue Corp’s customer database is also published online, Red Corp doesn’t believe that Blue Corp had anything to do with the hacking (i.e. it appears Blue Corp was a victim to the same hacking as Red Corp).

Red Corp doesn’t know if Blue Corp knows about the databases online yet. Red Corp believes that if Blue Corp knew about it, Blue Corp would almost certainly use Red Corp’s customer information against Red Corp (i.e. try to steal Red Corp’s customers). Red Corp checked its account activity over the last quarter, and there doesn’t appear to be any unusual changes in business, so it is unlikely that Blue Corp knows about the databases (yet). Red Corp has begun the legal process of petitioning for its database to be removed from the internet, but the process is expected to take at least a few weeks because of the information rights issues involved.

What do you advise Red Corp to do? Tell Blue Corp about the databases online, and hope they will agree to a mutual good faith non-use of competitor information? Use Blue Corp’s database and go after Blue Corp’s customers, in anticipation that Blue Corp will likely do the same eventually? Ignore it and hope that Blue Corp doesn’t find it? Something else? On which of the rule(s) discussed in the Sagan essay do you base your recommendations, and why?

3. Suppose that Red Corp decides to use the database, and begins under-bidding Blue Corp and taking its customers. Witnessing this, Blue Corp investigates and discovers the customer databases (both Blue Corp’s and Red Corp’s) online. If Blue Corp does nothing, it believes that Red Corp will continue to steal customers. Blue Corp hires you to consult on a response. What do you advise Blue Corp to do? Retaliate? Ignore the information and the attack by Red Corp? Something else? On which of the rule(s) discussed in the Sagan essay do you base your recommendations, and why?

4. Did you rely on the same rules in your advice to question #1 and #2?

If you did, can you think of a different set of circumstances in which you would have given different advice (and relied on different rules)?

If you did not, why not? How were these situations different such that the difference caused you to change your basis of morality?

IMPORTANT NOTE: For the sake of these questions, you may assume that the published customer databases cannot be removed from the internet, and that law enforcement cannot help. While in reality, these options would be perfectly reasonable, they aren’t relevant to the purpose of the assignment.

Submission Instructions:

This assignment should at a minimum contain 2,000 words of content (double spaced). Word count does not include headings, cover pages, references, or question text (if you choose to include it in your paper); I am looking for 2,000 words of substance. Your paper should be in APA format including a properly formatted cover page (abstracts are optional) and a reference page with at least three (3) NEW references (“new” here means references that you have not already used in previous assignments in this course). Providing additional references to your assignments demonstrates your desire to conduct additional research on the topic area, and can improve your research skills.

With all assignments, include properly formatted in-text citations within the body of your work for each of your listed references so the reader can ascertain your original thoughts or ideas as well as the portion of your work that is credited to credible sources. It is very important to identify work from other sources to ensure that proper credit is provided to researchers in the field. This assignment uses Turn It In for originality verification.

Submit the weekly written assignment as an MS Word attachment (.doc or .docx format). A recommended font is 12pt Times New Roman. DO NOT include discussion board answers with your formally written assignment submission

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Issues of Sex and Gender in Society Today

Identify an issue that is facing our society today that is in some way related to sex and/or gender and has opposing sides. Consider a law that was recently put into or taken out of effect or is being debated. You could also look to the statements or actions of a public figure or organization that has generated significant attention from the media. The issue you select should have ample material from which you may pull to gain insight into the details surrounding it. Feel free to email your instructor if you would like to verify that an issue is appropriate or if you would like some suggestions as to what you could cover.

Explore multiple sides of the issue you have selected until you have a good understanding as to why each side believes it is right. Research the historical events that have caused the circumstances of this issue. Engage in discussions with others who have strong feelings about the issue to learn the reasons why they feel they way they do.

Make sure you research both sides thoroughly as your goal with this paper will be to write it in a manner that does not allow the reader to know which side of the issue that you are on. You will not be condoning or condemning either side- your goal is to be as objective as possible in reviewing the issue you select.

Construct a 1,000-1,250 word essay that demonstrates your understanding of the following:

  • The issue that you have identified (a concise synopsis of what the issue is)
  • Historical context (previous events in history that have contributed to the rise of the issue)
  • Both sides of the current argument (provide an objective review- the reader should not know which side of the issue that you personally are on)

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The case study link is provided below for the Case Study 1. Read and study the case and complete the questions at the end of the study. Use the case study outline below to assist you with your analysis. Questions should be answered using case study format. Ensure that you adequately explain the problem, describe alternative solutions and justify your recommendation. This exercise should be able to be completed in approximately 3-6 doubled space pages. Attached completed Case Study #1 as a MS Word document in the assignment area of the classroom – Case Study #1.

Case Study 1

Case Study Outline (see Outline for Case Analysis below)

Title Page (APA formatted)
Case Name:
I. Major Facts
(State here the major facts as you see them. Make statements clear and concise for your own understanding as well as for the understanding of the other students and the instructor.)
II. Major Problem
(State here the major problem as you see it. Emphasize the present major problem. You may wish to phrase your statement in the form of a question. In a few cases, there may be more than one major problem. A good problem statement will be concise, usually only one sentence.)
III. Possible Solutions
A. (List here the possible solutions to the major problem. Let your imagination come up with alternative ways to solve the problem.
B. Do not limit yourself to only one or two possible solutions. These solutions should be distinct from each other.
C. However, you may wish to include portions of one solution in another solution, as long as each solution stands alone. Only in this manner will your subsequent choice be definitive.
D. Briefly note advantages and disadvantages of each possible solution.)
IV. Choice and Rationale
(State here your choice, A or B or ___ and the detailed reasons for your choice. You may also state your reasons for not choosing the other alternative solutions.)
V. Implementation
(Prepare a plan to implement your choice)
Appendix (Answer case study questions)
Reference Page (APA formatted)

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Directions: Answer the following questions in detail after reading Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl. Make sure that you: answer each question completely, that you use grammatically correct sentences, and number each of your answers, so there is no confusion. You may use passages and text from the reading to support your answers. If you do so, make sure to use the MLA format so that you do not get into trouble with plagiarism.

1.) Explain in detail, even though Harriet Jacobs is in love with a “free” African-American man, why does she not choose to marry him and start a family with him, as she desires?

2.) Explain in detail, why do you think that Jacobs decided to have children with Mr. Sands? Explain in detail.

3.) Do you think that Mr. Sands took advantage of, or “used,” Harriet Jacobs? Explain in detail.

4.) Do you think that Jacobs took advantage of, or “used,” Mr. Sands in anyway? Explain in detail.

5.) Even though it is true that Jacobs’ master Dr. Flint never sexually assaulted Jacobs, would you consider him to be a pedaphile by our standards today in 2021? Explain in detail and cite examples from the text to help support your answers.

1.) Explain in detail, why did Harriet Jacobs increasingly desire to escape from her master Dr. Flint, despite the fact that he offered to build a private cabin for her?

2.) In what ways did Jacobs use her education and her intelligence to literally, and figuratively, attain freedom from Dr. Flint? Explain in detail.

3.) In what ways could Jacobs’ autobiography be considered a work of early American feminism? Explain in detail.

4.) What effect do you think Jacobs hopes her words will have upon the reader of her autobiography? Explain in detail.

5.) Do you think there are still relevant and important messages in Jacobs’ autobiography today in 2020? Explain in detail. a. ) Please share your feelings thoughts and impressions of Jacobs’ autobiography.

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Your Weeks 5 and 6 assignment is to create a PowerPoint slide presentation due at the end of Week 6.  If you are at all rusty with creating PowerPoint Presentations, here are two YouTube resources that can help you get started.  You can also access some excellent tutorials at GCFGlobal.

PowerPoint Beginners Guide

10 Powerful PowerPoint Tips

Microsoft PowerPoint: Intermediate/Advanced Tips

Begin by researching another product in which you have an interest. Look for a product (Apple Imac) for which you can find an online resource that provides some insight into the flow of materials to make this product. Then, create a PowerPoint presentation that instructs your audience on the functions involved with and the controls needed to manage the material flow for this product. Your PowerPoint presentation should include the following:

1. A minimum of 15 slides (more will be needed for better detail and a better grade.)
2. A template appropriate to Materials Management
3. An introductory slide that informs your audience of the subject
4. Art, photographs, clip art, tables, charts, and/or graphics to enhance every slide.  ALWAYS include a source citation for all artwork you upload from online.
5. Your slides should refer to a minimum of 3 references. Cite and reference (on the last page) according to APA 7
6. Use bullet lists, not lengthy paragraphs
7. Insert the speaker’s notes at the bottom of each page to expand on and explain your main points in each slide.  You may also insert an audio narration for each slide instead of the speaker’s noes. Use bullet lists for these notes to make for easier following during the presentation.
8. Include a summation slide as the next to last slide.  This summation should tell your audience the main take-away points you want them to remember.  This is one of the most important slides in your presentation, spend some time thinking through what you want your audience to remember from your presentation.
9. The last slide is for references, include a minimum of three authoritative resources you have used and cited to support your main points

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Terrorism is not a new threat to the citizens of the United States or other nations. For this Module’s discussion post provide an assessment of the evolution of terrorism in relation to the threats the United States confronts today. Your discussion should include historical examples of terrorism as a tactic, changes in terrorist motivations over time, what you think are the key events that shape the threat faced today.  Make sure you support your analysis with both the required readings and at least one outside source.  these sources should be cited in proper APA stay and reference included.


TITLE: Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues 7th Edition AUTHOR: Martin, GusPUBLISHER: Sage PublicationsDATE: 2020ISBN: 978-1544375861

Post 1

The United States Department of Homeland Security was awoken by the devastating and long-lasting effects of the 9/11 attacks. This attack not only shook our nation but the entire world. The United States efforts and abilities to prevent foreign-origin attacks against our homeland is unmatched across the globe. As a nation, we face evolving and increasingly complicated threats of terrorism and targeted violence. The Department of Homeland Security remains focused on combatting foreign terrorist organizations that intend to or carry out attacks that strike our homeland directly or by inspiring susceptible individuals to become radicalized. We must initially confront the evolving challenges by building upon existing practices developed against foreign terrorist threats; identify promising new approaches; and develop a strategic vision that provides a more integrative approach to preventing terrorism and targeted violence that originates on or near our homeland. The Department of Homeland Security must further adapt to the evolving threats, overall enhancing the safety of our nation.

The United States often experiences incidents of mass homicides that are perpetrated by individuals who usually enter a venue or facility and shoot victims at random, using high-powered firearms such as assault rifles and high-caliber handguns. Most of these individuals are lone-wolf terrorist or have no political profile. The United States as a whole faces threats of, State Terrorism; Dissident Terrorism; Religious Terrorism; Ideological Terrorism; International Terrorism; Criminal Dissident Terrorism; and Gender Selective Terrorism.

Individual profiles, group dynamics. Political environments, and social processes are at the center of the unknown explanation as to why people and groups adopt fringe beliefs and engage in terrorist behavior. Social movements and traumatic events have been identified as two sources of terrorism. However, it is important to note that not all extremists become terrorist, but all terrorists are motivated by extremist beliefs. Motives behind terrorist behavior can include a range of factors. One of them being moral motivation, which is an unambitious conviction of the righteousness of one’s cause. Terrorists believe that they principles of their movement remain questionably sound. A second motive is the simplification of notions of good and evil, when terrorist presume that their cause and methods are completely justifiable because their opponents represent inveterate evil. Their plan is fully developed, there is no room for missing detail. A third factor is the adoption of utopian ideals by terrorist, whereby an idealized end justifies the use of violence. The fourth motive is critical to understanding terrorist behavior; it is the development of codes of self-sacrifice, when an ingrained belief system forms the basis for a terrorist’s lifestyle and conduct. Overall, these factors for a useful theoretical foundation for describing explaining terrorist motives.

Assassination is a tactic that is used by mostly all terrorist organizations; however, they occur mush less frequently than other types of armed attacks. Assassination, as a terrorist tactic is defined as the targeted killing of a country’s public officials or individuals who represent the political, economic, military or security, social, religious or media establishments. The killings are usually motivated by politics or nationalism. Most assassinations occur to eliminate enemies, decrease government power, attract media attention, gain public opinions or for harsh revenge. Another example of terrorism as a tactic would be, hijacking. There have been many incidents, 9/11 included, where hostile actors have gained access to operational vehicles and used them to set forth their deadly attacks. The bombing at Peral Harbor, is also an example of a historical terrorist tactic to caused uproar in the United States and for our armed forces. Tactics that domestic terrorist use focus on using weapons such as firearms, explosives, vehicles, devices that hostile actors can gain access into.

Our nation has committed various resources to national security and to countering terrorism. Throughout the United States history, there have been incidents that have shaped the threats we still face today. One of the biggest threats is that our homeland is still being invaded by outside forces. Although all attacks have impacted our nation, the attack on 9/11 is the key event that changed our country and has one of the biggest contributions to the threats we face today. The United States faces a constant threat of terrorism and targeted violence. Foreign terrorist organizations remain intent on striking our homeland either through directed attacks or by inspiring susceptible individuals located in the United States. Domestic actors and violent extremist are the biggest threat that will affect our nation long into the future. Every incident that has hit our nation has contributed to the threat that we face today. As our preventative measures along with investing in programs and efforts continuously enhance our security, hostile actors are also making many advancements to their systems and tactics. The challenges facing our Nation are significant, but through a whole-of-society approach that empowers our citizens and our state, local, tribal, and territorial authorities, as well as our private sector, non-governmental, and community leaders, the Department of Homeland Security will continue to adapt ahead of evolving threats and will enhance the safety of our Nation. Although the threat will always remain, our nation must continue to stop on top and remain as resilient as it is known to be.

Dhs public action plan to implement strategic framework for countering terrorism and targeted violence (cttv framework). (2021, February 05). Retrieved April 09, 2021, from…

The terrorist threat confronting the United States. (2002, February 06). Retrieved September 09, 2021, from…

Martin, G. (2021). Understanding terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Second Response post

The threat of terrorism is continuously changing. The history of terrorism can be traced back to the time of the Sicarii Zealots, in which the word is derived from the latin word “sica,” meaning “dagger.” The Zealots used daggers to murder individuals in large crowds, which differs from terrorism as we know it to be today. The Sicarii targeted other Jewish people who they believed to be allied with Romans during the first century. Terror was recognized more widely in 1795 in reference to the Reign of Terror, “with civil war spreading from the Vendée and hostile armies surrounding France on all sides, the Revolutionary government decided to make ‘Terror’ the order of the day… and to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (nobles, priests, and hoarders)” (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1998). Here, the guillotine was widely used and further promoted terror. The video linked to our course assignments this week also mentions the four waves of modern terrorism, the Anarchist Wave, Anti-Colonial Wave, New Left Wave, and the Religious Wave. Terrorism during the Anarchist Wave focused on nationalism, which began in the 1880s. The first terrorist groups focused on revolution and destroying conventions (Rapoport, 2002, p. 5). Overtime, organizations associated with each wave of terrorism would subsequently lack and the wave would typically last longer than the reign of a given organization. The present wave, based on religion, began with the Iranian Revolution and eventually led to the Soviet Union pulling out of Afghanistan. This wave also led to an influx in suicide bombing and from this, Al Qaeda was founded around 1988 to do away with non-Islamic governments (Inside the Terror Network: Al Qaeda, n.d.). Terrorism is often a tactic used to change a given policy and implement fear, as discussed previously on the discussion board. David Rapoport expands on the four waves of terrorism in “The Four Waves of Rebel Terror and September 11,” states, “Jewish terrorists attempted to blow up Islam’s most sacred shrine in Jerusalem and waged an assassination campaign against Palestinian mayors. One religious settler murdered 29 worshippers in Abraham’s tomb (Hebron, 1994) and a fundamentalist assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Rabin (1995)” (Rapoport, 2002, p. 11). Today, there is a significant change in how acts of terror are carried out. Domestic terrorism is recognized and brought to attention by the media, in which, oftentimes, acts of domestic terrorism in the United States are carried out by individual terrorists. According to the FBI, “The threat of domestic terrorism also remains persistent overall, with actors crossing the line from exercising First Amendment-protected rights to committing crimes in furtherance of violent agendas” (Terrorism, n.d.). This is a change as well, as the history of terrorism, as mentioned, indicates that terrorist attacks are often carried out by groups or larger organizations. In support of this, “In the contemporary world, we can also observe a second type of terrorist, who does not act under the direction or authority of an organized group. Referred to as lone actors or lone wolves, they may share the ideology of a terrorist group to which they do not belong and with which they have not had direct physical contact” (Weissman et al 2014). Ideologies and concerns brought forth by lone terrorists are prevalent, which we also see more frequently in domestic terrorism and mass shootings in today’s modern world.


Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (n.d.). Reign of Terror. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 18, 2021, from

FBI. (2016, May 3). Terrorism. FBI. Retrieved September 18, 2021, from

Public Broadcasting Service. (n.d.). Al Qaeda – Inside the Terror Network. PBS. Retrieved September 18, 2021, from

Rapoport, D.C. (2002). The Four Waves of Rebel Terror and September 11.

Weissman, S. H., Busch, K. G., & Schouten, R. (2014). Introduction to this issue: The Evolution of Terrorism From 1914 to 2014. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 32(3), 259–262.

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GOAL: Create the initial element of your Business Model Generation—your business Model Canvas. 

Introduction: Using the Osterwalder and Pigneur Business Model Canvas as a resource (coupled with the other resources of the course), create a business model canvas of the business organization where you work. Since every organization has unique features, do your best to work at the application of the various components of the building blocks of the canvas. Show as much detail as you can so that it is evident that you comprehend the general business model of your organization. There must be a demonstration of synthesis of the procedure on your part. You may need to interview some of the management team to verify the business model details of your organization. You may also benefit from conducting an Internet search of the Business Model Canvas to become comfortable with how it works. There are many other YouTube-type videos on the web that demonstrate the use of the canvas. You will also find several good sources in the Lessons area of the course under the Reading and Resources tab of weeks 1 and 2.

Instructions: Your submittal this week will be considered as a “draft” that should consist of:

1. A Cover page that provides a general description of your organization/business:

Name of the organization (preferably your present organization/business)

Date of origination (or incorporation)

Location (as appropriate; some entities require discretion)

Brief overview of the purpose of the organization/business

Description of your relationship and role in the organization/business

Other details that enable fuller explanation (if applicable)

2. Business Model Canvas with Post-It notes (as seen in the examples). You have three options for the submission of your canvas: 

  • You may download and use the blank PowerPoint canvas with electronic Post-Its to create your canvas, or
  • You may create a Word.doc that lists the nine building blocks (clearly identify each one) and uses bulleted points in the same manner as Post-Its. 
  • Creation of your post-its via the following web-help site, and then submission of the resulting URL for the finished canvas. (Canvanizer)

3. Create a memo (no particular format, but neatly presented) that describes what you learned about your organization/business as a result of creating the business model canvas.

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Answer Initial Discussion question 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 Words each

Initial Question: When reading Article I of the Constitution you learned or reviewed, about Congressional authority with regard to the Commerce Clause, the General Welfare (Spending) Clause, taxing authority, treaty power, War Powers, Article III Courts and the Necessary and Proper Clause.

We could spend many weeks on just Article I, but we focused your attention on the Commerce Clause and Gonzales v Oregon.

For you initial discussion post discuss:

1) What was the ruling in the case and how did the Commerce Clause impact the case?

2) Do you agree with the court’s ruling? Why or why not?

3) Does this ruling close the door to federal regulation of of physician suicide? Should we have such regulation?

Classmate 1 Rocquieh: Professor and Class,

This week we had the privilege of looking into Congressional authority:

What was the ruling in the case and how did the Commerce Clause impact the case?

In the case Gonzales v Oregon, the attorney general believed that under the Controlled Substances Act it gave them authorization to ban the use of controlled substances for physician assisted suicide. The Court held that Congress intended the CSA to prevent doctors only from being illicit drug dealers, not to define general standards of state medical practice[1]. The Commerce Clause of the US Constitution empowers Congress to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution’ its authority to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States. The Commerce Clause impacted this case because unlike in Raich the medicinal drugs are not being grown and have the chance of being considered intrastate commerce. However, they have most likely been intrastate commerce since they are produced in a pharmaceutical plant and travel to the facility for distribution. It is all a bit confusing.

Do you agree with the court’s ruling? Why or why not?

As for the ruling in my opinion Justice Thomas said it best in his dissent. The majority in Gonzales v. Raich employed unambiguous language, concluding that the “manner” in which controlled substances can be utilized “for medicinal purposes” is one of the “core activities regulated by the CSA And, it described the CSA as “creating a comprehensive framework for regulating the production, distribution, and possession of … ‘controlled substances,’ including those substances that ‘have a useful and legitimate medical purpose,’ in order to foster the beneficial use of those medications and to prevent their misuse[2]. These doctors like the ones in California are using drugs for medicinal purposes to help their patient whether it is the same reasons is invalid. I believe the Court used judicial activism instead of restraint in this case.

Does this ruling close the door to federal regulation of of physician suicide? Should we have such regulation?

I do not believe this ruling is going to close the door to federal regulation of physician assisted suicide because as laws are changing across the country in relations to drugs such as marijuana, that will come with new rules and regulations and as we talked about in week 1 judicial activism is very present in how laws are interpreted. I believe there should be a limit to how much regulation goes into medical regulations. I know if I had a family member or even myself in a position where medicinal drugs were the only saving grace, I would not want the Court to decide that its not allowed if my doctor who is the medical professional says that is what is best.


[1] Gonzales v. Oregon, Oyez, (last visited May 10, 2021).

[2] Id.C

Classmate 2 Adam: Greetings Classmates and welcome to my week 2 forum posting. This week we are covering another interesting case, Gonzales vs Oregon and the involvement of the Commerce Clause. There is a lot of background information here to cover before we dive head first into the questions, so lets get into it.

First to give you a little background information, the Gonzales vs Oregon was essentially a challenge to a 1994 ruling where the Oregon electorate voted to legalize physician-assisted suicide under certain circumstances. The Oregon Death With Dignity Act (ODWDA) permits licensed physicians to dispense and prescribe a lethal dose of drugs to patients with incurable and irreversible diseases calculated to result in death within six months under the exercise of reasonable medical judgment. Following enactment of the ODWDA, several members of Congress advocated DEA prosecution of physicians who engaged in assisted suicide practice, arguing that even if permitted under state law, such conduct violated the Controlled Substance Act (CSA).

The challenge to this in 2006 came in the form of Gonzales vs Oregon in which the Court found that the Attorney General not only lacked legal authority to regulate medical practice but concluded that, if anything, the CSA denied him the very power he claimed.

Now to move on a bit, how did the Commerce Clause effect this case? Well, The Commerce Clause technically refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the states, and the Native American Tribal lands”.

This case essentially sheds light on how the Supreme Court approaches controversies involving the exercise of power by federal agencies operating under the Commerce Clause powers. Despite the wide range of Congressional power, the Commerce Clause provides, the Court heavily scrutinizes the legal basis federal agencies try to claim using the literal claims to act. In Oregon v. Gonzales, the Court found that the Attorney General not only lacked legal authority to regulate medical practice but concluded that the CSA actually denied him power he claimed

I do at the end of the day agree with the courts ruling on the case because the ruling in the opposite direction would have hit a lot of doctors with negative impacts when their literal state law allowed what they were doing. I am always in support at handling at the lowest level first, and if the state voted in support, then treat that state independently and allow the item they passed by public majority.

It was essentially stated in case notes that the doctor patient relationship was determined by the lower courts to be an item that was perhaps just beyond the reach of congressional power under the Commerce Clause. In the courts view, they decided that they should not presume that federal law was intended to reach into such relationships unless that intent was clearly stated in the applicable legislation, which it was not.

If my understanding is correct, this does not close the door to federal regulation of assisted suicide because Congress can still make up more specific federal law to specifically address this issue.

Thank you for reading,

Adam T.

Classmate 3 Sherron: Good morning, In Gonzales v. Oregon, the Supreme Court addressed whether the Controlled Substance Act allowed the Attorney General to prohibit the prescription of regulated drugs for physician-assisted suicide in the face of a state law permitting such a prescription. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted in 1970 to create a comprehensive uniform national scheme for regulating the manufacture, distribution, and dispensation of various chemicals and substances[1]. The CSA creates five schedules of controlled substances to allow each to be regulated at a different level. Initially, Congress prescribed a number of specific substances are included within the scheduling system, and delegated to the Attorney General the power, via rulemaking authority, to add substances to a schedule, transfer substances between schedules, and remove substances from a schedule[2].

In 1994, the State of Oregon legalized assisted suicide when voters, through a ballot measure, approved the Oregon Death with Dignity Act (ODWDA)[3]. ODWDA exempts from civil or criminal liability physicians who dispense or prescribe a lethal dose of drugs to terminally ill patients under specific safeguards[4]. The drugs used by physicians under ODWDA, while not specified in the Act itself, are regulated under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), which restricts the availability of certain drugs for medically accepted uses only[5].

In Gonzales v. Oregon, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Attorney General’s Interpretive Rule was invalid because it was outside of the scope of his authority delegated by Congress. This ruling shed light on how broad the Commerce Clause is about the Constitutional power of Congress. In this case, physician-assisted suicide in Oregon did not involve the cultivation or trade of a controlled substance. The Court concluded this activity was non-economic in nature and therefore outside the reach of Congress’s Commerce Clause authority.

In my opinion, the Courts handled this case properly. Congress clearly did not pass the CSA to stop physician-assisted suicide; rather, Congress passed the CSA to address the growing illicit drug problem in the United States. Thus, under this reading, the Attorney General’s actions were not permissible because he stepped outside the bounds of his authority by issuing a ruling that used the CSA to serve a function other than that for which Congress intended the legislation, an approach that finds written support in the decision.

The ruling does not close the door to federal regulation of physician-assisted suicide. I believe this case opened the doors to further laws or regulations that will override the state’s laws, like the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, to prevent assisted suicide. Oregon put in many safeguards to ensure that assisted suicide was the last option. We should have a form of regulation to ensure that assisted suicide is not being abused or used as a quick fix instead of attempting palliative care.

[1] Scott Gast, Who Defines “Legitimate Medical Practice?” Lessons Learned From the Controlled Substances Act, Physician-Assisted Suicide, & Oregon v. Ashcroft, Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law (2002)

[2] Gonzales v. Oregon, 126 S. Ct. 904, 911 (2006).

[3] Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act (ORS 127.800-897)

[4] Gonzales v. Oregon, 126 S. Ct. 904, 911 (2006).

[5] Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act (ORS 127.800-897)

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Submit your complete marketing plan, to include the distribution channels, promotional strategy, and marketing strategy (see Lesson 5). Include a justification narrative of your choices. Assignment based off of ‘Sit Means Sit’ dog training franchise, located in t subarb of Chicago.

References to complete:……

(Promotional Strategy Categories of promotional channels organize customers into groups based on their readiness to explore a new concept or product. The special deals and offers I plan to implement to secure new customers and retain old customers. The ‘Sit Means Sit’ franchise is a reputable dog training company, while considering the success of the franchise is based on the overall success rate of the training process. This means that the management of the company will have to continue to develop promotional messages which are distinct and applicable to each of the following; advertising, in store marketing, coupons & discounts, loyalty marketing, sampling, and social media.

In the social media strategy, the promotional message will be through videos in some of the most prevalent channels, such as Instagram, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter. This message will explain the use of technology as the most innovative and advanced method of training dogs. The rationale for this message and the used channel is the fact that knowledge is the initial phase in the proliferation of innovation (Sun & Jeyaraj, 2013). This is the stage at which the prospective adopter first becomes introduced to the invention itself. They do not have adequate details to reach a buying decision on and have not yet been motivated sufficiently to seek more. At this point, I will aim to improve product awareness and provide appropriate information for the potential target market to seek my business over competitors.

The marketing department will highlight, in detail, the benefits of using the product in both videos and print media. The benefits included in the promotional message will consist of faster training, the ability to monitor performance, and living an overall better quality of life. Its rationale is that it is the persuasion of properly using social media to promote, is when the potential customer is responsive to the product, which generates a positive reputation and reviews. As the company grows and word continues to spread amongst the community, there would be a deliberate attempt to market the idea to police and search and rescue task forces.)

(Marketing Strategy First, as a franchise, I have always had the intent to use the marketing vehicles strategy. By doing this, I will get able to perform face to face marketing of our dog training services offered. Reaching the customers in their areas will help a lot since I plan to deliver our information to the customers’ eyes, while conducting business or errands. The main reason for deciding to choose this strategy, is because of the advantage of bringing the target audience to you. Even though the process may be unnoticed at first, it creates a positive relationship with the community, giving the customers the opportunity to feel free to inquire myself or employees about information. Furthermore, many people may having trouble finding a reliable company, of become curious of the idea of where to access our information online through digital devices. Therefore, the vehicle marketing plan will help me educate potential customers about not only our eye catching logo, but also allowing them to visually see the company’s domain name. Lastly, the face to face marketing strategy will also be a priority of mine, establishing relationships and credibility. To run and maintain your business, it is essential to focus on the relationship with your customers and the community you operate in. By coming into contact with your customers, you can gain clients, submitting positive reviews, quickly generating revenue. Building a positive reputation will lead to trust and build a solid foundation from the start. It is more often than not true that most people put their trust in the person who they have already established a relationship with.)

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Answer Primary post question 250 words each. Respond to 3 Classmate 250 words each.

Primaary Post: Also remember these comprise what is referred to as the “primary post”, i.e., these should be posted in a single post with one response on top of the other. Each should be numbered to clearly show where the response to #1 ends and the response to #2 starts.

  1. What are some of the common organizational barriers to the communications process? Who is responsible for removing these barriers? Why so?
  2. Defend whether or not citizen oversight committees have had a positive impact on law enforcement, to include police accountability. As part of your response briefly include common pitfalls related to citizen led oversight committees of law enforcement and your solutions for avoiding those pitfalls.

Classmate 1 Max: What are some of the common organizational barriers to the communications process? Who is responsible for removing these barriers? Why so?

The communications process seems particularly susceptible to obstruction; while the nature of these barriers are varied, organizational ones can be significant and difficult to overcome. ThrouDefend whether or not citizen oversight committees have had a positive impact on law enforcement, to include police accountability. As part of your response briefly include common pitfalls related to citizen led oversight committees of law enforcement and your solutions for avoiding those pitfalls.

Due to current events and social sentiments, Citizen Oversight Committees have gained a significant amount of awareness with the public, but in truth they’ve been a tool for government accountability for almost 100 years. Though stood up sporadically over the years, they quicklu gained traction in the world of police accountability. For example, in 1980 there were 13 oversight agencies established and by 2000 there were more than 100 situated in almost every large city in the United States (Walker, 2001). That being said, not all oversight systems operate the same. Generally speaking, there are four main types: citizens investigating allegations of police misconduct and then recommending a finding to the head of the agency; officers investigate allegations, develop findings, and then the citizens review and recommend that the head of the agency approve or reject the findings; complainants appeal findings already reached by the agency and citizens review the appeals and make recommendations to the head of the agency; and an auditor investigates the process an agency uses and completes a report that is presented to the agency and community. Any of these formats may be followed, or even a combination of several, depending on the setup of each committee (Finn, 2000).

That all being said, do they work? It seems an unfortunate reality that any oversight committee will be viewed as a contentious and threatening prospect to police officers because with these committees come the potential of harsher punishments and anti-police members. While the current social climate certainly lends credence to those beliefs it’s important to remember that many law enforcement administrators have observed several positive outcomes from having oversight committees implemented in their agency. For example, they’ve found that it improves buy-in from the community and the agency’s image; the quality of a department’s internal affairs investigations; and even the amending of policies and procedures. The recurring theme seemed to be that citizen reviews bring a fresh point of view and questions that actually improve long-held practices that aren’t best suited for today. In fact, in some cases the suggestions of these committees have made punishment less harsh and changed policy to reflect a more flexible and reasonable path (Finn, 2000). This seems intuitive as well, as I’ve seen firsthand how things are often done merely because “that’s how it’s always been done.” So there’s a real benefit to be had in facilitating change that would otherwise not be done because of its inherent discomfort. Furthermore, while it can be difficult and messy to correct a single officer’s misconduct, by integrating citizen feedback into policies and training, the culture of a department can be molded to create a widespread change commensurate with the times.

Ultimately, I think citizen oversight is an essential component of a healthy and functioning government. How they’re implemented is just as crucial to their success, however, and it’s important to address certain concerns. Referencing the previously mentioned types of oversight committees, I think it’s most important to have the fourth type that reviews the entire process in and of itself so that it can report to the community that the process is fair and appropriate. I think this takes priority because it ensures that the agency investigates the cases properly while also removing citizens without any police experience from assessing actions and assigning punishment. Beyond that, having well-educated and common sense members on a committee can have positive effects on a department as they provide a different point of view and problem solving skillset. Key to this is the administration taking the bull by the horns, though. Rather than having an oversight committee thrust upon them despite their protestations, they need to accept and welcome the committee and take an active role in selection and then communication with the new committee. The antagonistic nature of these setups has been mentioned, but that doesn’t mean that it can’t be overcome and positive benefits can’t be reaped from this new relationship.


  1. Finn, P. (2000). Getting along with citizen oversight. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 69(8), 22-27. Retrieved from
  1. Walker, S. (2001). The History of the Citizen Oversight. In Police accountability: The role of citizen oversight (pp. 1–10). essay, Wadsworth.
  • Classmate 2 Robert: What are some of the common organizational barriers to the communications process? Who is responsible for removing these barriers? Why so?

The leader should set the tone for the team by establishing some basic guidelines for effective communication. Consistent communication with the team is important and determining the best way to communicate the ideas with the team and that modes of communication may change for different ideas based on the complexity of the information and the team’s familiarity with the subject (Hill, 2013). To alleviate the ambiguity caused by new or complex ideas, the leader can introduce background information about the topic beforehand (Volkema and Niederman, 1996). In addition, the leader can provide the clear goals for the team and give the team expectations of what they are expected to do with the information provided (Hill, 2013).

As the team processes the information, they may require more time to fully understand the information. The leader can take this time to seek feedback on the information and provide any additional clarification to the team (Hill, 2013). Remembering that people process information differently is important and the leader needs to have patience with those team members who ask questions or seem resistant to the idea. The team member may not be resisting the idea or information but be struggling with not having the necessary details to complete the task. Often providing the “why” will alleviate those barriers and focus the team members.

One way to remove barriers in the communication process is to improve the meeting process by publishing an agenda before the meeting and distribute any supporting documents prior to the meeting for team members to review. This includes any presentations for the meeting, especially more complicated or large presentations. Providing this information prior to the meeting offers team members that chance to read the information and prepare questions, conflicting or supporting information to bring up during the meeting (Volkema and Niederman, 1996).

The leader could reinforce a process that focuses meetings on the predetermined topics that should remain the focus of the meeting. Other issues that come up during the meeting should be by exception or emergent issues that require immediate attention. The leader should determine if the unscheduled topic should be discussed in the current meeting or tabled until later to ensure the appropriate people are in attendance and release those team members who would not benefit from sitting through the discussion. By minimizing sidebar or other non-scheduled items of discussion, the leader is reinforcing the idea that the team’s time is a valuable resource. (Hill, 2013).

Within the meeting, the leader should ensure all attendees know their roles especially supporting team members versus supported team members. Those assigned supporting roles need to understand their function is to support operational section leaders who are leading the main effort of the organization. In other words, is the supporting staff providing the required resources to the organization’s main effort? If not, the leader should interject where appropriate to provide guidance and resources to the effort.

Summarize the meeting by having a scribe or leader restate the topics discussed, who is assigned those tasks, what the expectations are for that assignment and the deadline for delivery. This is more effective when done as a summary before adjourning the meeting, so all team members hear who is assigned which task. Then afterwards, the leader should ensure a written summary is sent to all team members in attendance for their review. For the next meeting, this summary can be used as an agenda item for the next team meeting to update the team on outstanding issues (Volkema and Niederman, 1996).

Using relationship power over positional power is an effective way to build trust within the team. Since positional power is granted by virtue of the leader’s position in an organization, tasking team members parallel the chain of command. In that case, the leader-team member relationship requires little effort on behalf of the leader. The leader, by virtue of position, directs the team to perform a task. However, by using relationship power the leader asks team members to do an assignment and thanks them for their efforts. By investing time in the team member and showing respect, the leader is building trust within the team (Blanchard, Fowler and Hawkins, 2005).

Blanchard, K., Fowler, S & Hawkins, L (2005) ) Self leadership and the one-minute manager: Increasing effectiveness through situational self-leadership. New York, NY. HarperCollins Publisher

Hill, L, (2013) Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication. Retrieved from 1458618907?pq-origsite=primo&accountid=8289

Volkema, R & Niederman F. (1996) Planning and managing organizational meetings: an empirical analysis of written and oral communications. Retrieved from login?url=http://search. /login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=790924


  • Defend whether or not citizen oversight committees have had a positive impact on law enforcement, to include police accountability. As part of your response briefly include common pitfalls related to citizen led oversight committees of law enforcement and your solutions for avoiding those pitfalls.

In general police oversight committees have had and a positive impact on law enforcement, at least from the standpoint of opening the law enforcement discipline process to public scrutiny by removing the secretive internal affairs process (Wilson and Buckler, 2010). Holding public hearings on law enforcement discipline issues helps restore public trust by opening up that process. Proponents seeking civilian oversight of police departments cite that knowing a civilian committee will review complaints against the police may serve a deterrent to police misconduct and is considered a positive move by minorities (Ochs, 2009).

However, some common pitfalls to citizen oversight committees are lack of familiarity of law enforcement procedures, policies, and the application of case law, especially as it applies to use of force, consistency in recommending discipline against officers, enforcement of that discipline, acceptance of law enforcement administrators to accept the recommendations of those boards and ensuring board members are adequately prepared to assume that role (Ochs, 2009).

A way to orient committee members to police work is holding citizen police academies that afford committee members the opportunity to get a glimpse of police training. Training simulators that introduce “shoot/no shoot” scenarios present the timelines that officers face in the field when having to make split-second decisions on use of force (Finn, 2000). However, those training simulators themselves are not providing adequate preparation to investigate use of force incidents. Typically, a “use of force” expert will review these incidents from several perspectives: firearms, defensive tactics, less lethal weapons, training and policy and officer-subject factors and understand how all of these aspects coalesce with respect to each incident. Obtaining all of those certifications takes years to obtain and would not be practical for committee members to obtain. A way to provide subject matter expert advice to the board is by appointing an independent monitor to review the use of force cases and provide the committee recommendations or answer questions about the case (Worden, Bonner and McLean, 2018).

As a result of highly publicized use of force cases, vocal members of the community and the media may influence the objectivity of civilian board members (Wilson and Buckler, 2010). The politics of the incident may sway committee members towards more punitive measures despite the officer not violating policy, state and federal law and the civil rights of the victim or suspect. An officer under investigation is permitted due process and is restricted to whom he can tell about the incident while under investigation. Once the decision is made to pursue criminal charges, the officer may be subject to a grand jury hearing and then the internal affairs investigation. Information about investigation that is made public prior to the trial can taint the objectivity of potential jurors.

I think overall, a citizen oversight committee has had a positive effect on the law enforcement profession and participation shows a willingness of law enforcement administrators to collaborate with the community to rebuild trust. The real challenge is to determine the best working relationship between the committee and law enforcement leader. Additionally, that leader should focus on restoring or maintaining the integrity of the department and openly communicate with the committee and the community (Wilson and Buckler, 2010).

Ochs, H (2009) Public participation in policing: The impact of citizen oversight on the incidence of lethal force over time in the largest U.S. cities. Retrieved from login?url=

Wilson, S. & Buckler, K. (2010) The Debate over Police Reform: Examining Minority Support for Citizen Oversight and Resistance by Police Unions. Retrieved from…

Worden, R., Bonner, H., & McLean, S., (2018) Procedural justice and citizen review of complaints against the police: structure, outcomes, and complainants’ subjective experiences. Retrieved from…

Classmate 3 Stephanie: Class,

Some of the common organizational barriers to the communication process are misunderstanding, misinterpretation, misinformation, lack of communication altogether, etc. (Ochs, 2009) The person responsible for removing these barriers is everyone involved in the communication chain and most importantly, the leaders. (Ochs, 2009) This is because no one person can be responsible for end-to-end communication accuracy and the key to building relationships is keeping the communication flowing in all directions. Leaders can show this behavior from the top down and the team will see the communication efforts given from all members. This also promotes trust and brainstorming giving that team more leverage and a better chance at success than a team which does not communicate. (Ochs, 2009)

Citizen oversight committees have had an interesting impact on law enforcement, to include police accountability. (Worden, et al, 2018) This has changed in a positive way by holding officers more publicly accountable and ensuring there is no abuse of authority. This has also impacted in a negative way as police are now scrutinized for their every move, even when the tough decisions they make are the right ones. Common pitfalls related to citizen-led oversight committees of law enforcement are lack of understanding of the police mentality, policies, laws, interpretation of the laws, etc. (Worden, et al, 2018) My solutions for avoiding these pitfalls related to citizen-led oversight committees of law enforcement are to have more interaction within these organizations and the police officers they have oversight of. (Worden, et al, 2018) This would also be an opportunity for the public to learn more and understand the lives of officers and the stresses they are faced with every day. (Worden, et al, 2018)


Ochs, H (2009) Public participation in policing: The impact of citizen oversight on the incidence of lethal force over time in the largest U.S. cities. login?url=

Worden, R., Bonner, H., & McLean, S., (2018) Procedural justice and citizen review of complaints against the police: structure, outcomes, and complainants’ subjective experiences.…

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In week 1 we discussed some general purposes for carrying out social science research, research ethics, and strategies for carrying out preliminary research.  Look within the Security & Global Studies database and find 3 peer-reviewed journal articles to help you articulate your research interests.  When talking about the topic you are interested in researching be sure to reference the articles using the writing style specific to your field of study. In addition to presenting your research topic, and research question, your post should reflect that you have read this week’s content material and demonstrate that you have a sense of the research cycle and what it means to carry out ethical research. 

Now consider the following questions:

WK 1 Question: What challenges are you having in coming up with a unique and narrowly focused research question?  Did you have any challenges findings articles within the library?  If so what did you do to alter your search parameters?  Do you anticipate any difficulties in any of the phases of the research cycle as you pursue research on your topic?

Classmate 1 John: 

Social Science Research

Resisting Foreign Election Prying: The Case of the United States of America and the Russian Government
The U.S commonly accuses the Russian Federation of meddling in its elections. Notably, foreign election interference refers to external meddling, especially by governments, in influencing political elections. While Russia should not, explicitly or implicitly, interfere with the American elections, active external meddling is prevalent in the U.S, affecting the lasting democratic world power. Therefore, the U.S needs to curb Russia’s election meddling to promote credible elections and maintain its democracy. 

A Brief Background of Foreign Election Intrusion by Russia
The relations between the Russian Federation and the U.S remained frosty past the cold war era, influencing Russia to pry on U.S presidential elections. Johnson (2019) investigates Russia’s intrusion in presidential elections, asserting that the former Soviet Union wants to obliterate the American election system’s integrity. Further, this action will facilitate a compromised U.S presidential candidate who can lift the sanctions imposed on Russia by the U.S. Therefore, the former Soviet Union meddles in the U.S presidential elections to achieve global supremacy in trade.

Considerable evidence illustrates that Russia interfered in the U.S presidential elections of the recent past. Norris (2019) explores uncertainties regarding the Trump-Clinton elections, creating considerable mistrust in the U.S. Notably, these doubts arose when Russia’s intelligent authority, Kremlin, hacked Hillary Clinton and promoted fake news about her to destroy her reputation and increase Trump’s prospects. Therefore, the Putin administration executed an extensive strategy to compromise the 2016 American presidential elections. 

The Kremlin meddled in the American elections using sophisticated mechanisms to promote Trump’s reelection four years later. Tomz and Weeks (2020) analyze the comments on foreign election meddling, asserting that the Democrats significantly consider that Russia played an active meddling role in the 2020 elections. This notion arises from the fact that Russia used artificial intelligent programs in spreading misinformation on social media, which attempted to destroy the integrity of American elections. Importantly, this spreading of “fake news” played a significant role in the 2021 insurrection of the Capital, which jeopardized the foundation of the nation, democracy.

Research Questions
Considering that the Russian Federation actively interfered with the U.S elections in the recent past, this research desires to investigate five significant questions, including
1.    What was the impact of Putin’s administration meddling in the 2016 American presidential elections?
2.    What were the results of the former Soviet Union’s interference in the 2020 American presidential elections?
3.    What strategies did Russia apply to meddle in the 2016 and 2020 U.S presidential elections?
4.    Importantly, what frameworks can the U.S apply in averting foreign election intervention by Russia?

Research Objectives
This study desires to achieve four significant objectives based on the above research questions, including
1.    To amplify the existing knowledge on foreign election meddling.
2.    To assess the literature on Russian election interventions in the U.S, giving a comprehensive history.
3.    To examine the types of foreign election interference applied by Russia in U.S presidential elections.
4.    To investigate the impact of these foreign election interventions in the U.S
5.    To suggest strategies that the U.S government can apply to avert these foreign election interventions by Russia.

Significance of an Ethical Research
This study will center on ethical research while promoting its objectives. It will achieve this objective by avoiding biases in the data analysis and data interpretation. Additionally, this study will give credit to scholarly sources it will use, and it will undergo a critical examination and peer-review before submission. This research will also strive to promote social good and avoid providing facts without any scientific backing. Accordingly, performing ethical research while advancing this study’s objectives is vital. 

Briefly, the U.S requires fighting Russia’s election intrusion to maintain its global supremacy. Notably, the Russian Federation actively interfered with the U.S elections in 2016 and 2020. Additionally, this study aims to investigate the impact of these meddling activities, the strategies used to meddle, and frameworks used to avert foreign election intervention by Russia. This study will perform ethical research to accentuate the available data on Russian election intrusion.  

Johnson, D. E. (2019). Russian election interference and race-baiting. Colum. J. Race & L., 9, 191.
Norris, P. (2019). Do perceptions of electoral malpractice undermine democratic satisfaction? The US in comparative perspective. International Political Science Review, 40(1), 5-22.
Tomz, M., & Weeks, J. L. (2020). Public opinion and foreign electoral intervention. American Political Science Review, 114(3), 856-873.

– John Sidwa

Classmate 2 Chloe: 

This week when I was looking over a few things for a research questions I was having a tough time thinking of what my question should entail. I was thinking a lot about things related to my job, and also social media. Everyone knows something about social media now days because of the times everyone has to use social media in some aspect.

My research question is: “how does social media affect peoples careers in their work place”

This question is important because social media plays a huge roll in so many peoples lives, and what they post on their platforms for everyone to see can impact their jobs and/or future jobs. Teenagers spend so much time on their phones posting pictures that they don’t think will ever fall in the wrong hands of someone but once it is on the internet it is there for the whole world to see. I think I will find a lot more information on this question than I already know and also shed light on the topic for others to realize the harm that they could be causing for their futures. 

If I need to change this question please let me know. 

Classmate 3 Ryan: 

Coming up with an idea for a research topic was not hard for me, as I work in the intelligence field and have been interested in this topic for a few years now. I am currently pursuing a MA in Intelligence Operations, and I currently contract for the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency. I have been in the intelligence community since 2013, and since that time many things have changed in the world. We still rely on the five INTs, but OSINT has become a foundation for each other INT. OSINT has been relevant for as long as people have been willingly giving out information, but the last two decades have allowed us to gather information from any location, or on almost any individual, without having to leave our office chair. The question that I intend to focus on is:

“How has the rise of social media played a role in counterintelligence operations and intelligence collection?”

Using the library was easy, and I did not have to alter my search parameters as social media has been used for years to obtain information, and it is considered one of the best sources for OSINT. I was able to find articles about military deception and counterintelligence (Rector, 2021), privacy in the age of technology (Blazakis, 2021), and intelligence in the time of disinformation (Lanoszka, 2021). I believe that all three of these sources will provide a foundation for my research and provide me with the pros and cons in utilizing social media for intelligence collection. I do not anticipate difficulties in the research cycle, as there were many articles and sources for obtaining information.


BLAZAKIS, Jason. “Windows into the Soul; Surveillance and … –” Accessed November 4, 2021. 

Lanoszka, Alexander. “City Research Online –” Accessed November 4, 2021.

Rector, Will. “Deceivingly Decisive: U.S. Army Military Deception and …” Accessed November 4, 2021. 

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GOAL: Build on your work with your business model canvas by discussing the patterns, the design, and the overall business strategy that it illustrates.

Introduction: Using the week 5 Learning Material in the Content area (coupled with the other resources of the course), examine and discuss the observable patterns, designs, and strategies seen in your business model. You should also integrate metaphors (Morgan’s) and framing (Bolman & Deal) into the discussion of your organization/business. This paper will serve as an investigative tool to inform you further about your business model so that you will be prepared to comprehensively diagnose/assess your model and propose recommendations in your final project for the course. You could say that this week’s work lays the groundwork for moving into the substantive diagnosis and assessment expected in your final paper. You may also benefit from conducting an Internet search of the Business Model Canvas to become comfortable with how it works, particularly in the investigation of patterns, design, and strategy. There are also various YouTube-type videos on the web that demonstrate the use of the canvas for this phase of your work with your canvas.

Instructions: Write a 600-750 word paper that presents your conclusions about the pattern(s), design(s), and overall business strategy depicted by your canvas. Metaphoric and framing applications should also be discussed. The paper should be written in third person and is not reflective (first person not acceptable). A title page and references page with a minimum of three sources is required (no abstract needed).

IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the common errors that students make in the writing of this paper is to limit the discussion of the “frames” (Bolman & Deal) and “metaphors (Morgan). Do not merely mention these items, but discuss the implications of them. What “frame” best depicts your organization and why? What does it tell you about the effectiveness of the context/perspective of the interactivity within of your model? Make the same sort of consideration in relation to the most appropriate metaphor that describes the functionality of your organization/business. Look for the “so what” in your consideration of pattern, design, and strategy. This is where the consideration and reflection based on your model—with added insight via the frames and metaphors—provides you a substantive understanding of the implications of the pattern, design, and strategy. Consideration of change, or confirmation of direction—will be revealed in this process.

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Banking Concept essay, step one: Begin by analyzing your past experiences in the following the grades: (K-5th grade) elementary school, (6th-8th grade) middle school, (9th-12th grade) high school, and community college and beyond. On a chart that you create, list any impactful experiences you had during your elementary school, middle school, high school, and college years whether positive or negative. Then go back, and analyze whether or not the experiences that impacted you in elementary school, middle school, high school, and college were a part of the banking concept style of education, the problem posing style of education, or was it a mixture of the two styles? If so, please specify what kind of mix you experienced during your years of schooling. Was it 50/50 or was it 60/40 in favor of the problem posing style? Please be specific. The more information that you put into this step, the easier it will be to write your essay. Good luck.

2 Examples:

K-5th grade: I attended a “fundamental school” for 4th and 5th grade where the teachers were empowered to spank students. This was a very banking concept way of learning that caused me to be fearful of my 4th grade teacher, Mrs. Squires. This was a negative banking concept style experience for me.

6th-8th grade: I was allowed to plan my school schedule for the first time by choosing to take classes in the following subjects: art, math, English, P.E., and social studies. I participated in an English class where the students were encouraged to give input to the teacher and helped plan out the reading assignments. Class size was small, and we had lots of individual attention from the instructor. This was a positive Problem-Posing experience for me.

Directions: Using your Banking Concept essay brainstorm chart, draft a 1 page outline for your essay. The length of the essay will be a minimum of five pages. Your outline chart should be drafted using bulleted points except for the thesis statement and any quotes that you may choose to include in your essay. Use the essay prompt and the example provided below to help guide you in creating an outline for your Banking Concept essay.

Banking Concept Essay prompt/topic: Write an essay that focuses on rich and illustrative incidents from your own educational experience and read it (that is, interpret it) as Freire would. You will need to provide careful detail: things that were said and done, perhaps the exact wording of an assignment, a textbook, or a teacher’s comments. And you will need to turn to the language of Freire’s argument, to take key phrases and passages and see how they might be used to analyze your educational experiences from kindergarten to community college.

Example of an outline on Panopticism:

I. Introduction

A. give the reader some background information on the creation of the panopticon

a.) Creation panopticon is tied to the “Black Death” during the Dark ages

b.) Foucault quote: “the exile of the leper and the arrest of the plague do not bring with them the same political dream” (Foucalut 224).

B. describes uses of panopticons during Europe’s dark ages

C. give a few examples of 20th century panopticons

D. thesis statement: Without question, oppressive panopticism in 2020 is used: throughout Europe as a means of spying on the populace, as a method of maintaining fascist-like control over minority populations, as a system that offers European police more power to violate the rights of individuals, and as means for governments’ to invade the privacy of millions.

II. Panopotic Survieillance Techniques

A. Use of traffic cameras

B. Use of ATM and bank machine cameras

C. Hidden cameras on subways and trains

III. Examples of Police Using Fascism to Control Minority Populations

A. The passing of laws making it mandatory for inmates to have a tracking microchip implanted

B. The implementation of 2nd ID cards for religious minorities

C. Denying entry into European colleges based on Facebook’s racial profiles

IV. Police’s power to violate citizens’ and individual’s rights

A. Some European police are empowered to shoot first with no warning shots

B. Some European police do not have to start the charge for the arrest

C. Bail is not always possible depending on if the police deem the suspects terrorists

V. European governments ability to invade privacy of millions of people

A. Use of a European database to monitor religious minorities

B. Use of a “ban” list against Americans who voice “far-left” political beliefs

VI. Conclusion

A. Wrap up and analyze how Panopciticism has given governments control for over 400 years in Europe.

B. ?


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Write a supportive argumentative essay about the article in the link provided.… Digitizing Your Supply Chain.

The essay should be at least 1000 words in length and written in APA format. Include a cover page an Reference list.

Prepare an argumentative essay in which you take a position of a topic (current even related to your discipline). Begin by choosing a topic and establish your claim regarding this topic. Consider some good reasons or evidence that might support your claim. Also consider opposing views. What is your response to these opposing views?

Outline for Argumentative Essay:

Introduction Paragraph with Thesis Statement – the introduction should be fully developed containing background information on the topic. The thesis statement should appear at the end of the introductory paragraph.

Clear Transitions between all paragraphs – transitions hold the essay together. They inform the reader of what to expect n the next paragraph.

Body – fully developed set of paragraphs that provide evidence and support of the thesis. In the body the writer should include a warrant or reason that the evidence provided supports the thesis. Try to choose at least three VERY strong arguments that support your thesis (claim). Then back your argument up with relevant, timely, specific, and, accurate evidence. Use facts and statistics leave out your opinions, yet include opinions of experts on this topic. Avoid words like ‘I think”, and “I believe”. Do not over use emotion and demonstrate lack of bias.

Also in the body (1-2 paragraphs) it is important to consider other points of view or opposing views. The writer should views that are not in support of the thesis, yet refute that this point of view is out of date, irrelevant, or not well informed.

Conclusion- The conclusion should be tied back to the thesis statement. It is important not to introduce any new information in the conclusion. The conclusion is a synthesis of the information in the essay and a statement of why the topic is important.

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Answer Initial Discussion question 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 Words each

For our first week you read Article III of the US Constitution and Marbury v Madison. We will be discussing the role and authority of the judiciary.

Many argue we have problems with judicial activism.

For your initial discussion post discuss:

1) What was the ruling in Marybury v Madison and how did it change the role of the judiciary?

2) What is judicial activism v judicial restraint? Do we have judicial activism in the courts today? If so, is it a problem and how can it be fixed?

Classmate 1 Jeffrey: This 200-year-old case certainly took some time to understand. Marbury v Madison (1803) is one of the most significant cases in the history of the United States Supreme Court and paved the way for the court to be what is it today. This case formulated what is now known as judicial review.

In 1801 the outgoing President John Adams was about transfer the presidentship to the incoming Thomas Jefferson. In the days and weeks leading to the transfer of power, President Adams passed the Judiciary Act of 180; granting him the authority to appoint dozens of judges from the Federalist Party to preserve the values from his presidency. Almost all of the intended Federalist Judges received their commissions to begin their five-year term, these judges came to be known as Midnight Judges. The issues arose when President Jefferson began his term and certain commissions were yet to be delivered.

Thomas Jefferson directed the Secretary of State James Madison to withhold all remaining commissions that were yet to be delivered. One of these commissions was for William Murbury. William Murbury contested for months to have his commission honored but to no avail. Several months later he petitioned the United States Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus to force James Madison to deliver his commission.

In 1803 the United States Supreme Court decided in a unanimous vote dismissing the writ of mandamus and Murbury’s claim to his commission. Chief Justice John Marshall delivered the opinion that would set the stage of the court for centuries to come. The court agreed that Murbury had a right to his commission and the legal remedy of a writ of mandamus was the correct remedy that Murbury was entitled to. The legal barrio preventing this was the new question if the Supreme Court had the jurisdiction to hear the case under the Judiciary Act of 1789.

The young court found itself in a constitutional conflict. The court found the Judiciary Act of 1789 challenged Article III of the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court could not have original jurisdiction over the case because a State or foreign dignitary was not subject to a lawsuit. The Supreme Court would have been able to make a determination of the case if they had appellant jurisdiction if the case was appealed by an inferior court. This revelation gave birth to the concept of judicial review. This court ruling gave the United States Supreme Court the authority to strike down legislation or statutes passed by Congress that conflicts with the interpretation of the United States Constitution.

Judicial activism versus judicial restraint is a delicate balance that no one has a clear answer to. Judicial activism is a term used for progressive Supreme Court Justices who use the interpretation of the United States Constitution to strike down statutes that are not in line with American values. For example, the Warren Court was the first Supreme Court bench to be referred to as a judicial activist for its progressive decisions. This court was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren from 1953 to 1969 and made substantial decisions that are bi-partisan revered today, such as their ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954).

On the opposite end of the spectrum from judicial activism is judicial restraint. Judicial restraint is where the Supreme Court refrains from making progressive social, political, or economic rulings, and leaves those decisions to the states or other branches of Government. Additionally, long-lasting rulings that will impact societal views will only be made when there are clear violations of the Constitution. Simply with judicial restraint, the belief is the Supreme Court interprets laws and does not create them. .

Our current Supreme Court bench is not believed to be overly activist. This opinion is not only shared by the Government but by a member of the Court. The late Justice Ginsburg said in 2013 the court was the least activist it had been in 60 years. There does not seem to be a problem with the court attempting to be overly activist. Many people believe the Court could stand to be more progressive when it comes to current social and political dilemmas.


Adam Liptak, How Activist is the Supreme Court, The New York Times (Oct. 12, 2013),

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Elianna Spitzer, What Is Judicial Activism, ThoughtCo (Jun. 22, 2020),

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).

Marbury v. Madison, History (Dec. 2, 2009),

Classmate 2 Ivey: The ruling in the Marbury v. Madison case declared an act of Congress unconstitutional, establishing the judicial review doctrine. “The decision of the United States Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) has been universally hailed as a political masterpiece” (Clinton, 1994). It basically gave the Supreme Court the authority over matter concerning the United States Constitution, and the laws of the land that govern it. It established that any decision that was made by an elected official could be, and mostly likely would be, politically motivated and self-serving. But laws are put in place to be equal to all parties, regardless of political party or affiliation. Marbury v. Madison was established to determine that the Court had the authority to determine when an administration acts unlawfully (Bradley, 2012). This changed the role of the judiciary by establishing that the Supreme Court had the power to declare legislation and executive and administrative actions inconsistent with the Constitution. It in essence strengthened the power of the Supreme Court in the are that they had the most knowledge of, Constitutional law. Most importantly, it gave true meaning to checks and balancing, which is the very essence that drives the three branches of government.

2) What is judicial activism v judicial restraint? Do we have judicial activism in the courts today? If so, is it a problem and how can it be fixed?

Judicial activism can be defined as “any instance in which the courts strike down a law that violates individual rights or transgresses the constitutional boundaries of the other branches of government” (Bolick, 2019). Judicial restraint is not as easily defined. It basically means that “judges are careful about not letting their views of policy or morality displace the law” (Strauss, 2011). Whether a judge or the court practices one or the other depends on how it is interpreted by those who study such things. What one writer may consider judicial activism, another may consider the same action as not going far enough, which would be judicial restraint. The purpose of the court is to enact the laws and guidelines of the Constitution as rule of law, and not allow personal feelings or political leanings to guide decisions. There should be moral ambiguity, and emotion should not factor in any decision. As far as whether we have judicial activism in courts today again depends on the view of who is answering the question. For example, a case such as Roe v. Wade has not been touched with a ten- foot pole by the Supreme Court since it was passed forty-eight years ago. This rings true of most of the most controversial cases in United States history. The fact that these cases were passed in the first place can be described as judicial activism. On the other hand, the fact that the court has refused to make any arguments or changes to them since inception can be described as judicial restraint. The bottom line is that the enactment of laws that derived form these types of cases were done in the name of constitutional law and the equal rights of all that come with it. Any requests to change them flies in the face of that and are mostly politically motivated.

Bolick, C. (2019). The Proper Role of “Judicial Activism.” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 42(1), 1–15.

Bradley J. (2012). A Marbury for our time, SCOTUSblog (Jun. 29, 2012, 2:36 PM),

Clinton, R. (1994). Game Theory, Legal History, and the Origins of Judicial Review: A Revisionist Analysis of Marbury v. Madison. American Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 285–302.

Strauss, D. (2011). Originalism, conservatism, and judicial restraint. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 34(1), 137–.

Classmate 3 Crystal: The case of Marbury v. Madison revolved around the presidency of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Before President Jefferson took his place as President, the Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed by John Adams and the rest of Congress. This judiciary Act essentially created new judges, new courts, and the President had more power to appoint judges of their choosing. William Marbury was appointed Justice of the Pease for DC, but his commission was not delivered. He motioned for the Supreme Court to compel James Madison to deliver the documents. The Supreme Court (4 of 6) found that it was illegal for James Madison to not give the commission, but they did not order it. The conclusion of Marybury v. Madison was that the Supreme Court was not able to force it because of Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 conflicting with Article III, Section 2, of the Constitution, and was subsequently null and void. The Supreme Court further found that Congress was not able to modify or change the Constitution because the Supremacy Clause makes it so the Constitution overrides laws. This is all important because this case made it so there was now a judicial review so that a law can be declared unconstitutional and “a law repugnant to the constitution is void, and that courts, as well as other departments, are bound by that instrument.”

Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint are important based on the readings from this week.

-Judicial Activism is when judges go beyond their duties of applying the law to the facts of individual cases. It essentially is when judges interpret the law their own way, subsequently amending constitutional rights based on their own notions of societal needs.

-Judicial Restraint is the idea of judges limited the exercise of their power. Essentially judges should be cognizant to strike down laws unless they are clearly unconstitutional.

I do believe that we have judicial activism in courts today. That is why people try and elect certain judges to their places. The phrase “activist judge” is usually for judges that do things their way. For example, a judge seeing a child pornography case whom has a small child of their own can be two types of judge: and activist, or a restraint judge. They could rule on the case based on their own opinion (activist), or they can exercise judicial restraint and put their own feelings aside. It is a problem because the court system should be a pillar of consistency, and it clearly is not. Judges cannot make their own determination, because there is an Amendment process which has helped our nation in matters such as the Bill of Rights. To fix it is difficult. Judicial activism stems from the political differences. The only way I see it to be fixed is ensuring the right people are in the seats. Which is hard because we are such a divided country.


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Determinants of Interest Rate for Individual Securities You are

considering an investment in 30year bonds issued by Borro Corporation. The bonds
have no special covenants. The Wall Street Journal reports that 1year Tbills are
currently earning 2.50 percent. Your broker has determined the following information
about economic activity and Borro Corporation bonds:

Real interest rate = 1.00% Default risk premium = 1.25%
Liquidity risk premium = 0.75% Maturity risk premium = 0.50%

a. What is the inflation premium?

Expected (IP) = i Real Interest Rate

b. What is the fair interest rate on Borro Corporation 30year bonds?

ij* = inflation premium + Real interest rate + Default risk premium +
Liquidity risk premium + Maturity risk premium

Unbiased Expectations Theory Suppose that the current oneyear rate (one

year spot rate) and expected oneyear Tbill rates over the following three years (i.e.,
years 2, 3, and 4, respectively) are as follows:

1R1=7%, E(2r1) =9%, E(3r1) =6.0% E(4r1)=4%

Using the unbiased expectations theory, calculate the current (longterm) rates for
one, two, three, and fouryearmaturity Treasury securities. Show your answers in
percentage form to 3 decimal places.

Note that:
Rate for a two year security
= [(1 + 1R1)(1 + E(2r1))]1/2 1

Rate for a three year security
= [(1 + 1R1)(1 + E(2r1))(1 + E(3r1))]1/3 1

Rate for a four year security
= [(1 + 1R1)(1 + E(2r1))(1 + E(3r1))(1 + E(4r1))]1/4 1

Liquidity Premium Hypothesis Oneyear Treasury bills currently earn 2.50

percent. You expected that one year from now, oneyear Treasury bill rates will
increase to 2.75 percent. The liquidity premium on twoyear securities is 0.15 percent.
If the liquidity theory is correct, what should the current rate be on twoyear Treasury

1R2 =

[(1 + Real interest rate)(1 + Year 2 Rate + Liquidity risk premium)] 1/2 1

Zero Coupon Bond Price Calculate the price of a zero coupon bond (no interest
payments) that matures in 15 years if the market interest rate is 7.25 percent
(most bonds pay interest semiannually, so unless specified, always use semi
annual compounding).

Current Yield What’s the current yield of a 5.0 percent coupon corporate bond
quoted at a price of 80.00?

Yield = Payment/Price

Taxable Equivalent Yield What’s the equivalent taxable yield on a municipal
bond with a yield to maturity of 4.0 percent for an investor in the 20 percent
marginal tax bracket?

Equivalent taxable yield = Muni Yield/(1 tax rate)

Compute Bond Price Compute the price of a 8.0 percent coupon bond with 15
years left to maturity and a market interest rate of 7.0 percent. (Assume
interest payments are semiannual.) Is this a discount or premium bond?

Stock Index Performance. On Jan 4, 2019, the Dow Jones Industrial
Average opened at $22,686.22 and closed at $24,433.16. What
was the daily return that day, and what was the effective annual
rate return (in percent) of the stock market that day? ?

Buying Stock with a Market Order You would like to buy shares of
Widgets, Inc.The current ask and bid quotes are $8.625 and $8.375
respectively. You place a market buyorder for 500 shares that
executes at these quoted prices. How much money did it cost to buy
these shares?

Value a Constant Growth Stock Financial analysts forecast Safeco Corp.
(SAF) growth for the future to be 5 percent. Safeco’s recent dividend
was $3.00. What is the value of Safeco stock when the required return
is 14 percent?

Expected Return Ecolap Inc. (ECL) recently paid a $0.50dividend. The dividend

is expected to grow at a 12 percent rate. At a current stock price of $11.20,
what is the return shareholders are expecting?

Variable Growth A fast growing firm recently paid a dividend of $0.50 per share.
The dividend is expected to increase at a 20 percent rate for the next 3 years.
Afterwards, a more stable 10 percent growth rate can be assumed. If a 12
percent discount rate is appropriate for this stock, what is its value?

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First Response:Thales was considered a radical in his time of 624 – 546 B.C. This can be understood when considering, Thales lived in a Greek society on the Island of Miletus. During this time and location, it was a Pre-Socratic culture that believed in the polytheistic Greek mythology. This belief was in oracles, muses, and the fact that everyone’s fate was preset, in that your life was pre-planned and not changeable by individual actions. Greek mythology, like many other society’s in these times believed each aspect of the world was controlled by different Gods.

Thales is the first to question the substance of matter and studied many things to include philosophy, history, science, mathematics, engineering, geography, and politics. He studied with the use of deductive reasoning based on observations or experiences instead of the believe in divine intervention or premade paths. These methods then made him a radical by going against what most of Greek society believed.

There are many popular statements made by Thales while utilizing his scientific method. One such statement is in his belief; everything comes from water. His ability to think outside of his time is seen in his observation of how the earth is existing, how is land above water, and even leads some to believe that he was able to consider the process of evaporation. Through his ability to experiment and observe it created a simple reasoning for all things, instead of the tradition path of fate-based existence. His radical thought process was a step towards the change of all things.

Second Response:Thales was one of the first real philosophers. While religious figures can express philosophical ideas and philosophers can express religious ideas, it is important to draw a difference between the two. Religion often involves the presence of a higher power. It provides guidance for people as well as an explanation for their existence. Philosophical ideas also seek to make sense of life and give people direction, which can further blur the lines between them. In a sense they have similar purposes, but their origin separates them. Religion does not require evidence to support itself. Instead, religion relies on things like faith and trust. Philosophy follows methods that can seem similar to the scientific approach. The world is analyzed in order to form a philosophical view, purely faith is not sufficient. In our present times, religion faces more pressure, so religious figures have adopted some methods of philosophy/science so that religion has more support than just faith. Mythology uses tales of the past that can seem like exaggerated religion to tell stories and explain the present. With this understanding, we can distinguish why Thales’ methods and views were philosophical and not religious or mythological. Much of Thales’ fame as a philosopher comes from impressive feats (or shows of intelligence) rather than trying to explain all parts of existence. These feats were often accomplished through simple quantitative and qualitative analysis, so there was no need for faith. He would make educated guesses (such as when he guessed the correct eclipse cycle), and when they occurred, he would have the physical proof, so no faith was needed. One event that really sums up his approach was when he measured the height of pyramids. He just made an observation that shadow length and object height are equal at some point, and when this occurred, he measured the shadow and found the height. (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999) This was easily supported by comparing the shadows and heights of other objects. Thales was not really explaining the world, instead he was just developing methods to improve how people look at its physical presence. *each response must be 100 words plus*

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Answer Initial Post Question 250 words. Respond to 3 classmates 250 words each.

Initial Post

To spark an interesting and balanced discussion on Obergefell v Hodges, post an initial post that challenges the state laws in question. You will be arguing that same-sex marriages conducted in other states should be recognized and that the states which prohibited same-sex marriage should be required to perform such marriages.

After you have your initial post, discuss the following question. From a legal standpoint, do you agree or disagree with the ruling? Why or why not? Remember to support your answers and give attribution to your sources.

Classmate 1 Adam: Welcome to my week 5 forum posting on “Fundamental Rights: Due Process”. This week we will be specifically looking at the case of Obergefell v Hodges, and the ruling on same-sex marriages. To summarize the case for you briefly, the plaintiff argued that states could not keep same-sex couples from marrying and must recognize their unions. The Supreme Court eventually decided in favor of the plaintiff, stating this as well, in a ruling that had been under months of focus and speculation. The decision was 5-4 when the dust settled. Justice Anthony Kennedy, seen as a pivotal swing vote in the case, wrote the majority opinion. All four justices who voted against the ruling wrote their own dissenting opinions: Chief Justice John Roberts and Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas and Samuel Alito. The lead plaintiff, Obergefell, filed a suit because he wasn’t allowed to put his name on his late husband John Arthur’s death certificate after Arthur died from ALS. Obergefell later stated in a news appearance, “No American should have to suffer that indignity.”

To briefly challenge the state laws that were repealed, I simply want to quote a bit of the court decision material and it reads as follows; “The Supreme Court said that the right to marry is fundamental — and Justice Kennedy wrote that under the 14th Amendment’s protections, “couples of the same-sex may not be deprived of that right and that liberty.”” At the end of the day, these members of society asked for equal dignity in the eyes of the law, and the constitution grants them that very right.

To discuss a little further on whether or not from a legal perspective I concur with the ruling, I do indeed agree with the ruling based on the very legal principles embedded and set forth in the 14thamendment. Now, if they went ahead and changed the 14th amendment then legally maybe it would be different, but at this very moment I definitely agree with the legality. I look forward to our discussion this week.

Classmate 2 Crystal: Because my last name begins with Y, I am posting on challenging the state laws that relate to Obergefell v Hodges. So this means that I am challenging that the same-sex marriages should not be recognized, as well as the states that prohibit these marriages should not be able to perform such marriages. In Obergefell v Hodges, The Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment does require both the licensing and the recognition for the same-sex couples. The Due Process Clause deems the right to marry is a fundamental liberty. Based on the Loving case from 1967, the Supreme Court ruled that “The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State.” The Loving case (Loving v. Virginia, n.d.) was related to an interracial couple that was arrested when they went to Virginia for the crime of being married. They too claimed that Due Process of the Fourteenth Amendment protected them. Chief Justice Warren, Earl stated that the Constitution protects the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State. These state laws that banned the same-sex marriages actually violated the equal rights of fays and lesbians. Further, while Items like the Commerce Clause suggests that each state is entitled to their own laws, the Commerce clause also gives Congress the right to regulate amongst several states. In this relation, due process protects citizens of the United States. The Due Process prohibits arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property by the government except as authorized by law.

My thoughts overall: Individual states are not allowed to infringe on individual rights. I look at it similar to regulations. Commanders can add to, but can’t take away from regulatory guidance. So States can add to the Constitution as long as they don’t take away from. Same-sex marriage has been ruled protected based on the due process and that marriage is an aspect of life and liberty. The Equal Protection Clause under the Constitution protects against the discrimination against individuals based on their sexuality and gender. Based on the Equal Protection Clause, same-sex couples are required to reap the same benefits of marriage as different-sexed marriages. Further, the Equal Protection and Due Process Clause insists all states must issue marriage licenses to otherwise eligible couples regardless of sexual orientation as well as the same-sex marriages need to be recognized even if they were performed in other states.


Loving v. Virginia. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved May 19, 2021, from

Classmate 3 Jeffery: With my last name being Sowa, it looks like I will be supporting the Supreme Court decision and challenging the laws of the state. I’m glad to be on this side of the discussion because this case happened at a significant time in my life. To go a little off-topic this ruling occurred while I was in Basic Training. Obviously, as it progressed through the courts all of us in training had no idea for the most part. The ruling in this case and the legalization of same-sex marriage was one of the only pieces of current news we had received in Basic Training. I never really knew the details of the case and the story well until now.

Prior to Obergefell v. Hodges (2015), the most recent case regarding same-sex marriage was United States v. Windsor (2013). Although this case did not grant federal recognition of same-sex marriage it was a tremendous step towards accomplishing that goal. With the passage of the United States v. Windsor (2013) the Federal Government was no longer allowed to discriminate against same-sex couples and had to allow them the same legal protections as heterosexual marriage. This case laid the groundwork for Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) but still allowed the authority to allow and recognize same-sex marriages in the states under Baker v. Nelson (1971).

This case began when James Obergefell and then long-term boyfriend John Arthur wanted to get married before John passed away from health complications. The issue was they lived in Ohio which did not recognize same-sex marriages. James and John took a plane to Maryland and after getting married on the plane returned to Ohio. James attempted to be listed as the surviving spouse on John’s death certificate and was denied. Ohio did not recognize same-sex marriages regardless if they were done in a state where the act was legal and recognized. The couple sued the State of Ohio and this is where this historic case began.

The battle began strong with District Judge Timothy Black supporting the couple. James was added to John’s death certificate and John passed away shortly after with James listed as a surviving spouse. Ohio appealed to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. At this time the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals was handling five similar cases at the same time and made a blanket ruling on all of them. The Sixth Circuit voted in favor of the states citing Baker v. Nelson (1971) which gave states discretion to limit marriages based on gender. James and the other appalled the United States Supreme Court and they accepted the case.

James and other parties cited the Equal Protection Clause and Due Process Clause of the Fourteen Amendment. Given the arguments, the United States Supreme Court Justices had two questions to consider. If the Fourteenth Amendment mandates that a state grants marriage licenses to those of the same sex, as well as if the states have to recognize a same-sex marriage license originating from another state. After a close 5-4 decision the Supreme Court ruled in favor of James and the others. Justice Kennedy delivered the majority opinion; stating the Constitution promises liberty to all within its reach and Baker v. Nelson violated the Fourteenth Amendment and was overturned. This decision effectively and immediately made same-sex marriage legal throughout the United States; regardless of the opinions of the states.

The lower courts were acting within the limits of the law in their earlier decision against James and the others. Baker v. Nelson (1971) was the long-standing law of the time and United States v. Windsor(2013) only shifted the law slightly and did not bring widespread protections to those seeking a same-sex marriage license. The issue is the law was flawed from the start and the Supreme Court recognized that the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause “extends to certain personal choices central to individual dignity and autonomy, including intimate choices that define personal identity and beliefs.” The court also cited United States v. Windsor (2013) gave the right to the personal choice of marriage chosen by individual anatomy. Finally, Justice Kennedy stated that marriage is a keystone in our social order, and there is no difference in marriage regardless of sex.

Given this information the state laws were unlawful. Ohio and other states blocking same-sex marriages even if they were married in another state is a violation of the Constitution. Blocking people of their individual liberties violates the Fourteen Amendment and the inconsistency in state laws led to an unstable world for same-sex couples, even if the state they resided in allowed same-sex marriage. This Supreme Court decision is so recent and though it has no direct impact on me it has helped others I’ve known and is easy for me to remember since it came at such a pivotal point in my life.


Baker v. Nelson, 291 Minn. 310, 191 N.W.2d 185 (1971).

Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. 644 (2015).

U.S. Const. amend XIV.

United States v. Windsor, 570 U.S. 744 (2013).

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