ANTH 131 GC Cells and DNA Mit

Part 1 (one week to complete): Choose 5 of the questions below to answer in a short paragraph or two, a list, or a chart. Each answer is worth up to 10 points for a total of 50. You may submit files and images via Canvas. Please type as much as of your work as possible (okay to submit photos of handwritten squares, charts math, etc, as long as it is neat and legible) and make neat charts if applicable.

For each question, answer as thoroughly as possible if you want full points. Be sure to address all parts of the question.

You will be evaluated on how well you answer as well as how well you can demonstrate your knowledge of class learning objectives and concepts (both in general and in detail). It is a good idea to use your book and any other class materials, including slideshows, videos, and notes. It is NOT A GOOD IDEA to look up answers online. Answers that are plagiarized or obviously inspired by web searches will not get credit. This is intended to evaluate your understanding of course objectives and your ability to utilize your book and other class materials (not your ability to search the web).


**Alternative (if you choose this, label it ‘LAB 8 Exercises’):

This option is simply available since we ran out of time in class to really complete chapter 8. YOU DO NOT HAVE TO CHOOSE THIS ALTERNATIVE>>> You can also choose 5 questions below, 10 points each.

OPTION: for a ‘TWO FOR ONE’– do the ‘ALTERNATIVE’ which will cover TWO of the five questions required: you may complete some of the chapter 8 exercises. For 20 points, complete the concept review for chapter 8 (just write/type the answers to the questions on page 239-240). Then complete ex. 1,2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 using your textbook… You can attach images of the completed worksheets, or you can type up the answers. The chapter 8 exercises are worth UP TO 20 points. (or TWO OF THE FIVE REQUIRED QUESTIONS!!) If you decide to do the CR AND exercises for chapter 8, you should still answer THREE questions below.

Regular choices CHOOSE 5 QUESTIONS BELOW TO ANSWER CLEARLY AND THOROUGHLY. Questions should be answered in 1-3 well developed paragraphs answering all parts of the questions. Problem solving should show your work for each step:

  1. Cells and DNA: Describe mitosis and meiosis. What are the steps in each, and what is the final outcome? When thinking about Meiosis, how does it confirm Mendel’s ideas about segregation and independent assortment of traits? Describe how genetic information is copied and passed on to future generations during the process of cell division.

2. What is DNA? Where is it located, and what are its main functions? How has DNA been used to compare living species and determine evolutionary relationships?

3. Genetics: Solve the following genetics problem by determining how the following traits would assort. Use D/d for Rh. Remember Rh+ is dominant, and Rh- is recessive. Use A, B and O for blood types. Remember it is a co-dominant system with O as the only recessive allele.

  1. The mother is type AB- and the father is type A+
  2. List all possibilities for each parent’s genotype using what you know from the information given so far (assuming you have only read (a) above.
  3. Now assume the father is heterozygous for both traits. What are the genotypes you will use for each parent?
  4. Create a double square (dihybrid cross) to assort these two traits. Show your work.
  5. What are the possible genotypes for each child? Provide a percentage (or a fraction) for each possible genotype.
  6. What are the possible phenotypes for each child? Provide a percentage (or a fraction) for each phenotype.
  7. What are the chances of having a child that is heterozygous for both traits? Provide a percentage and explain your answer.
  8. Is there any possibility that a child will be born to these parents that will show the recessive phenotype(s) for both traits? Explain: Why or why not?
  1. Genetics: Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, determine the genotype frequencies we should expect in the next generation, given the following scenario. Show your work.

Background: the alleles that control for sickle cell anemia are co-dominant, meaning that if both alleles are present, both phenotypes are expressed. Sickle cell anemia is a condition that is fatal in the homozygous condition (SS). Normal hemoglobin in the blood is (AA). If a person is (AS), this means that they will not die from sickle cell, but may experience some mild symptoms. An advantage of being heterozygous (AS) is that carriers of the (S) allele will have some immunity to malaria, whereas those with (AA) are more likely to suffer and possibly die from this mosquito-born illness.

  1. In your population there are 200 individuals that colonize a new planet. Out of those 200, 50 people in that population are heterozygous for sickle cell anemia.
  2. How many total alleles in the population for this trait?
  3. Determine the percentage of alleles in the population that are S.
  4. Determine the percentage of alleles that are A.
  5. Use the formula to predict the frequency of sickle cell anemia in the next generation. Use the A allele for P and the S allele for q.
  6. How many newborns will likely die from sickle cell anemia in the colony?
  7. How many people will be heterozygous?
  8. How many homozygous for the A allele?
  9. What factors (if any) do these predictions depend on?
  1. Primates: If you are observing a skeleton with the following traits, how would you classify this species, and what would be your best guess as to the primary mode of locomotion, and dietary pattern? Be as specific as possible, given what you know.
    1. PRIMATE 1
      1. The dental formula is 2:1:3:3
      2. The skeleton is very small
      3. The foot/ankle bones and leg bones are elongated
      4. The eye orbits are not fully enclosed, but there is bone behind the eye (more than a post orbital bar) and the eyes are very large
      5. The teeth have sharp cusps on the molars and premolars
  1. PRIMATE 2
    1. The dental formula is 2:1:2:3
    2. The skeleton is large and robust
    3. The leg bones are very long, the arms are a little shorter, the ankle bones are short and round
    4. The eye orbits are fully enclosed
    5. The brain case is between 1200-1400cc in volume
  1. PRIMATE 3
    1. The dental formula is 2:1:3:3
    2. The size is between the first and second primate above
    3. The arms and legs are of nearly equal length
    4. The tail is muscular and curved
    5. The habitat is arboreal
  1. PRIMATE 4
    1. The dental formula is 2:1:2:3
    2. The size is between primates 1 and 2
    3. The arms are longer than the legs, and the toes and fingers are long and curved
    4. The brain is larger than primates 1 and 3, but smaller than primate 2
    5. The canines are very large, but the molar teeth are worn smooth.
  1. Primates: describe the taxonomy of primates presented in your book. Which infraorder includes monkeys, and what are the names of the two parvorders that contain all species of monkey living today? What features do all monkeys share, and what are the key differences between these two parvorders?Which primates are NOT usually classified as or referred to as monkeys? Describe at least three groups (taxonomic groups) of primates that are NOT monkeys, and explain what features set them apart from monkeys. For bragging rights, identify all four groups.
  1. Comparative Anatomy: Discuss sexual dimorphism as it applies to humans. Discuss at least three specific traits observable in the cranium or post-cranial skeleton where males and females differ explain the differences. Now compare human sexual dimorphism to the degree of sexual dimorphism found in great apes. How does this correlate with our social organization? How do some or all of the traits you describe reflect evolutionary trends?
  1. Hominids: Using your book and any notes from class, Compare Pre Australopiths, Australopiths, Early Homo later Homo, and Modern humans terms of the following features: Cranial Features (at least 3 features), skeletal features (at least 3 features), and Tool use/culture. You may use a chart or write it out in paragraph form.
  1. Hominids: Describe your favorite hominid (habitual or obligate biped) NOT in the genus Homo. What do we know about this hominid, and how do we know it? Where and when did it live? Where and when was it discovered? Was it an ancestor to the genus Homo? Compare and contrast the features with features of the members of the genus Homo.
  1. Given what you have learned about evolution, what physical changes do you think will occur in the bodies of Homo sapiens in the next 500,000 years? Describe any changes in phenotype, bones of the skeleton, cranial features, etc. that you imagine, but be sure to describe a realistic way for them to occur (remember the ‘four’ces of evolution and how they work).


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