Chamberlain College of Nursin

·The purpose of this initial paper is to briefly describe your search strategies when identifying two articles that pertain to an evidence-based practice topic of interest.

Each group will formulate research question using PICO format.

Each group member will search, retrieve, and receive approval for 1 PRIMARY DATA ARTICLE to answer the group Research Question.

Paper should include a Title and Reference pages.

Page Length: 3-4 pages Excluding Title and Reference pages

·The paper will include the following:

Clinical Question

Research Question

Accurately and clearly states your research question using PICO format

Overview of the Problem

What statistics document this is a problem? (facts and figures)

Significance of the Problem

What health outcomes result from this problem. Why should people be concerned about this problem?

Purpose of Paper

Describe the purpose of topic search strategy (ITSS) paper

Search Strategy

Search Terms

List all terms used to search for your article (i.e. breast cancer, screening, mammography, intervention, assessment, influencing factors….etc.)

Library Databases

List Chamberlain library database used (i.e. EBSCO, CINAHL, Medline, OVID, PubMed….etc.)

Google search engine is NOT the library database

Availability of Articles

How many research articles were available to answer your research question?

Provide numbers of articles, NOT just saying “plenty, sufficient, many…etc.

Refinement Decisions

What decision(s) have changed from your original search strategies? (i.e. peer-review, within last 5 years, primary data article, full-text….etc.) 

What was your rationale for your decision to change from original search strategies?

Final Article

Describe decisions you made to specifically select 1 PRIMARY DATA ARTICLE as relevant for answering your Research Question

Level of Evidence

Addresses Topic/Relevance to PICO

Describe how article addresses the topic, purpose and key points

Evidence Level Pyramid

Identify and describe the level of evidence based on Evidence Level/Hierarchy Pyramid

Refers to Handout (Quick Guide to Designs in an Evidence Hierarchy)

Study Type

Identify study type of article: Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed-Method Study

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Introduction

Required criteria:
1) Offer a detailed description of the statement of purpose for the paper.
2) Identify a priority concept (topic) from the Individual Student ATI Assessment Trends: Longitudinal Performance Table drawn from one (1) of the four (4) main categories of the NCLEX-RN examination blueprint:
a) Assurance of a safe and effective care environment
b) Health promotion and maintenance of health
c) Preservation of the patient population’s psychosocial integrity
d) Preservation of the patient population’s physiological integrity
3) Provide a detailed description of the relationship between the category from the NCLEX-RN examination blueprint and the priority concept (topic).

Importance

Required criteria:
1) Describe the importance of the priority concept (topic) to professional practice
2) Describe the health of the patient population.
3) Include the potential negative effect to professional practice if the priority concept (topic) is unresolved.

Participants and Interdisciplinary Approach

Required criteria:
1) Identify all the parties who will be involved in the implementation of the priority concept (topic) interventions.
2) Discuss the role of each member in the intervention implementation for the priority concept (topic).
3) Identify a minimum of two (2) members of a discipline outside of nursing.

4) Discuss the benefit of including the identified interdisciplinary member from disciplines outside nursing to promote evidence-based professional practice.4) Include the potential negative effect to the patient population if the priority concept (topic) is unresolved.

Healthcare Disparities, Inequalities, and Interventions

Required criteria:

1) Identify patient populations that may be negatively influenced by the priority concept (topic) if unresolved.

2) Identify healthcare resources to support evidence-based practice related to the priority concept (topic).

3) Summarize potential priority concept (topic) healthcare disparities and inequalities related to diverse populations.

4) Propose an evidence-based solution for the priority concept (topic) related to healthcare disparities.

5) Identify three (3) evidence-based practice interventions.

6) Prioritize the identified evidence-based practice interventions and provide rationale.

7) Discuss two (2) patient education considerations related to the priority concept (topic).

Legal & Ethical Considerations and Intervention Challenges

Required criteria:
1) Identify at least one (1) ethical and one (1) legal implication for addressing the priority concept (topic) in professional practice.
2) Discuss at least one (1) strategy in prevention of an ethical dilemma related to the priority concept (topic) in professional practice.
3) Discuss at least one (1) strategy in prevention of legal consequences related to the priority concept (topic) in professional practice.
4) Identify one (1) anticipated challenge to the success of preventing the priority concept (topic) in professional practice.
5) Identify one (1) anticipated challenges to the success of resolving the priority concept (topic) in professional practice.

Quality Improvement

Required criteria:
1) Provide at least one (1) benefit in patient outcomes from addressing the priority concept (topic) within the clinical environment.
2) Provide at least one (1) benefit to the nursing profession that will result from addressing this priority concept (topic) in clinical professional practice.
3) Discuss at least one (1) resource utilized to promote improved patient outcomes in the clinical environment.
4) Discuss at least one (1) resource utilized to increase professional nurse knowledge promoting improved clinical professional practice.

Conclusion

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Requirements

  1. The?APN Professional Development Plan paper?is worth 200 points and will be graded on the quality of the content, use of citations, use of Standard English grammar, sentence structure, and overall organization based on the required components as summarized in the directions and grading criteria/rubric. 
  2. Submit the paper as a Microsoft Word Document, which is the required format at Chamberlain University. You are encouraged to use the APA Academic Writer and Grammarly tools when creating your assignment. 
  3. Follow the directions below and the grading criteria located in the rubric closely. Any questions about this paper may be posted under the Q & A Forum or emailed to your faculty. 
  4. The length of the paper should be 5-8 pages, excluding title page and reference page(s). 
  5. Support ideas with a minimum of 3 scholarly resources. Scholarly resources do not include your textbook. You may need to use more than 3 scholarly resources to fully support your ideas. 
  6. You may use first person voice when discussing information specific to your personal practice or skills.  
  7. Current edition APA format is required with both a title page and reference page(s). Use the following as Level 1 headings to denote the sections of your paper (Level 1 headings use upper- and lower-case letters and are bold and centered): 
    • APN Professional Development Plan (This is the paper introduction. In APA format, a restatement of the paper title, centered and not bold serves as the heading of the introduction section) 
    • APN Scope of Practice 
    • Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies  
    • Leadership Skills 
    • Conclusion 

Directions

  1. Introduction: Provide an overview of what will be covered in the paper. Introduction should include general statements on scope of practice, competencies, and leadership, and identification of the purpose of the paper. 
  2. APN Scope of Practice: Research the Nurse Practice Act and APN scope of practice guidelines for the state in which you intend to practice after graduation. Describe the educational, licensure, and regulatory requirements for that state in your own words. Identify whether your state allows full, limited, or restricted NP practice. Discuss NP prescriptive authority in your state. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be the regulatory body that governs nursing practice in your state. 
  3. Nurse Practitioner (NONPF) Core Competencies: Review the NONPF Core Competencies. Describe two competency areas you believe to be personal strengths and two competency areas in which you have opportunities for growth. Discuss two scholarly activities you could do during the master’s program to help yourself achieve NP competencies. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Source may be NONPF Core Competencies document provided via the link in the week 2 readings. 
  4. Leadership Skills: Analyze three leadership skills required to lead as an NP within complex systems. Describe two strategies you could use to help you develop NP leadership skills. Provide support from at least one scholarly source. Textbooks are not considered scholarly sources. 
  5. Conclusion: Provide a conclusion, including a brief summary of what you discussed in the paper. 

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For the initial post, address the following:

  • Find and post examples of deductive and inductive arguments. Do NOT use an argument example which clearly indicates it is an example of an inductive/deductive argument.
  • For each example, evaluate its logical strength, using the concepts and ideas presented in the textbook readings, the lesson, and any other source you find that helps you to evaluate the validity (deductive) or strength (inductive) of the argument. You can use examples from the text, or you can find examples elsewhere.
    • Editorials and opinion columns are a good source, as are letters to the editor. Blogs will also often be based on arguments.
    • Use mapping and evaluative techniques to make sure it is an argument.
  • Is it inductive or deductive? Explain why.
  • Does it pass the tests of validity and strength? Explain.
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

deductive argument example

“Tightening laws restricting the use and possession of firearms does not protect average law-abiding citizens; it only puts them at greater risk. Enforcing licensing restrictions, trigger locks, and waiting periods makes it more difficult for law-abiding citizens to defend themselves, and, as a result, encourages criminal activity. Only criminals benefit when ordinary citizens are deprived of their right to own a firearm and protect themselves, their homes, and their families” (Lott, 2000, p. 169)

Lott, J., (2000). More guns, less crime: Understanding crime and gun-control laws. University of Chicago Press.

The argument boils down to this:

  • Laws that are obeyed by ordinary citizens and not obeyed by criminals are laws that put ordinary citizens at risk.
  • Tight gun laws are laws that are obeyed only by ordinary citizens.
  • Tight gun laws put ordinary citizens at risk.

However, the argument itself is composed of three intertwined syllogisms:

Only ordinary citizens are persons who respect tight gun laws.
Criminal persons are not ordinary citizens.
Therefore, criminals do not respect tight gun laws.

Tight gun laws restrict only ordinary citizens.
No criminal is an ordinary citizen.
No criminal is restricted by tight gun laws.

Laws that disfavor the good are laws that favor the bad.
Tight gun laws favor the bad.
Therefore, tight gun laws disfavor the good.

Notice that you cannot remove any of the “legs” and maintain the claim. Notice, also, that the reasons are closely connected and depend on or follow from each other. Notice, also, that the first premise (called the major premise) must be accepted as true or the entire argument fails.

inductive argument example

The United States is too dependent upon foreign oil. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, we rely on imported foreign oil for about 45% of our needs. Of the imported oil, most comes from Canada, but 22% comes from countries in the Middle East. Undeniably, this dependence shapes our foreign policy. We have vast oil reserves that could make us energy-independent. Development of these resources would produce much-needed jobs, many of them in areas of the country suffering most from the recession. We should be developing an energy policy that makes us energy independent.

  • Reason: We import 45% of our oil.
  • Reason: Middle East oil imports shape our foreign policy.
  • Reason: Our vast oil reserves could make us energy independent.
  • Reason: Development of oil reserves could produce much needed jobs.
  • Conclusion: For any or all of the above, independent reasons, we should become energy independent.

Notice that any one of these reasons, standing alone, could support the conclusions; they are not logically related to one another as they would be in a syllogism.

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Initial Post Instructions
Select one of the following options to research for this discussion:

  • Option 1: Google <California Washington mural>. You will find numerous reports concerning a California school district that voted to paint over a mural in the high school. The Life of Washington was painted by Depression-era artist Victor Arnautoff.

Option 2: Google <Indiana University Thomas Hart Benton mural>. You will find numerous articles on the controversy surround a panel from Benton’s A Social History of Indiana (1933) murals.

Option 3: Conduct research on a mural or statue or monument in your town that is the subject of controversy.

Before you read the news articles, try to look at the artworks through an image search in Google. Then, read the news articles to see the different viewpoints about the murals.

For the initial post, address at least four (4) of the following questions for the option you selected:

  • What do you think should be done with the artwork (e.g., painted over, covered, destroyed, left as is in plain view, etc.)? Why?

Should the context in which the artwork was created (the Great Depression of the 1930s in the case of the Benton and Arnautoff murals) have an impact on the decision of what to do with the artwork?

Should the context in which people now view the artwork have an impact on the decision of what to do with it?

  • What message do you think the artwork conveys?

Do you think there is ambiguity in the message?

Do you think the message is vague?

  • Does the artistic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

Does the historic value of the artwork require that it be saved regardless of message?

Do you think the message of the artwork is sufficiently important that the message alone requires that it be saved?

Do you think the artists were biased or prejudiced? If yes, explain specifics about the artwork that support your opinion. Do you think viewers might be bringing bias or prejudice to their opinions? Are you?

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Need help with my Nursing question – I’m studying for my class.

Describe the nursing care delivery model used at your current or previous employer. Would you utilize this model at SLMC? Discuss current interprofessional collaboration and how you would encourage collaborative efforts. Does the model support the person-centred nursing framework by McCormack and McCance (2017)? Explain your rationale for choosing to use or not use the person-centred nursing framework.

Please refer back to the 2017 PCNF overview presented below.

Patient-Centered Care: A Person-Centred Care Model Revisited

Caring continues to be a central concept in nursing; however, the context for caring is transforming, resulting in conceptual and theoretical advancements related to the evolving healthcare practice settings. McCormack and McCance originally developed a Person-Centred Nursing (PCN) Framework in 2006 and updated it in 2010 that can be applied to practice in complex healthcare systems (McCormack & McCance, 2006; McCormack & McCance, 2017). The PCN Framework provides a standard of care for practice and is a multidimensional process that places emphasis on the person as the center of care delivery (McCance, McCormack, & Dewing, 2011). The PCN Framework fosters outcomes related to therapeutic relationships through respecting individuals as persons and partners in care. The Person-Centred Care Nursing Framework consists of four constructs: prerequisites, the care environment, person-centred processes, and outcomes (McCance et al., 2011). To deliver effective care, one must work from the outer circle first to the core. McCormack, B. & McCance, T. (2017)Prerequisites focus on the attributes of the nurses and include being professionally competent, having developed interpersonal skills, being committed to the job, being able to demonstrate clarity of beliefs and values, and knowing self. The care environment focuses on the context in which care is delivered and includes appropriate skill mix, systems that facilitate shared decision making, effective staff relationships, organizational systems that are supportive, the sharing of power, the potential for innovation and risk taking, and the physical environment. Person-centred processes focus on delivering care through a range of activities and include working with a patient’s beliefs and values to overcome this gap between the concept and the reality of person-centred care we have developed the Person-Centred Nursing Framework…engagement, having sympathetic presence, sharing decision making, and providing holistic care. Outcomes, the central component of the Framework, are the results of effective, person-centred nursing and include: satisfaction with care, involvement in care, feeling of well-being, and creating a therapeutic environment. (McCance, McCormack, & Dewing, 2011).

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I had included parts of chapter 5 and chapter 4 concepts if you need more let me know I’m not sure how I can go about sharing my e book but outside sources are fine just needs to be cited. 

Instructions
Remember – these journal questions require more thinking than writing. Think about exactly what you are asked to do, and then write as economically as possible. 

For this journal assignment, answer each of the following prompts:

Important Idea

Considering only the Introduction to Chapter 5, in terms of developing critical thinking and reasoning, what do you consider is the most valuable and important idea in that section? You can either summarize or directly quote the text; then, briefly explain why you find this idea important and valuable.

Critical Thinking

In Chapter 5, the section “Making Arguments” states: “In some ways applying our core critical thinking skills to analysis can be more difficult than offering an evaluative opinion. Analysis, like interpretation, is understanding at a deep level (p. 89)”

  • What concepts discussed in Chapter 4 might make analysis of a statement difficult – and why?

Beliefs

Why do you believe what you believe?

  • What is your “evidence”?
  • Test one of your beliefs by asking yourself, “Why?” As you answer each “why,” go down another layer – four layers will probably give you a good idea of why you believe what you believe.

Your product should show a well-reasoned and logical basis for your belief. Stay away from the big stuff, like believing in God, or who to vote for in the next election, and don’t look for sources – this is about what you believe and why you believe it. After all, this is only an 8-week course, and we can’t settle everything!

  • Facione, P., & Gittens, C. A. (2015). THINK Critically (3rd Edition). Pearson Education (US). https://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/books/9780133914351

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Need help with my question – I’m studying for my class.

  • Textbook: Chapter 8
  • Play from the Internet, YouTube, DVD, iTunes, Amazon, Netflix, etc.
  • 1 primary source (written version of selected play)

Instructions
Plays are meant to be performed, rather than read. The purpose of dramatic arts often extends far beyond the words written on a page; staging, lighting, costumes intonation, expression, and audience experience are all part of the experience of a theatrical production. To develop your understanding of the cultural role of the dramatic arts, you will view a production of a play this week and write a reflection to explain your viewing experience. Choose a play that you would like to view and find a version online, YouTube, DVD or iTunes, Amazon, Netflix, etc. You can also choose to see a play live if you prefer.

Play Suggestions:

  • A Midsummer Night’s Dream
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • As You Like It
  • Taming of the Shrew
  • The Tempest
  • Much Ado About Nothing
  • The Comedy of Errors
  • Macbeth
  • King Lear

If you have another idea, please ask your instructor to approve it.

Then, select and address one of the following options:

Option 1: Write an analysis of the play that you viewed. Include at least one quote from the play in your essay. In your essay, address the following:

  • Identify the performance that you have selected.
  • Describe the staging, lighting, costumes, and characters of the performance. How do these match or revise the written version of the play? You do not need to read the entire play, but you should skim the text.
  • What type of mood and tone does the performance create? How?
  • What parts of the play are easier to understand through performance? What are some details that stood out through performance?
  • What are your feelings about this performance? What did you take away from viewing it?

Option 2: Find an adaptation or transformation of a play. Choose an adaptation with some significant differences from the original, such as transposed plots and characters into a variety of different settings and historical contexts. Here are some examples:

  • A Midsummer Night’s Dream – A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1999) or A Midsummer Night’s DREAM (2018)
  • Romeo and Juliet – Romeo + Juliet (1996) or West Side Story (1961) or Romeo Must Die (2000)
  • As You Like It – As You Like It (2006)
  • Taming of the Shrew – 10 Things I Hate About You (1999) or Kiss Me, Kate (1948)
  • Much Ado About Nothing – Much Ado About Nothing (2012)
  • The Comedy of Errors – The Bomb-itty of Errors (2012)
  • King Lear – A Thousand Acres (1997)
  • Othello – O (2001)
  • Hamlet – The Lion King (2019 or 1994) or Hamlet (2000)
  • Twelfth Night – She’s the Man (2006)

If you have another idea, please ask your instructor to approve it.

Watch the original version and the adapted version. In your essay, address the following:

  • How is the adaptation the same as the original? Discuss plot, characters, theme, conflict, language, etc.
  • How does the adaptation differ from the original? Discuss setting, time period, characters, plot, language, etc.
  • Does the original story translate well in the adaptation? Why or why not? Did the adaptation work in a different setting, time period, etc. Why or why not?
  • Why do you think Shakespeare’s plays are adapted so often?

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Required Assignment Topic

Select ONE of the Health Conditions or Health Behaviors for the focus of your assignment through the Healthy People 2030 link below:

https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives (Links to an external site.) Please choose any topic except addiction.

Note: You will use the same scenario you develop and the same mHealth app you identify in future assignments (Weeks 4 and 6).

Note: You will use the same scenario you develop and same mHealth app you identify here in future assignments (Week 4 and 6).

Requirements and Guidelines

  • Download the required Milestone 1 Template (Links to an external site.). Save it to your computer with the file name: Your Last Name NR361 Milestone 1.docx.
  • Write a patient scenario using the Required Assignment Topic.
    • Make sure to include a Healthy People 2030 Health Condition or Health Behavior in the scenario for a patient with a desire to maintain or achieve good health and prevent illness and who could benefit from an already developed and reliable mHealth app.
    • Choose a scholarly peer-reviewed journal article published within the last 5 years and related to the health condition or health behavior in your scenario. The Chamberlain Library is your best place to obtain this article. Cite this in APA 7th edition format in this section of the assignment.
  • Describe in detail the plan for teaching this patient in the scenario.
    • Include the nurse’s assessment of learning needs and readiness to learn.
  • Identify a mHealth app that could benefit the patient, considering the teaching/learning needs you identified.
    • Describe the app including the mHealth app name, purpose, intended audience, mobile device(s) upon which it will operate, and where to download or obtain it. Add any other information you believe would be pertinent to this situation.
    • Include a working link if it is to be downloaded from a website in the area indicated on the template.   

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Week 5: HealthIT Topic of Week Assignment (Links to an external site.)

Purpose

This assignment is designed to help students

  • Develop an appreciation for informatics, basic skills and knowledge required in practice settings. Students will select a “hot” or popular topic of particular interest to their practice to discuss. The topic will be selected from the website using the link provided in the course Assignments section.

Course Outcomes

CO 6: Describe health information systems within healthcare setting and the profession of nursing in all practice domains and settings including electronic health records (EHR), their management and patient-care information technology (IT). (PO 3)

CO 7: Explore trends and issues in NI and their impact on nursing practice in all domains, including cultural humility and person-centered care. (PO 1, 3)

Students will login to FierceEMR and FierceHealthIT using the link provided in the reading assignment module for Week 5 and select a “current/popular” topic of the week that may impact their practice. Students, in a professionally developed paper, will discuss the rationale for choosing the topic, how it will impact practice in a positive or negative manner, citing pros and cons. Include a discussion of how informatics skills and knowledge were used in the process relevance to developing the assignment. In the conclusion, provide recommendations for the future. Submit completed FierceHealthIT Topic paper for Wk. 5 to dropbox by end of Week 5.

Preparing the paper

  1. The FierceEMR and FierceHealthIT Current/Popular Topic of the Week assignment must be a professional, scholarly prepared paper. See the guidelines for writing a professional, scholarly paper. The professional paper will have an introduction, body of paper to explain what you are doing, summary/conclusion, and at least three scholarly references.
  2. Required texts may be used as references, but a minimum of three sources must be from outside of course readings.
  3. All aspects of the paper must be in APA format as expressed in the current edition.
  4. The paper (excluding the title page, introduction and reference page) is 4-6 pages in length.
  5. Ideas and information from professional sources must be cited correctly.
  6. Grammar, spelling, punctuation, and citations are consistent with formal academic writing.

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In this session, you have been considering moral-ethical dilemmas you yourself faced or that you know of that you either resolved or failed to resolve, but hopefully learned from. You may never have given much thought to ethical theory nor what ethical premises/paradigms you have unconsciously held.

You will be focusing on this case for this assignment:

Jane Doe is a nursing student at University X. Jane is in week eight of a course entitled: “Introduction to Ethics”.

For the week one discussion, Jane copied work done by her friend John Doe in the same class two months ago (with a different professor). John told Jane it was okay to use his work as John’s professor never checked any work in the class using Turnitin.com. John claimed to have earned an A on the work also.

In week two, Jane went to StudentPapering.com and paid ten dollars for a week two essay done by a student (not John Doe) who took the same course four months ago. StudentPapering promises that all its archived work is of excellent quality and cannot be detected as copied. Jane then uploaded an exact copy of the work for the week two assignment.

In week three, Jane paid a worker at PaperingStudent.com ten dollars to write for Jane a brand new essay after Jane shared with the worker the essay assignment instructions.

In week four, Jane relied on her knowledge of Esperanto. She felt pressed for time and found an article by a professor from Esperanto on the week four topic. She translated Esperanto into English using Moogle Translate, and the translated text served as her week four paper.

In week five, Jane was running late again. Jane purposely uploaded a blank paper hoping that she would later claim it was an innocent mistake and not be assessed a late penalty. In a previous course on History, she had done the same (with an earlier paper from the History class rather than simply a blank) and had not seen any late penalty assessed.

In week six, Jane took work she did in a nursing course from a year ago and submitted that for her discussion posting in her current class. She simply copied and pasted the work she had labored intensively on a year ago (even though University X forbids this practice as ‘self-plagiarism’). Jane was confident her Nursing instructor never checked that work using Turnitin.com or another method.

In week seven, Jane copied and pasted work found on website.com for the paper. Jane did not use any quotation marks or other documentation to show the text was not by Jane.

Since Jane’s Ethics professor did not check papers and posting for any issues by using Turnitin.com or another method, the professor graded all of Jane’s work unaware of Jane’s actions throughout the weeks of the class. Jane feels her actions are morally justified both because her economic situation requires her to work too much to devote time to school (although other students are well-off enough to have such time) and her religion forbids cheating, but Jane ignores her religion’s teachings.

Instructions
Now that you have had an opportunity to explore ethics formally, create a reflective assessment of your learning experience and the collaborations you engaged in throughout this session. You will submit:

  • A written reflection

For the written reflection, address Jane Doe’s and respond to the following:

  • Articulate again your moral theory from week eight discussion (You can revise it if you wish). What two ethical theories best apply to it? Why those two? (I HAVE ATTACHED MY WEEK 8 DISCUSSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS ASSIGNMENT.)
  • Apply to Jane Doe’s case your personal moral philosophy as developed in week eight discussion and now. Use it to determine if what Jane Doe did was ethical or unethical per your own moral philosophy.
  • Consider if some of these examples are more grave instances of ethical transgressions than others. Explain.
  • Propose a course of social action and a solution by using the ethics of egoism, utilitarianism, the “veil of ignorance” method, deontological principles, and/or a theory of justice to deal with students like  Jane. Consider social values such as those concerning ways of life while appraising the interests of diverse populations (for instance, those of differing religions and economic status).

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Introduction

“Everyone is entitled to their own opinions – but not their own facts.” (Daniel Patrick Moynihan, cited in Vanity Fair, 2010, para. 2)

We form opinions – and make our judgments – based on facts we observe and values we hold. Our judgments are also influenced by the opinions of others. In the section “An Expert on Hate in America” in Chapter 6, one of the authors, Dr. Peter Facione, renders an opinion on a non-profit civil rights organization: Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). Dr. Facione is a leading advocate and one of the most influential voices in the field of critical thinking.

His endorsement of the civil rights organization is unqualified. It is also transparent: Dr. Facione reveals that he is a financial supporter of the organization and has arranged speaking engagements for its founder. This is Dr. Facione’s invitation to you, the reader:

Knowing where you can learn more about the SPLC for yourself, and knowing about Dr. Facione’s endorsement and support of the Center’s work, evaluate this claim made by Dr. Facione: “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124).

The endorsement of the SPLC is contained in the most current edition of the text, whose copyright date is 2016. Since that time Morris Dees, co-founder and former chief trial counsel, has been fired (Hassan, Zraick & Blinder, 2019). Previously, there has been controversy about groups and individuals that are listed by the SPLC as “hate groups” (Graham, 2016; Price, 2018). The organization, which has nearly a half-billion dollars in assets, has also been criticized for how it spends these funds (Robinson, 2019).

Self-Assessment Question
Before you submit your initial post, make sure to read the assigned chapter. Then, ask yourself the following: Did the article in Chapter 6 of the text seem credible and reliable? Why? Be very specific:

  • Was it because it is in a textbook?
  • Because it was written by a learned and respected person?
  • Because of content in the article?
  • Because of your previous knowledge of the SPLC?

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, address the following:

  • Conduct additional research on the SPLC. Did your opinion alter in any way? Why?

Only after you have done some responsible research should you begin to respond to the discussion prompt. The discussion is not about the SPLC; it is not about Dr. Facione. It is about what you have learned about forming opinions.

Your post must answer this question:

  • How do you define the term “expert”?

Your post must also discuss at least two (2) of the following questions:

  • How important are facts in the process of forming an opinion? Explain what you believe to be the purpose or function of facts in making a judgment.
  • How did you respond to the self-assessment question? Since doing further research, have you re-thought the way in which you assess credibility and reliability? What is the importance of factoring the recency of a reference or opinion (i.e., how old is it?) into an assessment of credibility and reliability?
  • How would you evaluate Dr. Facione’s claim “The SPLC is an expert on hate in America” (p. 124). Does the SPLC fit your definition of “expert”? Be specific in your answer.

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Evidence-based practice is initiated by nurses and other healthcare professionals who identify questions about specific health-related interventions and the outcomes of those interventions on individuals and populations. The creation of a PICOT question helps guide evidence-based initiatives. The purpose of this worksheet is to provide an opportunity to explore the development of a PICOT question as a foundation for evidence-based practice.   

Activity Learning Outcomes

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to:

CO1: Integrate evidence-based practice and research to support advancement of holistic nursing care in diverse healthcare settings. (PO 1, 4) 

CO2: Integrate knowledge related to evidence-based practice and person-centered care to improve healthcare outcomes.  (PO 1, 2) 

CO3: Demonstrate professional and personal growth through a spirit of inquiry, scholarship, and service in diverse healthcare settings. (PO 3, 4) 

CO4: Develop knowledge related to research and evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research studies.  (PO 1, 2, 5) 

Due Date

The assignment should be submitted to the Week 2 PICOT Question Worksheet dropbox by Sunday 11:59 p.m. MST at the end of Week 2. This assignment will follow the late assignment policy specified in the course syllabus.

Students are expected to submit assignments by the time they are due. Assignments submitted after the due date and time will receive a deduction of 10% of the total points possible for that assignment for each day the assignment is late. Assignments will be accepted, with penalty as described, up to a maximum of three days late, after which point a zero will be recorded for the assignment.

In the event of a situation that prevents timely submission of an assignment, students may petition their instructor for a waiver of the late submission grade reduction. The instructor will review the student’s rationale for the request and make a determination based on the merits of the student’s appeal. Consideration of the student’s total course performance to date will be a contributing factor in the determination. Students should continue to attend class, actively participate, and complete other assignments while the appeal is pending.

Total Points Possible: 100

Requirements:

  • Review the elements included in PICOT questions to guide evidence-based nursing practice. 
  • Respond to the questions below using the PICOT Question Worksheet Template  download.
  • Using a minimum of 3 scholarly nursing sources, current within 5 years:  
    • Identify and describe one practice-related issue or concern.  You may choose to build on the practice issue you identified in NR500NP/NR501NP. 
    • Explain why the issue/concern is important to nurse practitioner practice and its impact on health outcomes. 
    • Describe each element of your PICOT question in one or two sentences, being sure to address all of the following: 
      • P-Population and problem– What is the nursing practice concern or problem and whom does it affect? 
      • I–Intervention– What evidence-based solution for the problem would you like to apply? 
      • C–Comparison– What is another solution for the problem? Note that this is typically the current practice, no intervention at all, or alternative solutions.  
      • O–Outcome– Very specifically, how will you know that the intervention worked? Think about how you will measure the outcome. 
      • T–Time frame– What is the Timeframe involved for the EBP initiative or the target date of completion?
    • Construct your PICOT question in the standard PICOT question format (narrative) and define each letter separately, such as:  
      • P =  
      • I =  
      • C =  
      • O =  
      • T =  
      • PICOT question written in full =
  • Abide by the Chamberlain College of Nursing Academic Integrity Policy.  
  • At the graduate level, we like to see you synthesizing your ideas into your own words. No direct quotes may be used in this worksheet. 
  • Use APA formatting guidelines for references and citations.
  • Submit your worksheet using the PICOT Worksheet Template as a Word document to the Week 2 Dropbox 

ASSIGNMENT CONTENT

Category

Points

%

Description

Practice-related Issue  

20

20%

This section of the worksheet includes: 

  • Identification of one practice-related issue or concern  
  • Description of the issue or concern 
  • Rationale for addressing this issue or concern 
  • Sufficient support from current, scholarly nursing sources  

Significance of the Issue 

20

20%

This section of the worksheet includes: 

  • Explanation of why the issue/concern is important to the profession of nursing and to NP practice 
  • Explanation of the impact of the issue or concern health outcomes 
  • Sufficient support from current, scholarly nursing sources  

Discussion of PICOT Elements 

20

20%

This section of the worksheet includes: 

  • Accurate and clear discussion of the following elements, including 1-2 sentences to address each: 
  • P-Population and problem – What is the nursing practice concern or problem and whom does it affect? 
  • I–Intervention – What evidence-based solution for the problem would you like to apply? 
  • C–Comparison – what is another solution for the problem? Note that this is typically the current practice, no intervention at all, or alternative solutions.  
  • O–Outcome – Very specifically, how will you know that the intervention worked? Think about how you will measure the outcome. 
  • T–Time frame – What is the Timeframe involved for the EBP initiative and the target date of completion?

PICOT Question

20

20%

This section of the worksheet includes: 

  • Construction of the above described PICOT question in the standard PICOT question format (narrative) and define each letter separately, such as:  
    • P =  
    • I =  
    • C =  
    • O =  
    • T =
    • PICOT question =

80

80%

Total CONTENT Points= [100 pts]

ASSIGNMENT FORMAT

Category

Points

%

Description

Graduate-Writing Style

10

10%

For full credit in this section, the following criteria must be met: 

  • Correct use of spelling and sentence structure 
  • Clarity, organization, and logical flow of ideas within writing 
  • Reference and citation formatting follow APA guidelines
  • No direct quotes are used in the worksheet 

Scholarly Support

10

10%

  • Minimum of 3 scholarly nursing sources, current within 5 years, are integrated 

20

20%

Total FORMAT Points= [20pts]

ASSIGNMENT TOTAL=100 points

Rubric

NR505NP Week 2 PICOT Question Worksheet Rubric

NR505NP Week 2 PICOT Question Worksheet Rubric

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePractice-related Issue

  • Identifies one valid practice-related issue or concern  
    • Thoroughly describes the issue or concern
    • Rationale is accurate for addressing this issue or concern
    • Sufficient support from current, scholarly nursing sources is included

20 pts

Excellent

Presentation of information is comprehensive and includes all requirements

18 pts

Very Good

Presentation of information is superficial in places and includes all requirements

16 pts

Satisfactory

Presentation of information is superficial or minimal and includes all requirements, or additional reference support needed

10 pts

Needs Improvement

Presentation of information is missing one element

0 pts

Unsatisfactory

Presentation of information is missing more than one element

20 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSignificance of the Issue

  • Explains why the issue/concern is important to the profession of nursing  
    • Explains the impact of the issue or concern for health outcomes
    • Sufficient support from current, scholarly nursing sources is include

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Read about architecture. The lesson includes information on Roman architecture, which was greatly influenced by the Greeks and Etruscans.

Locate at least two architectural works that were influenced by Greco-Roman architecture. These can be from any time period after the Greco-Roman period but should be from different periods themselves (e.g., one from Renaissance and one from Baroque). Then address the following:

  • What is the function of each structure?
  • How does each work exhibit influence of the Greco-Roman period? Is the influence specifically Greek, Etruscan, or Roman – or a combination?
  • How would you compare the two selected works? Take the role of the evaluative critic.

Use examples from the text, the lesson, and the library to help support your answer. Please remember to provide images and citations to help illustrate your points.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample:

There are many architectural works that is influenced by the Greco-Roman Style. The two architectural works that I chose are followed:

The Pantheon

g-000117.jpg 

fig6-14.jpg 

  • Style: Ancient Roman
  • The Pantheon is known as the Temple of All the Gods. This beautiful structure started out as a rectangle and over the course of a century turned into the dome shape that it is to this day (Ranogajec, 2015). According to Craven (2019) “The Pantheon portico or entryway is a symmetrical, classical design with three rows of Corinthian columns (Links to an external site.)—eight in the front and two rows of four — topped by a triangular pediment (Links to an external site.). The granite and marble columns were imported from Egypt, a land that was part of the Roman Empire.”  Although the Pantheon is from the second century, it is the only Roman building that is still in use and still intact to its original structure (Jacobus & Martin, 2018).

London’s Natural History Museum

Roman_Architecture_NHM_resize_md.jpg 

  • Style: Romanesque revival
  • London’s Natural History Museum was designed by Francis. He died shortly after winning the competition to design this building. The design was then taken over by Alfred Waterhouse. He reviewed and revised the design. Construction was started in 1873, but was not finished until 1880 (McFadden, 2020). During the mid-19th century museums were expensive, but it was said that Owen, the one who drew the rough plan, said that it should be free and accessible to all (History and Architecture, 2016). In today’s time, the museum is one of Britain’s best-loved examples of Romanesque architecture-inspired buildings, and one of the city’s most iconic landmarks (Links to an external site.) (McFadden, 2020).

When looking at the two there is more differences than there are similarities. Both structures have the dome shapes within them, and the columns are seen as well. Both were influenced by the Greek and Roman era. These range from the second century until the mid-nineteenth century.

References:

McFadden, C. (2020, August 13). 21+ Famous Buildings and Monuments Influenced by Roman Architecture. Interesting Engineering. https://interestingengineering.com/21-famous-build…

History and architecture. (2016). Natural History Museum. https://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/history-and-archite…

Ranogajec, P. A. (2015, December 11). The Pantheon (Rome) – Smarthistory. Smart History. https://smarthistory.org/the-pantheon/

Craven, J. (2019, July 30). Why You Should Know About the Pantheon in Rome. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/influencial-architecture…

Jacobus, L., & Martin, D. F. (2018). Humanities through the Arts (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

I’m working on a nursing case study and need support to help me understand better.

Health History

Mrs. J. is a 63-year-old married woman who has a history of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite requiring 2L of oxygen/nasal cannula at home during activity, she continues to smoke two packs of cigarettes a day and has done so for 40 years. Three days ago, she had sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including fever, productive cough, nausea, and malaise. Over the past 3 days, she has been unable to perform ADLs and has required assistance in walking short distances. She has not taken her antihypertensive medications or medications to control her heart failure for 3 days. Today, she has been admitted to the hospital ICU with acute decompensated heart failure and acute exacerbation of COPD.

Subjective Data

  1. Is very anxious and asks whether she is going to die.
  2. Denies pain but says she feels like she cannot get enough air.
  3. Says her heart feels like it is “running away.”
  4. Reports that she is exhausted and cannot eat or drink by herself.

Objective Data

  1. Height 175 cm; Weight 95.5kg.
  2. Vital signs: T 37.6C, HR 118 and irregular, RR 34, BP 90/58.
  3. Cardiovascular: Distant S1, S2, S3 present; PMI at sixth ICS and faint: all peripheral pulses are 1+; bilateral jugular vein distention; initial cardiac monitoring indicates a ventricular rate of 132 and atrial fibrillation.
  4. Respiratory: Pulmonary crackles; decreased breath sounds right lower lobe; coughing frothy blood-tinged sputum; SpO2 82%.
  5. Gastrointestinal: BS present: hepatomegaly 4cm below costal margin.

Intervention

The following medications administered through drug therapy control her symptoms:

  1. IV furosemide (Lasix)
  2. Enalapril (Vasotec)
  3. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
  4. IV morphine sulphate (Morphine)
  5. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilator (ProAir HFA)
  6. Inhaled corticosteroid (Flovent HFA)
  7. Oxygen delivered at 2L/ NC

Critical Thinking Essay

In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mrs. J.’s situation. Include the following:

  1. Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mrs. J.
  2. Discuss whether the nursing interventions at the time of her admissions were appropriate for Mrs. J. and explain the rationale for each of the medications listed.
  3. Describe four cardiovascular conditions that may lead to heart failure and what can be done in the form of medical/nursing interventions to prevent the development of heart failure in each condition.
  4. Taking into consideration the fact that most mature adults take at least six prescription medications, discuss four nursing interventions that can help prevent problems caused by multiple drug interactions in older patients. Provide a rationale for each of the interventions you recommend.
  5. Provide a health promotion and restoration teaching plan for Mrs. J., including multidisciplinary resources for rehabilitation and any modifications that may be needed. Explain how the rehabilitation resources and modifications will assist the patients’ transition to independence.
  6. Describe a method for providing education for Mrs. J. regarding medications that need to be maintained to prevent future hospital admission. Provide rationale.
  7. Outline COPD triggers that can increase exacerbation frequency, resulting in return visits. Considering Mrs. J.’s current and long-term tobacco use, discuss what options for smoking cessation should be offered.

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 7, 8
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the textbook)
  • Narrated PowerPoint Tutorial (Make sure to review this tutorial before you begin recording.)

Instructions

For this week’s assignment respond to one of the following options, and include Option 1, 2, or 3 as part of your heading.

Option 1: The first option is to name and describe in detail a key specific and recent healthcare technology. What are at least two key moral problems this technology creates? What are the proper moral guidelines for dealing with it in your view? Compare your approach to what a utilitarian and ethical egoist would say (each independently). Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

Option 2: In the second option, name and describe in detail a key specific and recent social technology. What are at least two key moral problems this technology creates? What are the proper moral guidelines for dealing with it in your view? Compare your moral approach to what a utilitarian and social contract ethicist would say (each independently). Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

Option 3: John Doe, Patient One, is in the late-stage of kidney disease. If he does not receive a new kidney, then he is predicted to die within a week. Doe is 45, single, and has no children. Doctors theorize that Doe damaged his kidney by not following a low-salt diet. Doe inherited one million dollars and is known for giving money to charity. Without a transplant, he will probably be forced to spend all his money searching for a kidney outside of the usual legal channels. Patient Two is Jane Doe (no relation to John). Patient Two is a mother of two children (ages 21 and 24). She is divorced and 55 years old. She developed kidney problems due to eating a high-fat and high-sugar diet. If she does not receive a kidney within one month, doctors believe she will die. Patient Three is an orphan. This orphan lives in a state facility. She was born with a genetic condition that constantly damages her kidney. The only known approach to her condition is to provide her with a kidney transplant every so often. She is 11 and has already undergone two kidney transplants. She will perish in two months if she does not receive another transplant.

All three patients are at the same hospital. The hospital only has one kidney to give out. The orphan’s birth parents were known to be of a religion that is opposed to organ donation. The other patients come from religions that do not oppose organ donation. Who should get the kidney? Why should that candidate receive it over the others? Devise a course of social action and a solution for this case by using the ethics of egoism and then utilitarianism to a key moral conflict involving health care in this case. Appraise the interests of diverse populations (in terms of ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.) and how they relate to the case. Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

For all the options:

Cite the textbook and incorporate outside sources, including citations.

You should not be using any text you used in a discussion board or assignment for this class or any previous class.

Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

You will submit the following:

  • An audiovisual presentation that presents one of the options above. Be sure to give equal time to each element. Doing a PowerPoint presentation with audio recorded on the slides is preferred. Please refer to the Narrated PowerPoint Tutorial located in the Required Resources in this assignment.
  • Please provide a transcript of anything said in the recording aloud that does not appear as text on a slide. This transcript can be provided as a Word document or placed in the Notes section on the PowerPoint slides.
  • The link or a scan of the article mentioning any health technology, social technology, or case you are reporting on. If you made up the case, please indicate that in your report. If you choose to do option #3 (the case about a shortage of transplant kidneys), your article would likely be an article about the shortage of transplant organs, or a shortage of people signing up to be transplant donors, or the status of educating people about being donors, etc.

Presentation Requirements

  • Length: 4-6 minutes narrated presentation
  • Slide length: 4-5 slides (not including title slide, conclusion slide, or references slide)
  • Title slide
  • Conclusion slide
  • References slide (minimum of 2 scholarly sources cited in APA format; not narrated)

Rubric

ETHC445 Week 4 Assignment Rubric – 100 pts.

ETHC445 Week 4 Assignment Rubric – 100 pts.

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOral Presentation

30 pts

Oral presentation is clear, organized, and well-rehearsed. It thoroughly summarizes the report and examines the ethical ideas beyond the particulars of each case.

25.5 pts

Oral presentation is mostly clear, organized, and well-rehearsed. It summarizes the report and examines the ethical ideas beyond the particulars of each case.

22.5 pts

Oral presentation is somewhat clear, organized, and well-rehearsed. It summarizes the report, and somewhat examines the ethical ideas beyond the particulars of each case.

18 pts

Oral presentation is not clear, organized, or well-rehearsed. It fails to adequately summarizes the report and/or examines the ethical ideas beyond the particulars of each case.

0 pts

No effort

30 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAssignment Content

40 pts

Addresses all aspects of the questions, applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

34 pts

Addresses most aspects of the questions, applying professional knowledge, , and research regarding weekly concepts.

30 pts

Addresses some aspects of the questions, applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

24 pts

Minimally addresses the questions, applying professional knowledge, and research regarding weekly concepts.

0 pts

No effort

40 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeProfessional Communication

10 pts

Presents information using clear and concise language in an organized manner (minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

8.5 pts

Presents information in an organized manner (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

7.5 pts

Presents information using understandable language but is somewhat disorganized (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

6 pts

Presents information that is not clear, logical, professional or organized to the point that the reader has difficulty understanding the message (numerous errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and/or punctuation).

0 pts

No effort

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSource Integration

10 pts

Paper includes reference to 2 scholarly sources and properly integrates the sources.

7 pts

Paper includes reference to 2 scholarly sources but does not properly integrate the sources.

0 pts

Paper does not make reference to a scholarly sources.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA Format

10 pts

All references include complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style.

5 pts

Some of the references include complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style.

0 pts

No reference slide

10 pts

Total Points: 100

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Using your pathogen from the last two weeks, research and describe the ideal growth conditions of your pathogen. What terms learned this week would describe its ideal growth conditions? What is the nutritional mode of your microorganism? What are the host cells for your pathogen?

week 1

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an acid-fast bacillus-shaped bacterium that infects lung alveoli and is the causative agent of tuberculosis – a disease that is currently known as a global challenge. Tuberculosis may remain latent in approximately 90% of the individuals, and active disease is considered to be a failure of CD4 T-cell-mediated immunity (Korb et al., 2016). MTB infection is established via inhalation of infected droplets from sick individuals and results in symptoms like bloody cough and apnea. MTB is recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PPR) located in macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) – which results in MTB engulfment. Although modified phagosomes within macrophages are classical reservoirs for MTB replication, macrophages, are also the main cell responsible for MTB clearance (Korb et al., 2016). Infected macrophages elicit a strong initial response against MTB via TLR-2 signaling. Chronic TLR-2 signaling, however, may impair proper immunity, and may even hide MTB from T-cell recognition – thus, contributing to this pathogen’s known latency status (Korb et al., 2016). Additionally, alveolar macrophages enter the lung interstitium after MTB engulfment, which results in the establishment of the site of infection. MTB may also prevent apoptosis within macrophage’s phagosomes, which also contributes to MTB’s latency (Korb et al., 2016).

last week 2

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an outer membrane, which is functionally identical to that observed in gram-negative bacteria but not structurally (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013). It consists of an asymmetric lipid bilayer in which the outer leaflet is composed of glycolipids and waxy structures, and the inner layer is composed of mycolic acids (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013). There is a periplasmic space between the outer and the inner membranes – a place where a thin layer of peptidoglycan is located (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013). This cell wall structure provides M. tuberculosis a strong, impermeable barrier against drugs – thus contributing to its virulence (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013). M. tuberculosis is phagocytized by local lung macrophages. Still, it may remain latent within them due to the secretion of ESX1 – a required protein so that M. tuberculosis can translocate from the phagosome into the cytosol of the infected hosts (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013). Researchers consider that elucidating the ESX systems was one of the main advancements regarding tuberculosis etiopathogenesis (Delougu, Sali. & Fadda, 2013).

Reference:

Delogu, G., Sali, M., & Fadda, G. (2013). The biology of mycobacterium tuberculosis

infection. Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases, 5(1), e2013070.

https://doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2013.070 

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

  • Textbook: Chapter 15
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 1 primary source (from artist)
  • Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, select and address one of the following options:

Option 1: Choose a work to discuss from one genre that interprets a work from another genre.

  • Include the title, artist, and description of both works.
  • Examine how the artist of the second work captured the subject or story of the first.
  • Support your point(s) with a statement from the second artist that discusses the influence, reasoning, or interpretation of the original work on the second work.

Click on the following link for examples:

Option 2: Choose a work that is interdisciplinary (incorporates two or more disciplines), such as Hamilton from our lesson this week.

  • Include the title and artist(s).
  • Examine the genres that are intermingled to create the work.
  • How effective is the blending of genres in the work?
  • Why do you think the artist used different disciplines in the work?
  • Support your point(s) with a statement from the artist and one from a critic.

Option 3: Choose a work of art from any genre that depicts or tells the story of a real life event from any time period, such as The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804 by Jacques Louis David.

  • Include the title and the artist and some background of the event.
  • What is the relationship between the work of art and the event?
  • Did the artist depict the event accurately?
  • Does the artist make changes regarding the event? If so, why do you think the artist made these changes?
  • Examine the artist’s message in the depiction.
  • Support your point(s) with a statement from the artist.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample:

Option 2-

I have chosen William Morris. He was an English painter, designer, and writer. As I researched his work, I realized he has done so many artworks in many aspects. To name a few he has painted La Belle Iseult, he has designed the red house and the green dining room, created textile designs like the Strawberry thief, and more. His work was also designed with his partner Philip Webb. He started combining words and images in the expression of his vision. He also made hand-painted manuscripts. He included words on hanging tapestry. He included multimedia on art pieces. His specific painting La Belle was of his soon-to-be wife however, he did not complete this famous painting. He designed his very own Red House. He used specific red bricks and British trees and flowers to his liking. He also includes a green room in this home with the artist Webb, and he included floral and geometric design. His artwork named the Strawberry Thief is a textile design of fabric attempted to be used as a curtain. Specifically, his work including words and images made a great change. His work is well known and has an interest in many. Morris not only made paintings, but he also combined his design in all his work. Morris stated, “If you want a golden rule that will fit everything, this is it: Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful.” He very much believed in the design and his life revolved around his designs.

Good Reads. u.d. William Morris Quotes (Author of The Wood Beyond the World) (goodreads.com) (Links to an external site.)

William Morris Artworks. u.d. The Art Story. William Morris Artworks & Famous Art | TheArtStory

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Initial Post Instructions
The principle of utility involves maximizing happiness as a desirable outcome of decisions. Although it does not get directly said, there is an inverse intention to minimize the undesirable outcome of disaster. Utilitarian decisions are directed toward outcomes—that is, the consequences of decisions.

We need to look at results. We first look at the actual results of an action. We judge if it was the best possible result. We can judge the actual results in comparison to other results that reasonably could be said to have been possible.

If we do not yet have the actual results of an action, we do not know if it is moral or not. We can talk hypothetically about what might happen, and then what that would show about the morality of an action. However, if we do not know what the action had as its consequences, we cannot yet say if it is moral or not.

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post of this week’s discussion respond to one of the following options, and label the beginning of your post indicating either Option 1, Option 2, or Option 3:

Option 1: You are a nurse on a floor with only elderly patients. Every day, each patient tells you about how much pain they are in and asks you to help them. They want you to inject them with something to end their lives. If the patients die, the beds on that floor would be freed up for other patients. The hospital is at 100 percent capacity. There is no other hospital for 30 miles. Other patients may be not receiving care due to a lack of free beds. What is the moral thing to do here? Why is that the moral thing to do? What would an utilitarian say is the moral thing to do? Why would they say that? Compare and contrast the utilitarian approach with that of an ethical egoist or social contact theorist

Option 2: A new social media app is offering itself to you for free. If you upload a picture to it, the app will show how you will look at 10 years. John Doe, a friend of yours, says not to use the app as it will then possess your biometric facial data. Jane Doe, another friend of yours, says that she heard the app shares the facial data with a security firm that helps the government detect terrorists at airports. Should you use this app? Why or why not? If John Doe is right, would an utilitarian say it is right to use the app? Why or why not? If Jane Doe is right, would a social contract theorists say it is right to use the app? Consider the role the Fourth Amendment at play here.

Option 3: You are a nursing student at the XYZ College. It has a 50 percent acceptance rate (half the applicants do not get in). XYZ is a public college. XYZ has decided to implement an affirmative action policy. The college has few students over the age of 50. To encourage more students of that age, every student 50 or older will receive a bonus point. A student’s admission is dependent on having 11 points. One earns points for a GPA above a certain score, ACT/SAT score above a certain number, having a letter of recommendation, etc. XYZ also lacks LGBT students, Muslim, and African-American students and is considering offering a bonus point for any student fitting those categories. What is the key moral conflict for XYZ? What social values should XYZ promote here? What diverse populations are involved here, and what are their interests? Do you think XYZ’s social action is the correct solution to lack of diversity? Why or why not? Factor the ethics of egoism and utilitarianism into your answer.

1apa cited source

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Introduction
In this session, you have been considering moral-ethical dilemmas you yourself faced or that you know of that you either resolved or failed to resolve, but hopefully learned from. You may never have given much thought to ethical theory nor what ethical premises/paradigms you have unconsciously held.

You will be focusing on this case for this assignment:

Jane Doe is a nursing student at University X. Jane is in week eight of a course entitled: “Introduction to Ethics”.

For the week one discussion, Jane copied work done by her friend John Doe in the same class two months ago (with a different professor). John told Jane it was okay to use his work as John’s professor never checked any work in the class using Turnitin.com. John claimed to have earned an A on the work also.

In week two, Jane went to StudentPapering.com and paid ten dollars for a week two essay done by a student (not John Doe) who took the same course four months ago. StudentPapering promises that all its archived work is of excellent quality and cannot be detected as copied. Jane then uploaded an exact copy of the work for the week two assignment.

In week three, Jane paid a worker at PaperingStudent.com ten dollars to write for Jane a brand new essay after Jane shared with the worker the essay assignment instructions.

In week four, Jane relied on her knowledge of Esperanto. She felt pressed for time and found an article by a professor from Esperanto on the week four topic. She translated Esperanto into English using Moogle Translate, and the translated text served as her week four paper.

In week five, Jane was running late again. Jane purposely uploaded a blank paper hoping that she would later claim it was an innocent mistake and not be assessed a late penalty. In a previous course on History, she had done the same (with an earlier paper from the History class rather than simply a blank) and had not seen any late penalty assessed.

In week six, Jane took work she did in a nursing course from a year ago and submitted that for her discussion posting in her current class. She simply copied and pasted the work she had labored intensively on a year ago (even though University X forbids this practice as ‘self-plagiarism’). Jane was confident her Nursing instructor never checked that work using Turnitin.com or another method.

In week seven, Jane copied and pasted work found on website.com for the paper. Jane did not use any quotation marks or other documentation to show the text was not by Jane.

Since Jane’s Ethics professor did not check papers and posting for any issues by using Turnitin.com or another method, the professor graded all of Jane’s work unaware of Jane’s actions throughout the weeks of the class. Jane feels her actions are morally justified both because her economic situation requires her to work too much to devote time to school (although other students are well-off enough to have such time) and her religion forbids cheating, but Jane ignores her religion’s teachings.

Instructions
Now that you have had an opportunity to explore ethics formally, create a reflective assessment of your learning experience and the collaborations you engaged in throughout this session. You will submit both of the following:

  • A written reflection
  • An oral presentation using a PowerPoint narrated slide show.

For the written reflection, address Jane Doe’s and respond to the following:

  • Articulate again your moral theory from week eight discussion (You can revise it if you wish). What two ethical theories best apply to it? Why those two?
  • Apply to Jane Doe’s case your personal moral philosophy as developed in week eight discussion and now. Use it to determine if what Jane Doe did was ethical or unethical per your own moral philosophy.
  • Consider if some of these examples are more grave instances of ethical transgressions than others. Explain.
  • Propose a course of social action and a solution by using the ethics of egoism, utilitarianism, the “veil of ignorance” method, deontological principles, and/or a theory of justice to deal with students like  Jane. Consider social values such as those concerning ways of life while appraising the interests of diverse populations (for instance, those of differing religions and economic status).

For the oral presentation, briefly summarize your feelings about taking a course in Ethics and explore your process of transformation in this course.

  • Discuss your experiences of the course, your beginnings, and where you are now. Consider your interaction in discussions.
  • Should health care workers be required to take a course in Ethics? Why or why not

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I’m working on a other discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Introduction
Each person owes a duty to himself or herself and to the world to study ethics and to engage in thoughtful debate about what is right, and what is wrong. It is this habit of thinking about and reflecting on ethics that will help you determine the right choices when faced with an ethical dilemma.

Initial Post Instructions
Articulate a moral dilemma wherein one has to show a specific virtue or virtues (it can be any virtue or virtues including honesty, courage, charity/generosity, compassion, etc.)

  • What is the moral dilemma about?
  • What virtue or virtues should be shown? (You are here selecting the best course of action)
  • Why is that virtue or those virtues to be shown?
  • How should the virtue or virtues be expressed, and why in that manner?
  • Apply Aristotle’s golden mean to the dilemma.
  • Tell us how the dilemma involves conflict moral duties (loyalty to community versus to self, professional versus familial duties, national or personal obligations).

The dilemma must be a situation in which a choice has to be made.

Be sure you told us why your chosen course of action was best.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample: 

Hello class,

Articulate a moral dilemma wherein one has to show a specific virtue or virtues (it can be any virtue or virtues including honesty, courage, charity/generosity, compassion, etc.)

  • What is the moral dilemma about?
  • What virtue or virtues should be shown? (You are here selecting the best course of action)
  • Why is that virtue or those virtues to be shown?
  • How should the virtue or virtues be expressed, and why in that manner?
  • Apply Aristotle’s golden mean to the dilemma.
  • Tell us how the dilemma involves conflict moral duties (loyalty to community versus to self, professional versus familial duties, national or personal obligations).

I have chosen to discuss the moral dilemma that a nurse may face in the field is domestic violence. Whether this be a situation that involve partner domestic violence, child abuse or elder abuse, nurses may face this in their career. The ethical dilemma in this case is that the nurse needs to act with a sense of professionalism when faced with abusers. Nurses and other healthcare professionals cannot act out of anger at the abuser. The virtues that nurses must show in many of these situations is trustworthiness to the patient that is being abused, another virtue a nurse must have is compassion. This is a virtue that all nurses should have, you need feel  compassion for the patients you care for. The virtues should be expressed by making sure your patient knows they can tell you things in confidence and not be worried about it not being confidential and they must know you care.  Aristotle’s golden mean is the mean between two extremes where one end of it is excess and they other is deficiency (Kraut, 2018). This can be applied to this because you do not want to care too much to where you are crossing the boundary between patient and nurse on the other hand you also do not want the patient to think you do not care at all. Trustworthiness can be applied to the golden mean because you don’t want to the patient to think they can’t trust you so you don’t want to be on the deficient end of that. The dilemma involves moral duties to self because you may feel like you want to do more but if the patient doesn’t want that then you must abide by their wishes.

References:

Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy. New York, NY: McGrawHill Education.

Kraut, R. (2018, June 15). Aristotle’s Ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/.

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Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 13, 14
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 1 primary or scholarly source (from actor/director or critic – either will count as your scholarly source requirement for discussions)

Initial Post Instructions
Many people would say that the 1999 premier of The Sopranos was a turning point in the development of television as an art form. Choose a television or streaming show that you feel perpetuates the idea that television is indeed a form of art. For the initial post, address the following:

  • Include the name of the show and the director.
  • Explain why you think this program is art.
  • What impact does the example have on viewers’ lives?
  • What were some influences of this work?
  • Include a statement from an actor, director, or critic of the program that supports your points.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Respond to one peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample:

Hey Class and Professor,

I chose to discuss one of my all-time favorite series. However, prior to me liking the show, I didn’t have much interest in it, but when I kept watching, it started to intrigue me and catch my attention. I chose to discuss Game of Thrones, an American medieval fantasy television series created for HBO by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss, featuring a predominantly British and Irish cast. The series is based on author George R. R. Martin’s best-selling A Song of Ice and Fire series of seven planned fantasy novels, the first of which is A Game of Thrones. The series cast and their characters have some similarities with the artwork. For instance, one can say they were inspired by art. Sansa Stark had some similarities with the painting by John William Waterhouse called Ophelia. “Ophelia runs through the wild meadows gathering flowers and looking for her lost love, or maybe running away from the pain it is causing her. Her distress is evident. Sansa Stark embodies the Game of Thrones’ damsel in distress, and her image is closely inspired by the pre-Raphaelite paintings “(Kaszubowska, 2020). With a large cast of characters, the show goes above and beyond anything else on television. In the past, many characters have appeared in television shows and other series, but none have been as numerous or as complex as the characters in the HBO series Game of Thrones. It has resulted in characters and plot lines that appeal to a wide range of viewers, including themes such as power and intimacy, family and nationhood, politics and conquest, and intrigue, all of which are set within a strategic and ruthless framework of normalized violence. Even though the TV series ended in May of 2019, I can say it influenced shows like Vikings, Outlander, and The Last Kingdom. According to Lisa Woolfork, an associate professor in the English department at the University of Virginia, said, “The attachments that some viewers have developed for the show have transformed Game of Thrones from a book and television series into a more significant and widespread cultural phenomenon that includes YouTube parodies, music videos, toys, jewelry, craft beverages, games, and more.” (Marsh, 2019).

References:

Kaszubowska, J. (2020). How Art Inspired Game of Thrones Creators. Daily art magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.dailyartmagazine.com/how-art-inspired-game-of-thrones/ (Links to an external site.)

Martin, F. D., & Jacobus, L. A. (2018). The humanities through the arts. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Marsh, S. (2019). Game of Thrones’ impact on TV will be felt long after the finale, say experts. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2019/apr/12/game-of-thrones-revolutionised-british-tv-academics

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Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 21, 22, 23
  • Weekly Concepts

Initial Post Instructions

For this discussion, take on the role of one of the pathogens we learned about. Give us a narrative about what you are doing in the body from the pathogen’s point of view. How did you get into the body? In other words, how did the body inherit you. How do you move through the body? What path of destruction are you on? How will you wage battle against the body? How do you plan to win that battle? What will the body try to do to stop you? How will you fight back? Who wins?

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least one peer or the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample:

Professor & Class,

Hello, my name is Mr. Streptococcal and I am a bacterial pathogen. I can be harmful and in some ways deadly! I have multiple personalities and have many names. Some versions of my personality are almost murderous like when I become part of a B-haemolytic Streptococci in rare cases I can infect the blood and organs of a human which can result in pneumonia, bacteraemia, and necrotising fasciitis or better known as flesh-eating disease!!! Mu-ah-ah-ah. Even-though I live naturally in humans causing no symptoms I can still be transmitted to start causing some issues! I can be transmitted through coughs, sneezes, or direct contact. Like I said earlier my multiple personalities allow me to move through the body easily and morph into many different areas of the body like the blood and certain organs. When I am inside a humans nose, throat, and sometimes skin I mind my own business, however, when I move about elsewhere I love to cause some damage… I mean, i’m already here why not, right? According to some human research from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals Sciences (2017), they “recently made a surprising discovery that strep’s M protein alone wipes out macrophages, but not other types of immune cells in which the macrophages’ self-sacrifice ultimately serves as an early warning of infection to the rest of the immune system”. Once I obliterate the humans macrophages I take on the bodies white blood cells head on. I can win this fight typically if i’m dealing with high risk humans like babies under six months old, adults over 75, and those with weak immune systems. However, my cause for total domination is taken away from me when humans take some pharmaceutical chemicals that kill me.

The fight is not over. Ill be reincarnated (hopefully) one day, and start my fight again! Maybe ill morph into your cat that wont stop meowing… the world may never know.

I have posted a photo of me below, check it out! 🙂

Streptococcus Laboratory: Streptococcus agalactiae | CDC

References:

The Public Engagement team at the Wellcome Genome Campus. (2021). What are STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS? Facts. https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-are-streptococcal-infections.

Gonzalez, C. (2021). Microbiology [Chapter 21,22,23 powerpoint slides]. Chamberlain University

Single strep bacteria protein sets off white blood cell’s early warning system. UC Health – UC San Diego. (2017). https://health.ucsd.edu/news/releases/pages/2017-08-07-single-strep-bacteria-protein-sets-off-white-blood-cell-early-warning-system.aspx.

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This is a graded discussion: 150 points possible

due May 23

Week 3: EHRs Benefits and Drawbacks

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Purpose

The ideas and beliefs underpinning the discussions guide students through engaging dialogues as they achieve the desired learning outcomes/competencies associated with their course in a manner that empowers them to organize, integrate, apply and critically appraise their knowledge to their selected field of practice. The ebb and flow of a discussion is based upon the composition of student and faculty interaction in the quest for relevant scholarship.

Activity Learning Outcomes

Through this discussion, the student will demonstrate the ability to:

  • Contribute level-appropriate knowledge and experience to the topic in a discussion environment that models professional and social interaction (CO4)
  • Actively engage in the written ideas of others by carefully reading, researching, reflecting, and responding to the contributions of their peers and course faculty (CO5)

Due Date:

Students must post a minimum of 3 times in each graded discussion. The 3 posts in each individual discussion must be on separate days. Posting 3 times on 3 different days meets the minimum requirement for full credit; each post must be substantive. The student must provide an initial post to each graded discussion topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of Week 3. Subsequent posts, including essential responses to peers, must occur no later than the Sunday, 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 3. Students are expected to submit assignments by the time they are due. Threaded discussions are not considered assignments and are not part of the late assignment policy.

A 10% late penalty will be imposed for discussions posted after the deadline on Wednesday regardless of the number of days late. NOTHING will be accepted after 11:59pm MT on Sunday (i.e. student will receive an automatic 0).

Total Points Possible: 150 Points

Requirements:

Post a written response in the discussion forum to EACH threaded discussion topic:

  1. As discussed in the lesson and assigned reading for this week, EHRs provide both benefits and drawbacks. Create a “Pros” versus “Cons” table and include at least 3 items for each list. Next to each item, provide a brief rationale as to why you selected to include it on the respective list.
  2. Refer to the Stage 3 objectives for Meaningful Use located in this week’s lesson under the heading Meaningful Use and the HITECH Act. Select two objectives to research further. In your own words, provide a brief discussion as to how the objective may impact your role as an APN in clinical practice.

Adhere to the following guidelines regarding quality for the threaded discussions in Canvas:

    • Application of Course Knowledge: Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings.
    • Scholarliness and Scholarly Sources: Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions using valid, relevant, and reliable outside scholarly source to contribute to the discussion thread.
    • Writing Mechanics: Grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation are accurate. In-text and reference citations should be formatted using correct APA guidelines.
    • Direct Quotes: Good writing calls for the limited use of direct quotes. Direct quotes in discussions are to be limited to one short quotation (not to exceed 15 words). The quote must add substantively to the discussion. Points will be deducted under the grammar, syntax, APA category.

For each threaded discussion per week, the student will select no less than TWO scholarly sources to support the initial discussion post.

Scholarly Sources: Only scholarly sources are acceptable for citation and reference in this course. These include peer-reviewed publications, government reports, or sources written by a professional or scholar in the field. The textbooks and lessons are NOT considered to be outside scholarly sources. For the threaded discussions and reflection posts, reputable internet sources such as websites by government agencies (URL ends in .gov) and respected organizations (often ends in .org) can be counted as scholarly sources. The best outside scholarly source to use is a peer-reviewed nursing journal. You are encouraged to use the Chamberlain library and search one of the available databases for a peer-reviewed journal article. The following sources should not be used: Wikipedia, Wikis, or blogs. These websites are not considered scholarly as anyone can add to these. Please be aware that .com websites can vary in scholarship and quality. For example, the American Heart Association is a .com site with scholarship and quality. It is the responsibility of the student to determine the scholarship and quality of any .com site. Ask your instructor before using any site if you are unsure. Points will be deducted from the rubric if the site does not demonstrate scholarship or quality. Current outside scholarly sources must be published with the last 5 years. Instructor permission must be obtained BEFORE the assignment is due if using a source that is older than 5 years

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Instructions

This assignment is the first step in a three part project. You only need to focus on part one at this point. Each step will build on earlier steps. However, it is not a matter of providing a rough draft of all or even part of the entire project here in week three. That is, further steps might require completely new and original text.  At the same time, completing each step will aid you in completing a future step or future steps. And, you should use the same topic in all steps.

First, select a topic of moral controversy, debate, disagreement, and dispute, Examples of such topics are euthanasia, the death penalty, abortion, cloning, etc. You can pick any such topic. It need not be listed here.

Next, detail the positions of each side of the ethical debate. Note at least two moral reasons each side presents to show their view on the topic is correct.

Now, we want to evaluate these positions using the moral theories we studied this week:

  • What would an Ethical Egoist say about this topic? What side would the Ethical Egoist take? What would the Ethical Egoist say to justify their moral position? Is there a conflict between loyalty to self and to community relevant to your topic? If so, how so? Note what you feel is the best course of action.
  • What would a Social Contract Ethicist say about this topic? What side would the Social Contract Ethicist take? What would the Social Contract Ethicist say to justify their moral position? Does your topic involve a collision between personal obligations and national ones? If so, how so? Note what you feel is the best course of action.

Finally, reference and discuss any professional code of ethics relevant to your topic such as the AMA code for doctors, the ANA code for nurses, or any other pertinent professional code. State whether and how your chosen topic involves any conflicts between professional and familial duties.

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Lisa Anderson is a 74-year-old female with a history of osteoporosis. She is a widow and lives alone in a two-story home. Mrs. Anderson is retired and depends on her Social Security income. She takes pride in making all her own food from scratch. While she is walking at the hospital today, Mrs. Anderson falls and fractures her left hip. She is transported to the OR for immediate surgery.

Patient falls are a serious problem in hospitals, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality, increased length of stay, and higher costs. It is estimated that high hospitalization rates in healthcare organizations result from patient falls. Fall rates in acute-care hospitals have been measured between 2.2 and 7 falls per 1,000 admissions. Injuries occur in approximately 30% of falls, and severe injuries occur in 4% to 6% of falls. Patient falls increase the cost of patient care. It was found that patients who fell and were injured as a result of a fall had $4,233 higher charges and a length of stay (LOS) of 12.3 days.

Provide an example of something in your current facility that is increasing the cost of care in your organization. How is it being controlled, or how could it be controlled? Make sure to provide some ideas of what could be done better to improve care and outcomes.

The Prevention + Appraisal + Failure (P-A-F) Model

CoQ has been studied in a variety of literature. The costs associated with quality are divided into four categories: (1) prevention, (2) appraisal, (3) internal failure, and (4) external failure. The cost of prevention includes items such as training and preventive maintenance. These expenses are used to avoid losses in the future. Cost of appraisal includes items that are used to assess the current process, such as audits and inspections. Internal failure cost includes expenses used on areas that need additional resources prior to the delivery of products. These costs would include items such as rework needed because of inadequate processes, or an additional task not originally accounted for. The last category is external failure, which is the cost incurred in areas such as recall, customer warranty, etc. (Evans & Lindsay, 2017; Porter & Rayner, 1992).

Failure cost, cost of appraisal plus prevention, and cost of quality are the three lines of the PAF model. This model suggests that with the increase of cost of appraisal plus prevention, there will be a decrease in failure cost. Once the product reaches 100% conformance, the failure cost will be 0%. Because this is not always possible and very difficult to achieve, there should be a balance between failure cost and quality. This can be used to justify the scale of quality and control efforts. There is a huge amount of CoQ data collected and available, but rarely is the data analyzed and distributed back to the appropriate people (Burgess, 1996).

Crosby’s Model
According to Schiffauerova and Thomson (2006), the Crosby model is similar to the PAF model in that the cost categories are similar. Crosby defines CoQ as the sum of the price of conformance and price of non-conformance. Conformance includes a cost for prevention efforts. This will assure that processes are in place so that things are done right the first time. The cost of non-conformance is used when processes fail and the work is not accomplished. This is wasted money that is used to try and correct issues and requires increased efforts to make up for customer dissatisfaction (Evans & Lindsay, 2017).

Process Cost Model
This model focuses on processes and not products. Process cost is the total cost of conformance and non-conformance for a particular process. Conformance is the process cost. Here, the main focus is process and making sure the process is correct so that the end goal is the high-quality product that was intended. The cost of non-conformance is the failure cost that incurs because of incorrect or unstable processes that caused the end product to be other than what was actually intended. Incorporating the cost of non-conformance can actually help in the decision-making process for conformance (Pekanov, Mijoc, & Mijoc, 2015; Schiffauerova & Thomson, 2006). 

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Option 1: In the 19th century, the camera was a revolutionary invention, and many artists were concerned about the effect that photographs would have on the art world.

  • Did the invention of the camera change the arts? Why or why not?
  • Choose an artistic movement that you believe was influenced by the camera and discuss how the movement was affected.
  • Include at least one example of an artist and artwork in your response.
  • Include a statement from a current photographer or critic to support your points.

Option 2: In the 21st century, the smartphone camera changed the way we use and view photography. In addition, apps and social media have changed the way we share photography.

  • How has the invention of the smartphone camera changed photography?
  • How have apps and social media changed the way we share photos? Are they positive and/or negative changes? Explain.
  • Include a statement from a current photographer or critic to support your points.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Respond to one peer who chose an option different from yours. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

  • Student Sample: The development of the smartphone has opened the gateway for its users to take high quality pictures. With the continued advancement of technology and access at our fingertips, taking professional-like images is easier than ever before. The high-resolution cameras and editing capabilities allow people to capture a stunning image within a matter of minutes (Week 6 Lesson 2). Apps and social media have completely changed how photos are shared. The Influencers of Instagram always present the perfect photo edited with filters. These photos always show the highlights of their life and rarely depict hardships. Photography that we learned about in the beginning of this course depicted moments that were not always happy but are still beautiful. The way current photography is used through social media is sometimes stale and lacks authenticity.  An influencer can buy pre-made filters to adjust the lighting without having to use real artistic ability to create depth in an image. A positive change that has occurred within this advancement of technology is the ability to capture personal moments that are semi-professional. Growing up with film, you always hoped you ‘got the shot’ but it wasn’t always the case when the pictures developed. Now we can capture the precious moments of our families, animals, vacations, and other important moments with a touch of a button. We can instantly see these images and share them with anyone (artdaily.com, 2021). This can be both positive and negative with how the image is used.       In the world today of COVID having access to these images can be very helpful to keeping ties to loved ones. When I worked in the NICU it was so hard for new parents to go through that experience with the visitor restrictions. The use of a smartphone let them easily share beautiful images of their babies with loved ones without having to wait. As technology advances, it is in how we use it that impacts it either positively or negatively.References:Week 6 Lesson 2Artdaily.com. (2021). https://artdaily.com/news/120672/How-Smartphones-h…

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Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 18, 19, 20
  • Weekly Concepts

Initial Post Instructions

Some microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Yesinia pestis, E. coli can cause diseases of different body systems. Let’s investigate how the same pathogen is responsible for different pathophysiological symptoms. First, choose a microorganism found in multiple systems. Then, describe your pathogen’s role in disease for one body system: report the disease caused, the normal function of that system, pathophysiological symptoms, and the virulence factor(s) that contribute(s) to the diseased state.

or

Viral skin diseases like smallpox were among the first diseases to be eradicated through vaccination program, but now we see more outbreaks of measles, mumps and polio diseases for which we have vaccinations. Why do you think some diseases are appearing again? What is your understanding about diseases like malaria and Ebola, and can we eradicate these through vaccination programs? What is the role of CDC in controlling the spread of these communicable diseases and their treatment?

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least one peer or the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Student Sample: 

Professor & Class,

Staphylococcus is an organism that is found in multiple systems that can cause different pathophysiological symptoms. According to Kobayashi et al (2015), “S. aureus causes a wide range of diseases and syndromes, including bacteremia, pneumonia, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis, most community-associated infections in the United States are those that affect skin and soft tissues”. Even though, skin and soft tissue organs are affected the most, today I would like to talk about how Staphylococcus affects the respiratory system to cause pneumonia as I had no idea it did such a thing! 

Normal lung function is when we are able to breathe in fresh oxygen and take out carbon dioxide and this exchange happens in alveoli or air sacs within the lungs. When infected with pneumonia, it affects lung function by causing the alveoli or air sacs to fill up with fluid or pus and become inflamed. Therefore, causing pain, making it hard to breathe, and making it difficult to exchange the right gases. The initial response when your lungs inhale the bacteria is signaled by the mucosal cells within the respiratory tract. This response is made by the host by the following ways: 

1. Through the adherence of intact bacteria to the host epithelial cells

2. By internalization of the bacteria

3. By direct interaction of bacterial adhesions and toxins with the mucosal epithelium

Lastly, the two main virulence factors of S. aureus are adhesions and exoproteins! According to Bien (2011), SpA, a-toxin, b-toxin, and PVL are the primary virulence factors that can induce tissue injury and inflammation in the lungs. This is interesting when comparing to the virulence factors within the skin and soft tissue infection of S. aureus that we learned in today lecture as those are different! They include: coagulase, other enzymes, and superantigens.

References: 

Bien, J., Sokolova, O., & Bozko, P. (2011). Characterization of Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus: Novel Function of Known Virulence Factors That Are Implicated in Activation of Airway Epithelial Proinflammatory Response. Journal of pathogens, 2011, 601905. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/601905

Kobayashi, S. D., Malachowa, N., & DeLeo, F. R. (2015). Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus abscesses. The American journal of pathology, 185(6), 1518–1527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.030 (Links to an external site.)

Gonzalez, C. (2021). Microbiology [Chapter 18,19,20 powerpoint slides]. Chamberlain University.

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

This assignment is due at the end of Week 3, Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT. The guidelines and rubric for this assignment are located and listed below.

Week 3: Quality Improvement Model Application (Links to an external site.)

Purpose

The purpose of this assignment is to (a) provide examples of a quality improvement initiative or patient safety issue in any healthcare delivery setting, (b) explore the contributing factors for this adverse medical outcome, (c) apply quality improvement theories and philosophies to a healthcare management project, (d) demonstrate an understanding of quality improvement tools by correctly choosing and using them in specific cases, and (e) recognize the extent of problems of patient safety in medical care.

Course Outcomes

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to do the following.

  • Apply frameworks and theories for improving quality of care in various healthcare systems. (CO 1)
  • Use critical inquiry to evaluate the design, implementation, and outcomes of quality and safety improvement strategies. (CO 3)
  • Advance knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for the continuous improvement of quality and safety in healthcare. (CO 5)

Due Date: Submit by Sunday 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 3.

Students are given the opportunity to request an extension on assignments for emergent situations. Supporting documentation must be submitted to the assigned faculty. If the student’s request is not approved, the assignment is graded and a late penalty is applied as follows:

  • Monday = 10% of total possible point reduction
  • Tuesday = 20% of total possible point reduction
  • Wednesday = 30% of total possible point reduction

If the student’s request is approved, the student will be informed of the revised due date. Should the student fail to meet the revised due date, the assignment is graded and a late penalty is applied as follows:

  • Monday = 10% of total possible point reduction
  • Tuesday = 20% of total possible point reduction
  • Wednesday = 30% of total possible point reduction

Total Points Possible: 230

Requirements

Assignment Criteria for the Paper

1. Identify any existing quality concern or an existing patient safety issue and provide the rationale for choosing this issue.

2. Explain the background and scope of the problem.

3. Analyze the issue based on the appropriate quality philosophy.

4. Identify the regulatory guidelines, internal and/or external benchmarks, or evidence-based practice standards surrounding the issue—explain what that expectation is and why.

5. Use the appropriate quality improvement tools to improve the quality outcome.

6. Describe how you could or will get involved in this initiative to make a difference and move it forward to enactment.

7. Summarize the content in concluding statements.

8. The body of the scholarly paper is to be 3–5 pages in length, excluding title and reference pages.

9. Grammar, spelling, punctuation, references, and citations are consistent with formal academic writing and APA format as expressed in the current edition.

10. Include a minimum of four references published within the past 5 years, not including your textbook. References may include scholarly websites of organizations or government agencies and must be presented using APA current edition format for electronic media.

Preparing the Paper

Category

Points

%

Description

Introduction and quality concern

25

11%

Identify a quality issue/patient safety issue and provide a rationale.

Background and scope of the problem

20

9%

Analyze the problem from a literature review and a practical point of view.

Goals of improvement

20

9%

Identify three goals to improve the problem.

Quality philosophy application

35

15%

Using a quality model, analyze the patient safety concern and the intervention to bridge the gaps.

Identification of the regulatory guidelines and internal/external benchmarks or EBP standards for this issue

40

17%

Discuss all related factors to this problem and explain what the expectation is and why.

Quality process tool and improvement recommendation

40

17%

Apply appropriate quality improvement tools to improve the quality outcome; provide illustrations for all tools used (flowchart, gap analysis, root cause analysis, etc.). Choose at least two tools for implementation.

Conclusion

15

7%

Provide summary and concluding statements.

APA style

10

4%

Text, title page, and reference page(s) are completely consistent with APA current edition format.

Scholarly references

15

7%

Paper is 3–5 pages in length, excluding the cover and reference pages. References include a minimum of 4 scholarly references, excluding the course text.

Grammar and spelling

10

4%

Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work.

Total

230

100%

A quality assignment will meet or exceed all of the above requirements.

Rubric

Quality Improvement Model Application Guidelines With Scoring Rubric

Quality Improvement Model Application Guidelines With Scoring Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroduction and quality concern

25 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Introduction offers broad overview of topic narrowing to key concepts to be presented. Purpose statement is clear. All elements provided.

20 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Introduction includes issue and purpose. Statement present but may lack a key component.

16 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Introduction of topic issue lacks occasional important element or specificity. One element provided.

10 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Introduction of topic issue has multiple instances of inaccuracies. None of the required elements present or no introduction.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

Introduction is not present.

25 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBackground and scope of the problem

20 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Succinctly defines problem and population with significant demographics; describes depth of the problem and numbers affected.

18 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Defines problem, some elements may not be fully developed; rare inaccuracy.

16 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Identifies problem with lack of depth and occasional important elements or specificity.

8 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Identifies problem with multiple instances of inaccuracies or one or more elements missing.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

Overview of health problem is not present.

20 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGoals of improvement

20 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Comprehensive and realistic benefits to nursing profession presented.

18 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Benefits to nursing profession stated with adequate clarity or realism.

16 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Benefits to nursing profession stated but lack clarity or realism.

8 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Benefits to nursing profession stated but unrealistic.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

Benefits to nursing profession absent.

20 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeQuality philosophy application

35 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Application to problem/concern is fully developed and comprehensive.

25 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Application to problem/concern is adequately present or model mostly linked to project.

20 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Application to problem/concern is minimally present or model not always linked to project.

15 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Model is not linked to project.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

Application to problem/concern is absent.

35 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIdentify regulatory guidelines, internal/external benchmarks and EBP standards

40 pts

(100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Able to discuss all related factors.

32 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Able to discuss all related factors but there are some missing details.

25 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Discussed some related factors but there are some that are missing.

15 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Discussion is minimal and most of the factors are missing.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

No discussion of related factors.

40 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeImprovement process and recommendations

40 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Decision recommendation thoroughly discussed. Discusses at least two tools.

32 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Decision recommendation developed with rare inaccuracies; Discusses at least one tool.

25 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Discussion of the decision recommendation lacks occasional important elements or specificity but one tool is discussed.

15 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

Discussion of the decision recommendation has multiple instances of inaccuracies and/or is vague. One tool discussed.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

Discussion of the decision recommendation is absent. No tools discussed.

40 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConclusion

15 pts

Exceptional (100%) Outstanding or highest level of performance

Provides distinct summary with concluding statements regarding the future direction and focus of the project; reflects key elements of the paper.

12 pts

Exceeds (88%) Very good or high level of performance

Provides distinct summary with concluding statements regarding the future direction and focus of the project; does not summarize key elements of the paper.

8 pts

Meets (80%) Competent or satisfactory level of performance

Provides distinct summary with no concluding statements; no summarization of key elements of the paper.

4 pts

Needs Improvement (38%) Poor or failing level of performance

No distinct summary; concluding statements found at the end in the general body of the paper.

0 pts

Developing (0) Unsatisfactory level of performance

No distinct summary or conclusion provided.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA

10 pts

There are no APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).

8 pts

There are 1–2 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).

6 pts

There are 3–4 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).

4 pts

There are 5 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).

0 pts

There are 6 or more APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeScholary

15 pts

The table provided is utilized. References include 2 or more scholarly resources, excluding the course text, and may include scholarly websites.

12 pts

The table provided is utilized. References include a minimum of 2 scholarly resources, excluding course text. One of the references utilized was not scholarly.

8 pts

The table provided is not utilized and/or references contain a minimum of 2 resources, excluding course text. One or more references utilized is not a scholarly resource.

4 pts

The table provided is not utilized and/or references utilized are not scholarly and/or fewer than 2 resources were utilized.

0 pts

Only one resource was utilized.

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work.

10 pts

Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work with no exceptions.

8 pts

Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work with 1–2 exceptions.

6 pts

Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work with 3–4 exceptions.

4 pts

grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are not followed with errors.

0 pts

Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are not followed with 6 or more errors.

10 pts

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Introduction

In this session, you have been considering moral-ethical dilemmas you yourself faced or that you know of that you either resolved or failed to resolve, but hopefully learned from. You may never have given much thought to ethical theory nor what ethical premises/paradigms you have unconsciously held.

You will be focusing on this case for this assignment:

Jane Doe is a nursing student at University X. Jane is in week eight of a course entitled: “Introduction to Ethics”.

For the week one discussion, Jane copied work done by her friend John Doe in the same class two months ago (with a different professor). John told Jane it was okay to use his work as John’s professor never checked any work in the class using a website to check. John claimed to have earned an A on the work also.

In week two, Jane went to StudentPapering.com and paid ten dollars for a week two essay done by a student (not John Doe) who took the same course four months ago. StudentPapering promises that all its archived work is of excellent quality and cannot be detected as copied. Jane then uploaded an exact copy of the work for the week two assignment.

In week three, Jane paid a worker at PaperingStudent.com ten dollars to write for Jane a brand new essay after Jane shared with the worker the essay assignment instructions.

In week four, Jane relied on her knowledge of Esperanto. She felt pressed for time and found an article by a professor from Esperanto on the week four topic. She translated Esperanto into English using Moogle Translate, and the translated text served as her week four paper.sou

Since Jane’s Ethics professor did not check papers and posting for any issues by using check website or another method, the professor graded all of Jane’s work unaware of Jane’s actions throughout the weeks of the class. Jane feels her actions are morally justified both because her economic situation requires her to work too much to devote time to school (although other students are well-off enough to have such time) and her religion forbids cheating, but Jane ignores her religion’s teachings.

Instructions
Now that you have had an opportunity to explore ethics formally, create a reflective assessment of your learning experience and the collaborations you engaged in throughout this session. You will submit of the following:

  • A written reflection

For the written reflection, address Jane Doe’s and respond to the following:

  • Articulate again your moral theory from week eight discussion (You can revise it if you wish). What two ethical theories best apply to it? Why those two?
  • Apply to Jane Doe’s case your personal moral philosophy as developed in week eight discussion and now. Use it to determine if what Jane Doe did was ethical or unethical per your own moral philosophy.
  • Consider if some of these examples are more grave instances of ethical transgressions than others. Explain.
  • Propose a course of social action and a solution by using the ethics of egoism, utilitarianism, the “veil of ignorance” method, deontological principles, and/or a theory of justice to deal with students like Jane. Consider social values such as those concerning ways of life while appraising the interests of diverse populations (for instance, those of differing religions and economic status).

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 3-4 pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources)

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Purpose

Across the healthcare industry, evidence is used to shape and direct practice in order to improve health outcomes and organizational efficiency. Using a data-driven approach to practice that is grounded in findings from valid, reliable research endeavors is referred to as evidence-based practice (EBP).

While many different models for EBP exist, a core methodology is shared within each. Central to EBP models is the review of scholarly sources to appraise the quality of evidence available regarding an identified practice issue or intervention. To guide the process, the development of a PICOT statement is often the first step.

A PICOT statement includes a brief description of the problem and population impacted, intervention, comparison, outcome, and anticipated timeframe in order to better understand the issue. This step provides clarity and direction as the critique of evidence from scholarly literature is initiated.

MSN-prepared nurses are uniquely positioned with knowledge and skills to identify problems, and to plan, implement, and evaluate evidence-based interventions to improve practice-related outcomes. Toward that end, the assignments in this course are designed to cultivate skills in the development of a PICOT statement (week 2 assignment), and in the critique of evidence from scholarly literature sources (week 5 assignment). As a culminating activity that, a proposal for an evidence-based practice intervention will be developed in week 7 that builds upon the learning accomplished through the assignments in weeks 2 and 5.

The purpose of this assignment is to explore the development of a PICOT statement that can serve as a springboard for the critique of scholarly evidence surrounding the identified practice problem and intervention to improve outcomes.

Click the following link for a printable version of the instructions below: NR505 Week 2 PICOT Worksheet AssignmentAssignment Overview

Review the elements included in a PICOT statement to guide evidence-based nursing practice.
Consider various problems that impact nursing practice, health or organizational outcomes. You are welcome to consider a specific issue that is interest to you professionally, or an issue that impacts your future MSN role.
Once you have identified one practice issue, you will complete the PICOT Worksheet by addressing the items below. Using a minimum of two scholarly nursing sources, current within five years:
Identify and describe the selected practice issue. Explain why the issue is important to the profession of nursing and its impact on health-related outcomes.
Define each element of your PICOT statement in one or two sentences, being sure to address all of the following:
P-Population and problem – What is the nursing practice concern or problem and whom does it affect?
I-Intervention – What evidence-based solution for the problem would you like to apply?
C-Comparison – What is another solution for the problem? (Note that this is typically the current practice, no intervention at all, or alternative solutions.)
O-Outcome – Very specifically, how will you know that the intervention worked? What will be the indicator of success, and how will that outcome be measured?
T-Timeframe – Target date for outcome achievement.
Construct your PICOT statement in the standard narrative format and define each letter separately.
Assignment Instructions
Abide by the Chamberlain College of Nursing Academic Integrity Policy.
Complete the Week 2 PICOT Worksheet (Links to an external site.) using complete sentences.
Include a minimum of 2 scholarly nursing sources, current within 5 years, to support your work.
Credit sources with citations and a reference list using current APA format guidelines.
Use correct spelling, word usage, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, congruent with graduate-level writing.
No direct quotes may be used in this assignment.

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Chamberlain College of Nursin

Review the following ethical dilemmas:

  1. John Doe has decided to clone himself. He is sterile. He cannot find anyone to marry him. He wishes to have children. He knows that he will not be able to love a child that is adopted or not connected directly to him biologically. He will be making use of a new procedure that involves taking his skin cells to produce a twin. The twin starts out as an embryo and grows into a child. The child in this case will have the same genetic information as John Doe. John Doe and his child will be twins.
  2. Jane Doe is eighteen. For as long as she can remember she has been sexually attracted to other females. Her parents belong to a religion that has a religious text stating that God forbids one to be a lesbian. This religion goes on further to say that lesbians will be punished in the afterlife. Jane Doe is debating whether she should tell her parents about her sexual attraction. She has not yet decided if she should come out to her parents and live as a lesbian now that she is a legal adult.
  3. Joe and Mary are a couple. Before becoming sterile, they had a child. This child died of a rare disease. Joe and Mary miss their child terribly. They have heard that there is a new IVF procedure that can ensure that they can have another child. However, their religion forbids using IVF.
    Use the resources assigned for this week and additional research,

Instructions
Select two of the situations above and then address 2 of the following:

  1. What is the relation between ethics and religion? Formulate and investigate the relation.
  2. For each case, determine the ethical path of conduct. Then, determine what paths of conduct would be unethical
  3. For each case, what would an emotivism say to appraise what you determine is the ethical form of conduct?
  4. For each case, would a natural law ethicist agree with what you say is the ethical form of conduct? Why or why not?
  5. Articulate, explain, and evaluate in each case an approach that makes use of divine command ethics.

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