California State University L


These responses are meant to be conversational and open to opinions and personal thoughts. Engage in DEEP critical thinking as you post your answers by using your own research, the textbook, or personal and career experiences.


  1. Answer the question fully, aim for 300-400 words (20 points)
    1. Answer ALL parts of the question
    2. Use critical thinking to expand beyond just summarizing the textbook
    3. Use academic language, no grammatical errors
  2. Use 3 citations such as the textbook/article/other source using APA 7th in-text and at the end (10 points)
    1. Cite in-text and at the end of the post
    2. Use full and correct APA 7th citation

    Note: A word document showcasing a specific example of citation and reference listing that is appropriate for this class is listed down below. The document is titled “EXAMPLE”

Application Assignment #3

Go to the Social Security website and calculate your potential monthly payout: To fill in the calculator you will want to figure out what kind of salary you might earn with your future career if you aren’t currently in the workforce. You can use websites like glassdoor or payscale to get this number. You will want to figure out when you plan to retire (at 62? 65? 70?). If you are under the age of 22, just put in a different birthdate to pretend you are filling this out in your mid-20’s (it won’t work with birthdates under the age of 22).

  • Enter in a few different scenarios in the calculator and compare the numbers. Reflect on what you learned. Would this be enough money? Can you retire when you want to? Would working a little longer help a lot?
  • What other avenues of savings, pension, retirement, etc… do you plan to use to ensure you can be financially stable? Are these decisions influenced by what you see your family/parents/grandparents doing regarding retirement?
  • Does this calculation make you concerned about the well-being of older adults in our country? Do you think SS is sustainable? What should adults do to prepare for aging to supplement SS? Any useful articles or books you recommend?

Helpful infographic:

The coursebook is attached as a link. Nancy Hooyman, Kevin S. Kawamoto, H. Asuman S. Kiyak – Aging Matters_ An Introduction to Social Gerontology-Pearson (2014).pdf – Google Drive

Note: I currently work as a medical receptionist at a regional hospital. The future career I want to obtain is a Physician Assistant and to retire by the age of 65. I am 21, but the birthdate you can use to fill this out is 02/18/1995. Using this information and being realistic with the living expenses in Southern California, please write the discussion board accordingly.

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This assignment synthesizes course content and skills from Units 1 and 2, and helps you to practice and demonstrate the basic skills of “baloney detection” and scientific literacy, no matter your level of scientific training.  This project adds research onto the skills you developed in Class Project 1, and asks you to expand your evaluation of a popular news source by contextualizing it with scientific expertise. 

For this assignment, you can choose to work alone, to work with a partner, or to work with your study group to write an 850-1000 word essay.   Following from your work on Class Project 1, you will follow a scientific factual claim into the scientific literature about that topic, and then communicate your findings in your essay according to the instructions below.

Along with your essay, you will submit a Cover Letter explaining some elements of your work.  If you are collaborating in a pair or group, you will also submit a Teamwork Sheet that describes and evaluates the collaboration.

Learning Goals

  1. Demonstrate your ability to meet all of Part 1 of the Course Learning Objectives as listed on the syllabus
  2. Demonstrate your ability to meet Part 2.1 and Part 2.3 of the Course Learning Objectives as listed on the syllabus
  3. Work either on your own or in a successful collaborative relationship in which your work contributes to a deeper sense of learning and proficiency in research, writing, and science literacy skills.


Writing the Essay

  1. News Source: Find a news source that reports on a scientific factual claim that appeals to objectivity.  This can be print news, online news, radio news, or television news. 
    • You can use the same source you used in Class Project 1 for inspiration as you search for a news source, or choose a different topic.  
      • For example: if your popular source for Class Project 1 was about sleep, you would look for news sources about scientific developments about sleep.  
    • If you are collaborating, you can evaluate which of your Class Project 1 ideas might work best for this assignment, or you can choose an entirely new one.
  2. Essay: Once you’ve decided on your news source, you need to introduce and analyze it in your essay, and contextualize your popular source with research into the scientific literature that is relevant to the factual claim you are investigating.  
    • Paragraph 1: Your introduction paragraph needs to clearly describe your news source and what factual claim it is making.  What is the publication, and who is the author?  What medium is this news source (print, digital, video, text, audio)?  What is the factual claim, and how is it appealing to objectivity? How does the source use words, images, sound, or formatting to try to convince you of the fact it is reporting on?  Refer back to feedback you received on Class Project 1, and make any improvements suggested there.  
    • Paragraph 2: Your second paragraph needs to explain how the source appeals to expertise and authority.  Does it present the perspective of an expert?  How does it define an “expert”?  When you look up the author or experts they cite, who what do you find? 
    • Paragraphs 3 and 4: You need to conduct research in scientific databases to find two peer-reviewed studies that will help you evaluate how the news source reports on the scientific claim.  We will learn how to do this in class on Wednesday, 10/6, when the NATS Librarian visits class. You will also have access to the Cultures of Science Research Guide (Links to an external site.) on the Library website (here’s the url: (Links to an external site.)), which makes the databases easy to find.  
      • Focus on one peer-reviewed study per paragraph.  In each paragraph, fully introduce the scientific study, and make sure to identify whether it is recent or old.  Does the source verify, refute, or complicate how the news source reports the claim?  Draw specific evidence from the studies to support your evaluation in each paragraph.  
    • Paragraph 5: compare the news source’s reporting to what you found in the scientific literature.  How much difference was there between the scientific study and the news source? Was anything important left out of the news source, compared to scientific studies?  Do you see any “baloney” in the way the news source promotes its claim? What do you think the importance of the differences are between how the fact is presented in the technical literature versus the popular representation?
    • Paragraph 6: Your conclusion should explore what is a stake, and for whom, in whether or not this factual claim is treated as true by people who only consume the news source instead of the scientific studies.  What does it matter if people who consume the news source believe this fact?  Are there potential negative consequences for believing this claim, and do those consequences differ depending on who you are?  Does it matter if doctors believe this fact, or parents, or business investors, or regular consumers, or any other stakeholder you can think of? 
    • Citations:  Make sure you clearly quote and cite your news source and any scientific studies you reference in the body of your essay.  You can use any citation system you choose (MLA, APA, etc), as long as you are consistent.  You need to provide a Works Cited list, and you should plan to include no fewer than 3 sources (your news source and 2 scientific studies).
  3. Cover Letter: Once you (and your partner or group, if applicable) have completed your essay, you need to complete your Cover Letter.  In a short paragraph or two, answer the following questions.  Each of you should contribute and each should clearly mark their own contributions.
    • What did you learn in Units 1 and 2 that helped you to complete this assignment?
    • Do you think you had enough knowledge to confidently complete this assignment, or did you feel like you were out of your depth?
    • If you had had more time for this assignment, what you would have done with it? (Make sure to stick to what the assignment asks of you). 
    • Is there anything else you would like me to know?

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  1. Chapter 9 Language and Communication

Emotion and Children’s Speech Production

As with any area of children’s development, language and communication abilities can be compromised early on. One aspect of language development that can suffer is children’s speech production, resulting, for example, in stuttering. Since communication, social and emotional development are all closely linked, Karrass and colleagues (Karrass, Walden, Conture, Graham, Arnold, et al., 2006) sought to examine some of the emotional correlates of stuttering in children. Study participants included 65 preschool children who stuttered and a control group of 65 preschool children who did not stutter. Parents completed a questionnaire measuring temperament, emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Findings showed that when compared to fluent-speaking children in the control group, children who stuttered displayed a range of emotion reactions: they were more reactive, less able to regulate their emotions; and less able to regulate their attention. Children who displayed reactivity were more likely to respond to people and situations in a ‘highly-strung’ manner.

The authors interpreted the findings to indicate that problems with emotion regulation and reactivity may contribute to the language difficulties of children who stutter. It is not surprising to imagine that if a child feels anxious in a situation, and has difficulty controlling his or her arousal, the ability to produce words will be compromised, especially if speech production is already difficult or stressful for the child. It is important to bear in mind that this study employed a correlational design. However, correlational research designs do not allow us to draw firm conclusions about causality. Therefore, the findings of the Karrass et al. (2006) study may just as readily indicate that children with language problems develop emotional difficulties due to embarrassment or stress in response to stuttering. It is likely that speech and emotion difficulties are mutually influential, with exacerbations in either causing a corresponding problem in the other.

Regardless of which conclusion is more likely, the study has important implications for children with speech production difficulties. This study also demonstrates the close link between language and emotional development; disruption in one area can have wide-reaching effects. The findings are not simply limited to a language-emotion connection. It is likely that emotion affects social development as well. Research does indeed show that children who are less able to understand and control their emotions have more difficulties interacting with peers. For example, in a recent study, toddlers with more developed language skills were better able to manage frustration and were less likely to express anger at age 3–4 years than toddlers with less developed language skills (Roben et al., 2013). Language skills may help children to verbalize their needs, rather than use emotions to demonstrate what they want.

Question: In 3 full sentences, answer the following question.

What connections does the writer make about possible causations and correlations between speech, language, emotional and social development?

  1. Chapter 10 Emotional Development

Attachment Security and Temperament: The role of genetics and environment

Although the basic distinction in the nature–nurture debate is between the varied roles of genetics and environment in understanding development and behavior, we can make a further distinction between different forms of environmental influences. Shared environment factors can be distinguished from non-shared environmental factors. Environmental influences that are shared by family members include everything from neighborhoods, family socioeconomic status and family religion; they result in behavioral similarities between family members. In contrast, non-shared environmental influences are specific to an individual and include peers, birth order, differential parental treatment and any non-normative life events like accidents or deaths (Saudino, 2005).

A recent behavior genetics study examined the influence of these kinds of environmental influences and genetic influences on infant attachment and temperament (Bokhorst, Bakermans-Kranenburg, Fearon, Van IJzendoorn, Fonagy, & Schuengel, 2003). The study involved 157 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the Netherlands and London. Infants were placed in the strange situation to measure mother–infant attachment and mothers completed a questionnaire on the child’s temperament. Cross tabulations of attachment classifications within the pairs of twins revealed that genetic contributions were relatively small. For example, for monozygotic twins, the concordance for secure attachment was 42%, while for dizygotic twins, the concordance was 41%. This result was striking in that both types of twin showed comparable rates of genetic similarity, even though monozygotic twins have identical genotypes (compared to the 50% genetic similarity between dizygotic twins). After completing some complex modelling that accounted for genetics, shared and non-shared factors, the authors found that shared and non-shared environments were strong predictors of secure versus insecure attachment; the role of genetics was negligible. For temperament, the findings were slightly different. The difference in concordance between monozygotic and dizygotic twins was greater, and points to more of a genetic component. Results of statistical modelling revealed that 77% of temperamental differences were explained by genes, while the remaining 23% were explained by non-shared environmental factors.

Together, these findings indicate a strong role for environmental factors in attachment security; and in particular, non-shared environments. Parenting has been considered an important influence in whether children display secure attachments, and these findings support this. It is likely that parenting can be either a shared or a non-shared influence, as although parents may have an underlying parenting philosophy, they often parent differently with different children, resulting in non-shared influence as well. In contrast, the role of genetics is stronger in the development of temperament. It seems that infants are born with at least part of their tendency to react to and regulate emotion, and their individual experiences in the world explain the rest.

In 3 full sentences each, answer the following questions.

  1. What was the main difference the researchers found between attachment and temperament? Explain.
  2. What implications do the findings have for new parents?

III. Chapter 11 Social Development

Siblings as Socialization

Psychologists and the general public have long been fascinated with the notion that birth order affects personality. First-borns are traditionally thought to be the most responsible and high-achieving children in families, while younger children are considered more sociable and risk taking. While some observations have seemed to confirm these stereotypes, such that first-borns are overrepresented in politics and science (Hudson, 1990), research is not always consistent and most often studies merely note correlations. Many studies find differences on certain personality traits, such as conscientiousness (with elder children scoring higher), but birth order differences in other personality dimensions such as extraversion are contentious. It is thought that first-borns tend to be bigger and stronger than their younger siblings, which results in first-borns becoming more assertive, but also more eager to please adults to ensure they receive first dibs on parental resources. In contrast, younger siblings are likely to become agreeable and sociable to prevent any threatening confrontations with the eldest child in the family (Sulloway, 2001). However, research exploring these ideas has thus far been mixed.

A recent study attempted to get around the problems of earlier studies, which have traditionally used between-family designs, examining siblings of different birth orders in different families. This study, conducted with undergraduate and graduate students from a university in London, examined siblings born within the same family, thus comparing a first born with his or her younger sibling, rather than a younger sibling from another family (Beck, Burnet, & Vosper, 2006). The researchers did indeed find that birth-order affects social development. First-borns rated themselves as more dominant than younger siblings, while later-borns were rated as more sociable. It seems that how a child’s parent and siblings relate to him or her early on has a lasting effect on personality and socialization. However, it is worth noting that such studies generally ask about personality in the context of the family, and it possible that these birth-order tendencies do not extend to other situations. Thus, later-born children may be quite sociable in comparison to their older sibling and within their family, yet have an average social life at work.

Question: “It seems that how a child’s parent and siblings relate to him or her early on has a lasting effect on personality and socialization.” Cite 2 or 3 examples of how parents and siblings might shape the personality and socialization preferences of a child.

  1. Chapter 12 Moral Development

Friendship Groups for At-risk Children

Many interventions exist to teach children who have difficulties interacting with others to learn more effective ways of relating. A group of researchers examined how the friendship group component of a multi-component preventive intervention programme called Fast Track impacted children’s social outcomes (Lavallee. Bierman, Nix, and the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 2005). The study was primarily interested in seeing whether association with other aggressive children in the friendship groups led to more aggression in children. The Fast Track programme was designed to place at-risk children in a social skills training environment that would hopefully prevent children’s further aggressive and disruptive behaviour. The friendship group component of this program involved 5–6 children meeting once a week to learn new social cognitions, prosocial behaviour and how to reduce aggression. The friendship groups were run by trained adults. A total of 266 children aged 6–7 years were placed in a friendship group (56% belonged to a minority group, 29% were female). The authors reported a number of interesting findings:

  • Children placed in the friendship groups were significantly more likely than children in control groups to show improvements in moral behaviour.
  • Children’s pre-intervention positive and negative behaviour was related to their post-intervention behaviour such that children who started off aggressive were more likely to remain aggressive.
  • Children who received encouragement from other members of the group for ‘naughty’ behaviour were less likely to show improvements in behaviour.
  • Simply being in the presence of other disruptive or well-behaved children did not significantly impact children’s post-intervention behaviour.
      • The presence of girls in the friendship groups led to significantly better behaviour in all member
    • Question: Several explanations are given for the various results from this study of a friendship group. Identify (at least one each) and explain the results that are based on –
  1. social learning theory
  2. operant conditioning (Skinner’s behavioural theory)
  3. nativist theory (born that way)

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Please watch this video all of the instructions for the essay will be on Youtube video:

This essay will talk about autonomy and please do not QUOTE in this essay. This is simply more explanations.


Autonomy is the self-governance of an individual. Being able to live in accordance with your beliefs and values, not having to rely on others in order to live life. Living autonomously means living a life you truly believe is worth living. There are multiple factors that are involved in autonomy such as, capacities, options, beliefs, desires and the structure in which they are placed. Having an understanding and control over these factors is crucial for individuals to claim themselves as an autonomous individual.
Capacity relates to reasoning, self-knowledge, emotional awareness, and self-control. Comprehending what these are and utilizing them efficiently leads to autonomy. For example, reasoning deduces to being able to weigh your beliefs and values and act accordingly. As one grows up we learn how to make better choices, such as looking both ways before crossing the road. Both internal and external forces help us develop our reasoning as we age, we learn what may reap benefits for us and what may be harmful, what follows our values and what strays from them. Self-knowledge involves frimley knowing information about yourself. How can one be autonomous if they do not know anything about themselves? Simple, they can’t. Another great word for self-knowledge is self-awareness. Being aware of your strengths and weaknesses can lead you to make decisions accordingly and live in a manner that will move you forward. Emotional awareness is similar to self-knowledge, instead of knowing weaknesses and strengths, you know how your feelings work. If you know that you get angry and salty in competitive games, maybe don’t play competitively with friends so as to not ruin the mood afterwards. It’s as simple as identifying and predicting your emotions in different scenarios to help you make more rational decisions. Lastly, self-control relates to having control over yourself. A well known example about self-control is the “one more cookie” scenario. After opening a fresh pack of cookies, you eat some and knowing how bad they are for your health you say “one more” whether you eat one more or keep saying “one more” is the difference of having self-control. Complete self-control may not be necessary but enough should be present that you can act accordingly to your values.
Options are required in order for someone to act autonomously. Having options on a car to buy will allow you to pick the one that best aligns with your values. However, say that instead of multiple cars to pick from, there is now one car in the lot. Well, now you don’t have options on buying a car, it is diminishing your ability to act autonomously due to external factors.
Getting your beliefs and desires in order is a priority if someone seeks autonomy. You cannot live an autonomous life if you yourself do not know what type of life you want to live. Your beliefs should be accurate as to what you stand for and the type of life you want to live. More than likely you will have multiple beliefs and desires, however some will be stronger than others, those strong ones will dictate the decisions you make. A quick example could be choosing to exercise or going to an event where a renowned chef will be. You cheated out your workout yesterday, but your life long goal is to become a chef. The chef desire will greatly outweigh the exercise, stronger desires and beliefs impact your options and decision making.
Let us take Indigo into consideration, we already know that Indigo is normally an autonomous person, that is to say she already possesses those factors discussed earlier. But how exactly would she go about making a major decision in her life such as changing her major? Well Indigo would have to know what her capacities are. Being able to make rational decisions, take her knowledge about herself (strengths, weaknesses, and emotions) into consideration as well as her self-control. With all these in mind she would be able to rule out options, perhaps she does not work well with others, therefore she would choose a major that leads to a job where she depends mainly on herself. Or perhaps she is interested in anatomy, she may consider physiology or biology. Point is, Indigo will be choosing her new major based on the knowledge she possesses about herself and assuring it falls within her beliefs and desires.
Other people can definitely influence how people make decisions, autonomous people are not excluded. Let’s say that Indigo had settled on biology, but her parents had always drilled into her head about a finance major growing up. Indigo may not want to disappoint the two people in her life that gave her continuous support and made college a reality for her, she may be tempted to sacrifice biology for finance.
Factors other than people can also influence Indigo’s decision. What if the job market for biologists is at an all time low? Indigo would have to debate on whether she is willing to take that risk. Graduating with a degree in biology only to be unemployed. She would have to figure out how to earn money to live while she searches for a job related to her major and who knows how long that would take. There are several factors that can cause a disturbance towards an autonomous person, learning how to deal with them is critical.

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Identifying Individual Culture(s): Dimensions of Diversity

The primary dimensions of age, race, gender, ethnicity, (dis)abilities, sexual identity, economic class (childhood), and religion (childhood) serve as core elements and shape our basic self-image and our fundamental view. They help form our core expectations of others in our personal and professional life. 

The secondary dimensions of culture including education, income/economic status, religious beliefs (current), relationship/parental status, geographic location, and work background serve as independent influences on our self-esteem and self-definition. This influence varies with who we are, our stage of life, and changes we have experienced. 

The graphic below dives into identifying individual culture(s) and the dimensions of diversity. We belong to several cultures simultaneously which create our identities, loyalties, and strengthen allegiances to our cultures. These dimensions of culture affect the way we view and interact with the world, but we rarely take time to carefully examine them. This exercise begins the process of carefully examining our own standpoint and culture. We can ask, how does culture affect our:

  • Experiences?
  • Values and Beliefs?
  • Attitudes and Behaviors?

In this essay, you will explore the dimensions of the Identity Wheel (Who Am I), and find 5 different dimensions that highlight your cultural/life identity. You need to pick a least one from primary and one from secondary. The other three can come from either category. 

Your choices could be those with which you have built confident relationships, or those that you are trying to comfortably unfold. Explain your relationship with those dimensions and why they are significant. These stories will be told with a personal and subjective voice. Please only share what you comfortable doing so. These will only be read by me.

You must use Khakpour to highlight your argument. Begin your source integration by introducing the Khakpour writing for your readers. Like we’ve done previously, assume that your reader has not read the article/s. Give your readers the key info about the text, such as the full name of the writer, the title, and an overall summary of the text in your own words (basically teaching the text to your reader). Preview the idea/concept you want to quote by explaining it in your own words.

You must also use two additional sources that can be found through the GCC databases, as discussed in class, or other well-vetted sources. Don’t forget to add a signal phrase and parenthetical citation.

After each quote, explain what you think the quote means and how you think it reflects the argument you are making about identity and/or self. Analyze in no less than 3-5 sentences, per quote. You will likely have more.

Your paper should include the following requirements:

Your paper should be a minimum of 6 full double-spaced pages with 1’’ side margins, 1” header and footer margins, Times New Roman, 12 pt. font.

This paper should include a strong working thesis to help focus your essay; this is a main complex claim or thinking question you set up early on and develop/refine/complicate as the paper unfolds. Your claims should represent complexity in thinking through your ideas and need to be supported by detailed reasons and evidence.

You should be in conversation with your chosen and assigned texts. Keep in mind that you want your sources to be credible, or you have to make them credible through your own analysis. Don’t forget about the Library Databases!

As you incorporate your sources, accurately summarize the ideas, theories, terms, or concepts you are using from that source to offer context (making sure your summary is understandable to a reader who is not familiar with the source you’re introducing). Your sources should be a springboard for your own claims, questions, and analysis. In other words, you must “do something” with your sources. Be sure to clarify the meaning of the material you have quoted, paraphrased, or summarized and explain its significance in light of your evolving thesis – this is what the citation sandwich move is all about.

Support your claims with reasoning and evidence – making sure to link the evidence to the claim(s).

As you move toward the conclusion, address the “so what?” question for your thesis.

Clearly and explicitly explain your chain of reasoning – the thought-connections you are making throughout your draft between claims, evidence, & sources. The more clearly you explain connections to your readers, the more your readers will be able to follow your thinking.

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In class today we determined that while the person who represents you in the U.S. House of Representatives might represent you descriptively, they certainly ought to represent you substantively. In doing so they are better prepared to function as your “delegate” which, by the way, is their job.

Your assignment is to assess the job your representative is doing for you.

Start by going to this website to find out who represents you on The House. (Links to an external site.) With zipcod 91775

Then answer these questions, providing specific evidence to support each response:

1) Is this person acting as your delegate?

2) Is this person acting as your trustee?

3) Does this person represent you substantively?

4) Does this person represent you descriptively?

Writing to your Member of Congress Assignment

For this assignment submit a message to your representative to the U.S. House of Representatives through their website. This should be a well-thought-out and articulate expression of your evaluation of an issue position held by the Congressperson. You will have to do some independent research about your representative in order to do this.

To contact your representative and complete the assignment, you will have to complete the following steps:

  1. Find out who represents you in the U.S. House of Representatives.
    1. This is pretty easy to do, just go to (Links to an external site.) and click where it says “Write Your Representative” near the upper left-hand corner.
    2. On the next screen select the state in which you reside (presumably this is California).
    3. Next, enter your ZIP code and your 4-digit ZIP code extension.
  1. If you do not know your 4-digit ZIP code extension just click where it says “4-digit” and follow the appropriate steps from there.
    1. Now click “Contact My Representative”.
  1. From there you might be taken directly to the Congressperson’s contact page, or to a more generic site. Either way you will be informed who represents you at that time.
  2. Find and browse through the Congressperson’s website and learn where they stand on an issue that is of interest to you.
  3. Go back to, or find, the Congressperson’s contact site.
  4. Fill out the requisite information and write to your member of Congress telling them whether you support or disagree with their position on the issue of your choice and explain why.
  5. Before pressing send on that page, take a screenshot and/or print the page.
  6. Send your message.
  7. After you submit your message you will be taken to either a confirmation page or sent confirmation by e-mail. (It’s possible that none of that will happen)
    1. Either way, print the content of that confirmation, print a copy of your message, and the screenshot/print-page from step 6, and upload those to Canvas (if you can, as a single document). It’s possible that you will only have your screenshot, and that is just fine as well.
  8. If you have any questions just ask!

This is a formal message, so …

  1. Be sure to use formal language.
  2. Be sure you sign your name at the end.
  3. Be sure you identify yourself as a constituent.
  4. Be sure you appropriately address your “Congressperson.”
  5. Be sure you state your position on the issue and indicate what it is you like or don’t like about the position of the Congressperson.
  6. Let the Congressperson know that your support is at stake.

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“I felt that there had to be some great resources for young people of color their age, if only I could locate them. I quickly turned to the computer I used for my research (I was pursuing doctoral studies at the time), but I did not let the group of girls gather around me just yet. I opened up Google to enter in search terms that would reflect their interests, demographics, and information needs, but I liked to prescreen and anticipate what could be found on the web, in order to prepare for what might be in store. What came back from that simple, seemingly innocuous search was again nothing short of shocking: with the girls just a few feet away giggling and snorting at their own jokes, I again retrieved a Google Search results page filled with porn when I looked for “black girls.” By then, I thought that my own search history and engagement with a lot of Black feminist texts, videos, and books on my laptop would have shifted the kinds of results I would get. It had not. In intending to help the girls search for information about themselves, I had almost inadvertently exposed them to one of the most graphic and overt illustrations of what the advertisers already thought about them: Black girls were still the fodder of porn sites, dehumanizing them as commodities, as products and as objects of sexual gratification. I closed the laptop and redirected our attention to fun things we might do, such as see a movie down the street. This best information, as listed by rank in the search results, was certainly not the best information for me or for the children I love. For whom, then, was this the best information, and who decides? What were the profit and other motives driving this information to the top of the results? How had the notion of neutrality in information ranking and retrieval gone so sideways as to be perhaps one of the worst examples of racist and sexist classification of Black women in the digital age yet remain so unexamined and without public critique? That moment, I began in earnest a series of research inquiries that are central to this book” (Noble 17-18).

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Find this media (Tough guise 2: violence, manhood) on the internet

At its core, Tough Guise 2 argues that men’s violence is overwhelmingly a gendered phenomenon. And it suggests that any attempt to understand violence therefore requires critically examining our cultural codes and ideals of manhood.

The following points are central to the film’s main line of argument:

  • Masculinity is made, not a given;
  • Media are the primary narrative and pedagogical forces of our time;
  • Media images of manhood therefore play a pivotal role in making, shaping and privileging certain cultural and personal attitudes about manhood;
  • A critical examination of privileged media images of manhood reveals a widespread and disturbing equation of masculinity with pathological control and violence;
  • Looking critically at constructed ideals of manhood – at how, why and in whose interests these ideals are constructed in different historical, social, and cultural contexts – denaturalizes and diminishes the potential of these imagined ideals to shape perceptions of ourselves, our world, and each other.
  • Key Points from Tough Guise 2

  • When we talk about violence in America, whether it’s mass shootings in the real world or sensationalized violence in our movies and video games, we’re almost always talking about violent masculinity.
  • The statistics tell the story: the overwhelming majority of violence – sexual assault, mass shootings, murder, and domestic violence resulting in physical injury – is committed by men and boys.
  • But even though men and boys commit the vast majority of violence in America, gender is rarely a part of mainstream discussions about violence.
  • Questions for Reaction Paper

    1. Why do you think it is that men and boys commit such an overwhelming percentage of violence in America?

    2. Does Katz’s observation that men and boys are responsible for the vast majority of violence in America imply that most men and boys are violent? Why or why not? Explain.

    3. What’s the difference between Katz saying that violence is about violent masculinity rather than about violent males? Explain.

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    Question 11 pts

    Dueling Dualisms

    1. Who was initially banned from modern Olympics?

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 2Question 21 pts

    Dueling Dualims

    2. The IOC (International Olympic Committee) insists on sex verification for female athletes because,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 3Question 31 pts

    Dueling Dualisms

    3. Until 1968, the sex of female athletes was often verified by asking women to parade naked in front of a board of examiners. This practice was abandoned also because,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 4Question 41 pts

    Dueling Dualisms

    4. Fausto-Sterling points out that in different social contexts we tend to use different criteria in order to determine sex. For example,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 5Question 51 pts

    Dueling Dualisms

    5. Fausto-Sterling suggests that choosing which criteria to use in determining sex, and choosing to make a sex determination at all,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 6Question 61 pts

    Where is the Rulebook on Sex Verification?

    6. It is not the Y chromosome that usually makes a fetus grow as a male but,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 7Question 71 pts

    Where is the Rulebook on Sex Verification?

    7. Looking at genitals is not a sufficient criterion for sex verification because,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 8Question 81 pts

    Where is the Rulebook on Sex Verification?

    8. Looking at the presence of absence of hormones in order to verify sex is problematic because,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 9Question 91 pts

    Where is the Rulebook on Sex Verification?

    9. To determine whether Caster Semenya is in fact a woman, the I.A.A.F. has called upon,

    Group of answer choices

    Flag question: Question 10Question 101 pts

    Where is the Rulebook on Sex Verification?

    10. In order to come to a decision, the members of the panel charged with establishing whether Caster Semenya is in fact a woman,

    Group of answer choices

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    California State University L

    I attached the requirement all below.


    Typically, exemplification papers use several examples to support the generalization. However, successful papers have been written using one well-developed example. Other papers will use one fully developed example combined with several shorter examples. What works best is determined by the author’s topic, purpose, and audience.

    Organizing Examples

    Usually, a writer’s purpose will be best achieved through a careful arrangement of the examples. Sometimes a chronological order is most effective. At other times, examples are arranged spatially – from west to east, near to far, or large to small. Some writer’s like to begin with their strongest example, while others prefer to end with their best example. Carefully choose the organization which best supports your purpose or attracts your audience’s attention.

    Whatever method you choose, be sure to have some reason for the order of your material. To help show the logic behind your organization, use transitions that will indicate not only that you are moving to a new example but will also indicate the logic. Phrases such as “more recently,” “a clearer example,” or “closer to home” help to guide the reader better than simply repeating “another example” at the beginning of each paragraph. In most papers, the logic behind your paper should be more complex than simple addition.

    The Writing Assignment

    Support or explain a generalization using concrete examples from your own direct experience and observation. As in all writing, your examples should include specific details that appeal to the reader’s senses. This will help the reader to understand and will make your essay livelier to read.

    Essays should include a well-conceived introduction, a well-developed body, and a satisfying conclusion. Your generalization will serve as your thesis statement, or as an opening statement.

    Papers should be approximately two pages in length.

    You may create your own generalization, but be sure it is adequate for the needs of this class. Below are some generalizations you might use to give yourself ideas or to compare with your own topic idea.

    1. People conform to the conventions of the group.
    2. Teenagers are the worst conformists of all.
    3. Discontent is the first step towards progress.
    4. Commercials are the best form of entertainment on television.
    5. One can tell a great deal about people by the way they dress.
    6. Not all problems can be solved – we just have to live with them.
    7. Some modern “conveniences” have turned out to be very inconvenient.
    8. Sometimes simplicity is best (clothing, cars, weddings, laws, movies, etc.).
    Racism (or sexism, ageism, etc.) is still very much present today.
    The best things in life are free.

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    1. Watch ALL the videos on the Homepage (check out the links in the center column too… do you want to end up as a diamond after you’re dead? You’ll need to check this out for the written section)……

    2. READ the FACT SHEET: Background: California Governor, Jerry Brown signed the END OF LIFE OPTION ACT which is basically a “right-to-die” bill that permits physicians to provide lethal prescriptions to mentally competent adults who have a terminal illness and are expected to die within six months. Agreement from two physicians is required, and the medicine must be self-administered.

    ASSIGNMENT: Writing Section:

    1. Tell me your thoughts about the videos and text and article. (use BULLETS to separate your thoughts…. looking for QUALITY… not quantity… )

    • I want you to tell me your thoughts on all of these topics (mention something SPECIFIC to the video/text/article for full points!!): Don’t forget the bullets! (you’ll have 7 bullets!) (at least 150 words for each video)
      • Karen Ann Quinlan (video)
      • Terri Schiavo (video)
      • The HIGH cost of Dying (video)
      • Funeral Costs (video)
      • What happens to our bodies (video)
      • Living Wills and Advanced Directives (video above ^ )
      • Death with Dignity FACT SHEET (above ^ )

    2. I know that no one particularly enjoys talking about where they want their body to end up, but we need to start the conversation!!

    • Have you talked about end-of-life with family members? have they talked to you? Why or why not?
    • And tell me your thoughts about Advanced Directives: Do you have an Advanced Directive? would you want to be kept on life support? would you like a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order? Are you just planning on having the decisions made for you by others?
    • Have you experienced this issue (work, home, friends)?? This is where I want you to TALK ABOUT THE ISSUE and your experience or what you would do if faced with having to make the decision for someone else..

    3. You watched the videos on the homepage…. and clicked on the links in the center section. (USE BULLETS… 2 bullets!)

    • Tell me, what you think of all the different choices for your body after death and let me know what choice would you choose for YOUR body (burial, cremation, set off in fireworks, made into a diamond, a mushroom suit like Luke Perry)?
    • Is your choice determined by your cultural responsibilities? religion? reducing your carbon footprint? scared to be buried? Tell me WHAT and also tell me WHY!

    Criteria (point loss for not following)

    • First person, college level writing
    • Sections identified and each answer will have a bullet
    • 1500 word minimum

    Section 1 – reading, video & article review – (2 x 7)
    Section 2 – end of life discussion
    Section 3 – body disposal discussion

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    California State University L

    Part 1:


    The 1990s saw a great variety of film music. Choose one of the following movie categories and describe the music and composers of specific film scores: history movies, animations, crime films, and dramas.


    • Format: typed with double-spacing
    • Length: at least 3 fully developed paragraphs (200 words each)
    • Use footnotes only if you quote a source.

    Part 2:

    Discuss the role of music in a single film. You can choose any film that you like, even if it is discussed in the text. You are not limited to Hollywood films, as international films are acceptable.


    You should choose a film that you enjoy and can watch multiple times. Films are available at the CSULB library media center if you do not have access.

    In your paper, do not summarize the plot. It should not look like the Viewer Guides. Please focus on the music. Here are some possible approaches:

    • A narrative approach allows you to talk about the film as it unfolds and analyze the music as it appears in the film. This is the easiest approach and also the least interesting. Still, a good paper that focuses on music can achieve an A grade.
    • You can choose some of the basic qualities of film music (see Chapter 4) and treat one or more separately. This places the emphasis on music more than in the narrative approach.
    • Taking a point of view is the most challenging, thoughtful approach. It is especially recommended as a practice for those going to graduate schools. Decide on a point of view about the music in the film and support your view in a logical manner that does not depend on the narrative or the mechanical listing of musical characteristics. Possible subjects: the role of source music in a film; how does music reflect changes in a character or situation; how does music support the theme or message of a film.

    Best Internet Resource


    • Format: typed with double-spacing
    • Length: 4-5 pages or longer if you use wide margins, big print, or pictures
    • Use a formal writing style. Grammar and spelling will be considered in your grade.
    • A bibliography is not needed; use footnotes only when appropriate.

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