Colorado Technical University

Individual Project

HIT Systems Planning/Information Requirements




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3-4 pages

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Assignment Description

As the manager of CTU Health Care Systems, you have done your research on three vendors to which you would like to outsource the implementation of the electronic health records (EHRs) for the clinics. As the manager, you have a number of critical decisions regarding the electronic medical record systems. At first, you thought you could either implement the existing EHR system at the other acute care organization or implement an entirely new EHR in both facilities.

You met with your staff, and after researching several companies that offered both products and services, you have solicited request for proposals (RFPs) from the following three companies:

  • ABC Systems Consulting, the leading company in health care systems integration services, refused to bid on the systems integration required for bringing the current EHR system into the other organization. This was because of the risks and time requirements for designing, implementing, and testing the large number of interfaces required and the required time line for the completion of the project as identified by the client.
  • XYZ EHR Systems proposed that its new, recently redeveloped EHR be implemented in both facilities, which included a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) module, standardized drug interaction alert functionality, and customizable clinical alert functionality. It estimated that the merged entity would get a much better price than $50 million for purchasing this new system. Unfortunately, XYZ was unable to provide evidence of successful installation of its recently redeveloped EHR system at a similarly large delivery network or anywhere.
  • QRS EHR Systems, a leading provider of EHR systems for large acute care facilities, proposed that its EHR be installed in both acute care organizations with a $50–60 million price tag. QRS included a CPOE module, standardized drug interaction alert functionality, as well as evidence-based clinical alert functionality. QRS also had a physician office EHR system with an embedded patient registration system; however, QRS has had minimal experience with integrating the physician office registration system with the acute care (hospital) registration system—an integration feature that was a priority for this project based on the client’s information technology (IT) strategic plan.

The stakes surrounding your recommendation to the chief information officer (CIO) and chief executive officer (CEO) could not be higher in terms of dollars and your career.

Discuss the following in your paper of 3-4 pages, not including title page and reference page:

  • What pieces of information are the most critical for your decision on selecting the right vendor?
  • What other options, if any, do you have?
  • What are the critical success factors in the case?
  • What are your recommendations to the CIO and CEO based on the RFPs that you received?

Please submit your assignment.

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Discussion Board

HIT Systems Planning/Information Requirements




Points Earnednot available

400-600 words

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Assignment Details

Assignment Description

Primary Discussion Response is due by Friday (11:59:59pm Central), Peer Responses are due by Tuesday (11:59:59pm Central).

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400-600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

CTU Health Care Systems has five clinics that serve nearly 2 million residents in a large metropolitan area and treat over 500,000 patients annually. Now that you have successfully implemented the electronic health record (EHR) at the main facility, it is time to integrate the clinic’s information technology (IT) with the main hospital’s EHR. In preparation for the implementation of an EHR system for the five clinics, the health care system implemented an electronic document (ED) and content management (CM) system to handle the imaging, indexing, and storage of selected hard copy documents from active patient paper medical records so that in the future, to support continuity of care needs, key documents would be retrievable through the EHR system. However, the health care system lacked the level of internal IT and health information services staff resources required to manage the implementation of hardware and software to handle the actual paper conversion process, so these aspects of the project were outsourced.

Discuss the following:

  • As the health care system prepares to select an outsource company as its vendor for this project, what types of information should you gather from each vendor under consideration?
  • What are the potential benefits that a health care system could gain from implementing a document imaging and management project prior to implementing an EHR system?

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Assignment Description

Professional Portfolio

For your final assignment in this course, you will prepare a complete Professional Trends Review.

In a single Word document, prepare a Professional Trends Review that will help prepare you for your professional future. In this Individual Project, you will prepare a Professional Summary. A Professional Summary includes the strengths that you have based on your experiences that would be interesting to a potential employer. Use this template. Your Professional Trends Review should include the following:

  • A title page
  • An official professional summary
    • Include your strengths that can be transferred to any position you hold.
    • Include any professional awards you have received.
  • Your career goals
    • Include where you are today and where you want to be in the future.
  • A reflection that includes how the courses you’ve taken will help prepare you for your career

Career Services

Check out these CTU Career Services resources for help.

Each student at Colorado Technical University has their own unique career needs. Whether you are just starting out on your chosen career path, advancing within your current career, or changing careers altogether, Career Services at CTU Online can assist you with your career planning and job search. They can help you identify the talents, skills, knowledge, and experience you could bring to a prospective employer, as well as help you better understand your interests and how your personality type relates to work. They can also help you devise a career action plan, identify possible job opportunities, and provide feedback on how you can more effectively position yourself as a candidate for these opportunities. Contact CTU Career Services at 866-8136-1836 or to connect with your dedicated career coach. CTU Career Services can also help you with the following:

  • Build your professional brand and establish your digital identity and social media presence
  • Learn how to use LinkedIn® and other resources to develop your professional network
  • Craft a resume that effectively promotes your qualifications and speaks to the needs of your target employer
  • Enhance your interviewing skills by conducting mock interviews
  • Network with employers through CTU Career Snapshots and CTU Employer Profile Webinars
  • Access potential career opportunities from employers who have posted available positions within CTU’s internal job board…and more!

Please submit your assignment.

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Grading Rubric

Expectation Points Possible
Assignment-Specific: Develop an official professional summary. 30
Assignment-Specific: Describe your career goals. 30

Assignment-Specific: Reflect on the courses you have taken and how they have prepared you for your career.


Organization: Assignment presents information logically and is clearly relevant to the topic.


Professional Language: Assignment contains accurate grammar, spelling, and/or punctuation with few or no errors. Any resources should be cited in APA format.


Total Points


Total Points Earned

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Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two peers. Focus on the obstacles or barriers within the data and describe how validity, reliability, outdated data, or inconsistent definitions might hinder the data processing.

Student post down below:

The name of the organization that I have chosen is the Maslow Project. The Maslow Project is a nonprofit organization that was established in 2009 in a small community in Oregon and has grown substantially since then. The organization’s overall goal in the beginning was to help the homeless youth population by having resources to assist them with school, whether it be with access to funds to participate in sports, clothes, food, etc. The organization has now grown within the community where they not only help the homeless youth, but also homeless families with at risk youth. They have outreached through the years with other local resources where they now can assist with more housing assistance, case management, skill development, employment, and more. I will be evaluating the increase of the homeless youth population in association with demographic information, causes, and interventions necessary for this at-risk population.

Through researching the Maslow project, their finances, reports, sponsors, board member, etc., there has not been much that has stood out as inconsistent or questionable. The challenges that may face are the data presents information related to demographics, financing, and where the assistance is being provided, however, trying to identify the causes or the interventions necessary may be a bit more difficult to identify. Having research, knowledge, and understanding regarding the community one is in, the diversity, the cultures, multiculturism, and more could potentially help in identifying what is needed to assist in the community (Calley, 2011). The budget has appeared to be stable as more stakeholders are investing, local resources are connecting and working together, donations are still being contributed, and grants are continuing which helps keep the confidence of the organization for the community.

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Respond to at least two peers. Focus on the obstacles or barriers within the data and describe how validity, reliability, outdated data, or inconsistent definitions might hinder the data processing.

Student post down below:

The Organization that will be discussed is Riverbend City. The City is experiencing a high poverty rate with a lot of issues with employment, graduation rates and a lack of resources to help the struggling north side of the City. The data is being reviewed of the African American’s and Latino’s youth that are dropping out of high school. The youth are confused with dropping out of High School and not getting an education that can lead them to a better life and legal employment. Instead, the youth are dropping out of school to sell drugs and getting expelled from High School. In which these youth’s end up in the Juvenile Justice System. (Riverbend City, 2021)

The problem that needs to be considered is starting with the youth home life and providing resources that can help parents of these youth by offering of resources for education and employment. If the parents are knowledgeable, this would roll over to the youth of this city. It will take the assistance from home, school and the community over all to make a change. Data may not be correct of the number of students experiencing these hardship issues in the African American culture and the Latino culture which could bring problems of validity. (Salganik,2018)

Knowing that data is not always reliable, looking at the problem of this growing epidemic collaborating with a team of many talents and cultures a determine of how these programs will be provided to the community such as job fairs, training for employment sessions, college opportunities/scholarships, free classes, on the job training, recruiters that can come to the high schools to offer orientations for what is being look at in entry level employment opportunities is where the resources will begin. (Salganik,2018)

According to (Guenole, 2007), some challenges, the data may not be accurate. Understanding if there is data is missing, having an assessment to determine what are the age group of these students. The population of African Americans and the populations of Latino families in the city. Even though keeping the data private. The responders can skip questions so that no one will know who is answering these questions. However, the solutions are utilizing the data and preventing what is going to bring success to River bend City. Even though there is missing outdated data. Solving the challenges and having someone that has experience of this review will make sure updated data will be presented once the assessments are completed. This will be a continuous endeavor.

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Read the initial posts of the other learners and respond to two. In each response, ask questions about the learner’s timeline or make suggestions for improvement.

Student post down below:

he REACH program is a program for adolescents and adults. This program if for mental health services which offers an intense outpatient program for children, adults, and adolescents. This program provides treatments for behavioral, emotional, stress, and anxiety issues. This program is located in Bridgeport Ct and this city always need help, support and guidance. This grant would be for helping the program and expanding the program so we can decrease the mental health issues. This proposal will take about six months to get things started. August 13 2021 to February 18 2021.

For the first month I will be focusing on my clients one on one to get the comfortable enough to talk to the staffs and open up. I will also be having group therapies so clients could get to know one another. I will be playing games and activities to get to know one another. My staffs will also be doing training and education weekly to know how to handle specific clients. They will also be doing training to protect themselves just in case any clients decides to escalate. My clients will be pretending what if they were in that person’s shoe and taking advice from one another. The first month will be focusing on one another and getting to get comfortable with each other.

For the second month I would separate clients by their disorders so they can relate to one another and maybe help each other. I would use the grant and buy any tools needed such as activity tools to help support the program. This would help me to decide if the issues has increased, decreased, or remain the same as the week goes by. I would also focus on my clients current physical issues, if their emotional gotten worse or better, how they are socially, and what is cause the changes if any (Coley & Scheinberg, 2016). I will start the process and try to get any help in anyway. I would gather any information needed such as what tools are needed and the extra space that is needed to separate the clients.

For the third month we will be focusing on going out in the community and doing field trips to take their minds off the stress and the struggles. We will also have activities on campus that they can either do alone or with each other. My goal is to educate my clients so they can go back to their normal lives and know how to deescalate any anxiety without escalating the issues. This gives me the opportunity to begin any extra grant process needed or finalize all paperwork before sending my grant proposal.

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Unit 5 – Individual Project

Assignment Overview

Individual Project

Implementing a Full System Within Health Care




Points Earnednot available

3–4 pages and 30-50 slides

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Assignment Details

Assignment Description

For this assignment, you will create a written plan and a PowerPoint presentation. Based on the assignment you completed in Week 4, you will now take the system that you selected for evaluation and create an implementation and support plan. You are to serve as the product manager for the given system. It is your responsibility to ensure the success of this system. Complete the following:

  • Create an implementation plan (development and deployment) for the identified system.
  • In addition to your implementation plan, be sure to consider the key performance indicators (KPIs) that you will use to evaluate the success or value of the system.
  • Consider what maintenance aspects must be accounted for to ensure the long-term use of this system.

Additionally, build off of what you created in the weeks leading up to this assignment. Create a PowerPoint presentation from your Individual Projects from Weeks 1–5. This PowerPoint presentation should be a presentation to a chief information officer (CIO). For your presentation, assume that you are being tasked with creating a new division within a health care information technology (IT) organization. You have been given complete control of this division; however, you need to explain to the CIO how you will manage the following:

  • The systems development life cycle (SDLC) (e.g., waterfall or agile)
  • The regulations associated with health care (e.g., Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA] and meaningful use)
  • Security and recovery (e.g., system security, network security, and data security)
  • System interoperability and organizational interoperability
  • Implementation of the systems that your division is responsible for within the organization (e.g., action plan)
  • Evaluation of your organization and definitions of success, including financial objectives

Note: Use APA style to cite at least 2 scholarly sources from the last 5 years.

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Based on your discussions with Michelle, you have developed a clear picture of the environmental issues that will affect the initial release of the new product. As you compile your notes, the phone rings.

“Hi. This is Michelle. I want to touch base with you about your presentation to the board next week. Do you have any questions about the upcoming meeting?”
“Thanks for calling,” you say. “You have good timing. I was just reviewing my notes and working on my PowerPoint presentation. I think I’ve covered the areas we discussed at our last meeting. Do you have something else that you want me to include?”
“Oh, good,” says Michelle. “Yes, I’d like you to share 3 or 4 goals for the marketing project, too. Make sure these goals are specific as possible. You might want to lead with the goals, but I’ll leave that up to you. Naturally you’ll need to do some research to determine the types of goals that are relevant for a new product project like this. Be as specific as you can when outlining realistic expectations.
“Okay,” you say as you jot down more notes. “Anything else?”
“Just be sure to include your thoughts about whether we should develop a product that can be marketed world-wide. You know that is one of their main concerns. You’ll have about 30 minutes for your presentation. ”
“Will do. Thanks for the information. I think about 10–15 slides should be about right for a 30-minute presentation.”

The students should list and explain 3–4 goals that a company in this situation should set for itself. The explanations should be 2–3 sentences each, and they should include citations from the text and other sources. Each goal should be as specific as possible; for example, the goals might include—among other things—the following items: Need a reference page

  • Sales in dollars or units
  • Market share
  • Customer awareness
  • Profit
  • Return on investment
  • Customer satisfaction

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Response Guidelines

Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least one other learner regarding his or her position.

Your response must be substantive and contribute to the discussion. Compare your analysis to that of your peer and comment on the similarities and differences that you see. If there are aspects of his or her post that you do not agree with, present an argument to support your position. If you need more information from your peer, be sure to ask questions for clarity

Student post down below:

Collaborative Leadership is an ideal sector within the human service field. Understanding the overall aspect of collaborative leadership and how to successfully incorporate these strategies within everyday collaboration in management is essential to making decisions and keeping ones organization afloat. There are various different styles of leadership within the collaborative leadership style that could help and organization reach his/her goal. This type of leadership not only offer the chance to collaborate with others, but the ability to offer many different benefits to an organization. Facilitative leadership is also discussed within the starting conditions in the model, and nonprofit respondents recognized this as a key component of the beginning of collaborative discussions (Miltenberger & Sloan, 2017, pg. 130). As human service leaders, learning and incorporating collaborative leadership can help to move forward within any organization. This is a great learning factor to incorporate within the field. Given their increasing importance to governance outcomes, researchers have sought to understand the ways in which collaborative policy networks are formed, evolve, and dissolve (Weare, Lichterman, & Esparza, 2014).

What can we learn from these examples, as human services leaders?

There are many different aspects we can learn from these examples, as human service leaders. Ethically, it is our job to continue to learn new strategies to continue to move forward within the leadership field of human services. STANDARD 13 Human service professionals stay informed about current social issues as they affect clients and communities. If appropriate to the helping relationship, they share this information with clients, groups and communities as part of their work (National Organization for Human Services, 2015). We can learn from the examples presented to understand what collaborative leadership is and how to successfully incorporate these strategies.

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Response Guidelines

Respond to at least one other learner regarding alignment of a planned outline, SWOT/PEST analysis, budget, and primary factors that demonstrate alignment.

Your response must be substantive and contribute to the discussion. Compare your analysis to that of your peer and comment on the similarities and differences that you see. If there are aspects that you do not agree with, present an argument to support your position. If you need more information from your peer, be sure to ask questions for clarity.

Student post down below:

It would seem logical to align your Strategic Plan, SWOT/PEST analysis, and budget with the mission and vision of your organization. After careful review, it is possible to realize that somehow your mission isn’t specific enough in outlining the “longterm, intermediate, and early outcomes” (Anderson, 2004, p. 3). The mission of the Honu Home, a transitional home for parolees, is to exemplify a standard of respect for all clients to provide exceptional mental health care in order to create a culture of competence, value, and transformational growth. The mission fails to define the standard of care for whom and the outcome expected for each individual transitioning through the organization. Recidivism is high considering the resources and funding allocated for rehabilitative services. Tax payers spend millions of dollars for programming with no official access to the results of programming. Communities are faced with the reality that incarceration is a system designed to temporarily or permanently eliminate an individual from society by putting them behind bars. What happens after incarceration? Is it rehabilitation, forgiveness, acceptance, positive transition, and/or change of mindset? Transitional homes are needed to further reduce the rate of recidivism and to provide additional programming, counseling, or job training. The mission of the Honu Home is strategic but doesn’t define the longterm goals although the strategic plan may be detailed in this aspect. The purpose of the Honu Home is evident but based on our readings for this week there is work needed in making sure the mission and vision of the organization aligns with the Strategic Plan.

The vision highlights “Client Focus, Exceptional Care, Culture of Excellence, Value Creation, and Transformational Growth”. Their vision aligns with their strategic plan but needs redirection that all “important preconditions for success have been identified” (Anderson, 2004, p. 3). Once a more defined definition of longterm, intermediate,and early outcomes are revised, the strategic plan, SWOT/PEST analysis, and budget will align with the mission and vision of the Honu Home.

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Introduction to Data Analysis

This is part two of the project and will be incorporated into the final assignment. Please review the elements needed for the final data analysis report in Unit 9.

For this assignment, continue to use your chosen organization that was previously approved and complete the following:

Evaluate potential program models using peer-reviewed journals.

  • Use three peer-reviewed journals to evaluate the models. Sample models include the culture-based model, cooperative learning research-based model, impact model, et cetera.
  • Explain how data impacts these models. For example, explain how the impact model addresses hunger among the homeless.

Introduction: In a paragraph, introduce your organization, describe their mission, and define whom they service.

Background: Analyze the background of a chosen organization including population served, governance structure, how it has evolved over time, et cetera.

  • In the background section of the final paper, you will provide a detailed profile of your chosen organization including the population served, governance structure, and internal and external stakeholders.
  • Include how the organization’s role has changed over time.
  • This section should be two full pages.

Identify relevant researched data sets to discover a community problem.

  • Turn in a table of data that lists the categories and their matching data for your chosen problem in your organization. For example, 28 men, 42 females, six unidentified (Refer to Riverbend City: Interpreting Data).
  • Report on the history of risk assessment and decision making.
    • For example, victims of domestic violence and sexual abuse.
    • If you are familiar with statistics, feel free to include information regarding decision making, such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value.
      • For example, the probability is that cancer is present when the test is positive.
      • Specificity: Whatever you are testing needs to test negative, which means that there will not be enough services for the population.
        • For example, the test result is negative because cancer is not present.
      • Sensitivity: Whatever you are testing needs to test positive, which means that there will be enough services for the population.
        • For example, what is the probability that there would not be enough services for the homeless?
        • For example, sensitivity is when the test will be positive when cancer is present.
      • Positive Predictive Value means the probability that something, such as a disease, is present when the test is positive.

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Big D Incorporated will be examining how multivariate techniques can serve the organization best and how they can be applied to its new client, the outdoor sporting goods customer. The Board of Directors has asked you to research and explain 3 major ways in which multivariate statistics are utilized in this scenario. In this case, be sure to justify your decision.

Research using the library and the Internet to find an example of how a real company has used each of the following multivariate techniques:

  • Factor analysis
  • Multidimensional scaling
  • Cluster analysis

This can be considered a benchmark if you can justify how it could benefit Big D Incorporated.

Write a summary to upper management explaining the following:

  • How can each multivariate technique be utilized in Big D Incorporated, and what purpose would each serve?
  • Which technique is your preferred method, and how is your chosen multivariate technique different from the other two techniques?
  • What will the Board of Directors learn from your selected technique and more importantly, how will it contribute to the overall decision-making process? 
  • Download the file Sample Data.
  • Prepare a chart similar to the one in the downloaded file to indicate whether the correlation between variables A and B were found to be positive, negative, or minimal.
  • Provide explanation and justification for your decisions.

In your own words, explain what it means if the correlation of 2 variables is positive, negative, or minimal (close to 0), and give an example of each.

  • What do you deduce from the correlations? Explain if you believe these to be short or long-term objectives and outcomes.
  • What are the implications for Big D Incorporated regarding its client in the outdoor sporting goods?
  • What are the implications for the penetration into the indoor sporting goods market?
  • Also, how can you use the correlation tools to identify the variables in the research toward the expansion into the indoor sporting goods market? 

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Write 600–800 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas..

As the firm looks for ways to offset the domestic downturn in sales, Deborah, the CEO of your company, wants to determine if a global strategy is a good fit for the organization. She has designated you as the manager for this project. You will work with your team to develop a global marketing plan for your organization.

You begin your research in deciding if and what the global strategy should be. You get your team together and begin to discuss a plan on how you will research this possibility.

You start the meeting by saying “Let’s brainstorm and start to get a plan together for a possible globalization strategy. Tiffany, I’d like you work with me to begin researching possible locations.”

Tiffany says, “I think we need to research some locations, but I think there is more to it than that. There still needs to be a decision on the type of strategy or approach we are taking. Would we use a multidomestic approach, a global approach, or a transnational approach? I’m still not entirely convinced a global strategy is the answer.”

“Great point, Tiffany. It is obvious to me as well that we need to explore a strategy that will put us in a better position to handle the economic downturn. We have to provide the board with the facts. They seem to be leaning in the direction of a global strategy, but I’m not sure it’s the right move either. That’s why we need to do research.”

Domestic profit margins have dropped by 2% this quarter. You wonder how you and your team can help fix this. Is a global strategy the answer, or should the company continue to focus on the domestic market?

You call a team meeting to learn about the progress of their research.

Tiffany, one of your team members, begins the discussion. “I think we need to look at some of the internal factors,” she says. “We know what our capabilities are on the domestic front, but what about in the global market? We have a fairly strong market presence here in higher-end markets, but how does that translate globally?”

Discuss the following:

  • How do you define a global strategy? Compare and contrast global strategy with other international expansion strategies.
  • Identify a minimum of 3 possible countries for globalization. Research each of these locations in the furniture industry, and document both the pros and cons of using these in global strategy.
  • What country would you choose? What evidence can you provide in support of your choice?
  • What evidence might somebody else, who does not agree with you, provide to support an alternative choice?
  • Recommend two or three areas to benchmark in preparation for the decision regarding global expansion. MUSE materials provide information regarding this topic.

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Deliverable length: 5-8 PowerPoint Presentation slides with speaker notes (excluding the title and reference slide); including detailed speaker notes of 200-250 words speaker notes for each slide

As the new HR manager of a jewelry company, you have put together some preliminary reports for the CEO. One of the reports you compiled focuses on employee turnover. The jewelry company is an organization with aggressive expansion goals. In the last 2 years, the company has continually hired new employees, yet it has not achieved the staffing levels it desired. The company knew that some employees had left the organization, but turnover rates have not been formally tracked.

After your preliminary fact-finding, you were surprised to discover that the turnover rate for the past year was 38%. You know the CEO will not be pleased with this turnover rate, and you have made the decision to prepare yourself more before presenting the report to the CEO. Turnover presents a significant cost for an organization, so you recognize that this will be an opportunity for you to demonstrate how you can partner with the executive team to turn this situation around and help the company be more competitive. Prepare a short presentation for the CEO on the situation and possible reasons as to why employees are leaving at such a high rate.

As you are preparing your presentation, consider the following:

  • In detail, discuss several of the reasons why employees tend to leave organizations.
  • You plan to present the financial impact to the CEO to get a real sense of the significance of the situation. What factors will you consider in preparing this financial estimate? For this assignment, you are not required to determine the actual dollar figure, but instead, you are to consider what would contribute to the cost of turnover.
  • Being proactive, what measures can be taken to assess the morale of current employees, and how likely they are to leave or stay?
  • What process do you recommend for partnering with the management team to reduce turnover in the upcoming years?
  • As you consider your role, how will you position this to the CEO to demonstrate the value you can bring to addressing this problem?

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Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least one other learner regarding his or her position.

Student post down below: 

The social work field and human service field is such a large area of focus. Often within these areas of focus, there are so many different things that can be addressed that is often geared around different populations and target areas.  Understanding what each field does before incorporating these strategies will help to gain a better understanding of the issues and how to address the issues within the target populations. The human service field focuses on meeting the human needs through an interdisciplinary knowledge base, focusing on prevention as well as remediation of problems, while maintaining a commitment to improving the overall quality of life service populations. Social work on the other hand, is an academic discipline and practice-based profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, group, communities and society as whole in an effort to meet basic needs and enhance social functioning, self-determination, collective responsibility, optimal health, and overall well-being.

Both contribute to overcoming issues of discrimination and oppression within a target field. The target population is a group of individuals that the intervention intends to conduct research in and draw conclusion from. The target field that I have identified as a choice of study is the population of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Individuals diagnosed with ASD has faced issues of discrimination and oppression. According to Netting, Kettner, McMurty and Thomas (2016), “Skills are needed in the areas of interviewing representatives of affected population, researching the professional knowledge base, collecting quantitative and qualitative data, and making an informed analysis based on finding” (pg. 62). As a professional within the field, there are several approaches that were utilized to understanding and serving the population to promote community empowerment. The first step is to listen to different perspectives from individuals, families and caregivers of individuals diagnosed with ASD to gain perspective and understanding related to cultural humanity. The next step is to understand how the target population is has received unjustified distinctions based upon the categories they are perceived to belong to. Once these two steps have been completed, these two steps build the foundation for searching the professional knowledge case on the target population and developing strategies for authentic engagement.

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Choosing an Issue in an Organization

Decide on a human services issue you will be pursuing for your course project and whether you will be using simulated data from this course’s media or data from a different organization. Choose a local or state human services organization. Avoid using a national or international organization as their data may be difficult to locate.

Note that data information may only be accessible through the organization’s website or other online resources, and may or may not be available in the library. Make sure that you have access to enough information about the organization’s data and reporting so you are able to use it in a more formal analysis for assignments.

Preparation for the Unit 2 Assignment

In this assignment, you choose a human services issue to pursue for your course project and decide whether you will be using simulated data from a media piece from this course (choosing either the children or adult organization) or data from a different organization.

If you prefer to use your own human services organization, it is important that it be a local or state organization. Avoid using a national or international organization as their data may be difficult to locate. Before deciding, verify that you have access to enough information about the organization’s data and reporting so that you are able to use it in a more formal analysis for assignments.

This week you will submit the name of your organization, a brief description, a link to the organization’s information and links to their data.

For this project, you will need to analyze the data of the organization’s clients they serve as well as look at the data related to the general need in the community. The data you share should be accessed publicly as you will be sharing it during the course with your peers.

  1. If you are using an external organization, then your u02a1 will need to clearly outline the organization, the issue, and a link to the accessible data of that organization that you will rely on to complete the course project. For example, if you were looking at an organization with a program to combat homelessness, you would need to include a link to the publicly accessible data for that organization that would be useful in helping you complete your analysis of that program.

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Respond to at least two peers. Focus on the obstacles or barriers within cultural issues and describe any others that you believe might not have been mentioned, explaining why you think they might arise when collecting data.

Student post down below: 

It is important to consider culture when collecting data because a set of rule for solving problems in a finite number of steps do not add value to a data, but people add value to a data record. Culture is additionally important to know what is focused on in a data record. Culture is important to a data because business team recording a data do not understand a data, except if the have knowledge of the opinions and number of the different sect of groups to be recorded upon on the data record. Culture is important in a data collection because office executives have to have a data driven mind-set before developing a data record, in order to get their subordinate officers to work along with them in creating a data record and maintaining a data record information. So, creating a different sect of culture in a data, help a business team to speak the language of data, which ensures that the data team is nicely aligned with a business executive and business team objectives for a data record information creation (Beyond the Data, Limited Liability Company, 2019). 

I have encountered in a business organization the cheating of a particular sect of people in the decision of sharing amenities to different sects of people, when cultural issues are not addressed. Including, the experience of not knowing a particular cultural sect that are in need of a particular type of amenities to be distributed behind. Then, not knowing what a particular sect of people feel about the way they are treated by a government authority towards problem solutions and comparing it with other sects of people feelings on the ways that they are treated like by the government authority on problem solutions. So, considering cultural differences, when creating a data record prevents the rule of private gain which is a burden on others, making everyone to be involved in a data record information, without hurting anyone (Chmielewski, 2004). 

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You enter your project team meeting with Mike and Tiffany to hear them discussing the tools that they found to conduct an analysis of the industry and competitors. “Mike, there are so many more tools than I even realized to give us some good data,” Tiffany states.

“I know,” Mike says. “That’s why I wanted to take some time to look at our options and figure out what information we really need to support the board’s decision.”

Mike and Tiffany both found some great tools from their research on the subject. Complete the following:

  • Based on your classmates’ discussion posts for Week 2, do you still believe the tools that you selected will work best for a global strategy? Why or why not?
  • What evidence do you have to support your decision?
  • How would you refute the people who chose an additional tool rather than one of the tools that you selected?
  • Based on the tools that you selected, provide a brief analysis of your market, using those tools

This is my Discussion Board.  Glenda ShambleyUnit 2 DBColorado Technical UniversityQuestion 1The best tools to utilize in examining the industry and its competition is PEST Analysis and Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis. These tools support businesses to process facts within a relevant group of helpful details. With applying these tools, businesses may analyze the importance of a specific venture decide the details to think about although preparing to enter into the marketplace, shows the advantages and disadvantages of their industry competitors and what measures would be taken to contest the effect of competitors.Question 2PEST Analysis stands for: political, economic, social, and technological. Kenton (2020) states, Pest analysis is a management method whereby an organization can assess major external factors that influence its operation in order to become more competitive in the market. It’s a tool for reexamining a business’s environment, researching a theory, or establishing a thought-out strategy for a company. It gives groundwork for decision-making and assists in deciding strategic goals.The Porters’ five force analysis is an extremely helpful tool for industry strategists. It’s found upon the examination that profit margins change amongst businesses. The primary goal is to decide the marketability of an industry by supporting the business to firmly examine the five forces that manage a specific industry. Porter (1980) states, competitors for rivalry is affected by the following:Threats of new competitors: The help with what new rivals can join in the market whether it proves your business is producing great revenues and later push your cost downward.Supplier power: The skillfulness of vendors to boost the cost of your products.Buyer power: The intensity of your consumers to reduce your cost.Threats of substitutes: The level to which unlike goods and services might be applied in place of your own.Question 3In reference to the goals mentioned by Tiffany, PEST analysis is the best method in helping remove the internal factors besides the external factors such as political, environmental, socio-cultural, and technological facets of the chosen countries. Therefore, we are managing various countries and these facets are efficient amongst diverse geographic areas. Because the entire thing can be looked over out of distinct proportions and additional information is necessary for exceptional decision-making and a strategic plan. Porter’s five forces evaluate more facets concerning a market becoming the better tool between remaining. The major driving forces influencing the market could be acceptable hence showing the group further considerable details for the undertaking.Question 4To make certain that the previous tools are applied in the proposal, I’m determined to make a plan with designated time limits and have team members of each gathering can do an investigation utilizing the agreed procedures. The team members will adjoin as one discussion panel and exchange the data they gathered and comprehensive evaluation on the various states in distinct countries that were chosen.ReferenceBy the Mind Tools Content Team (n.d.). Porter’s Five Forces. Understanding Competitive Forces to Maximize Profitable. Retrieved from, Will (2020, November 14). Pest Analysis. Retrieved from, M. E. (1980). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free.

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Read the posts of the other learners and respond to the initial posts of two. In each response, suggest ways the learner might improve the clarity or appeal of the stated goals. How could the learner make the goals more attractive to the funder?

Student post down below:

Grant writing requires the ability to write clear and concise.A grant proposal must be organized, flow easily, be grammatically correct, and make sense (Carr, 2014).In addition, goals must be clearly defined and considered SMART goals.SMART goals are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-specific.

The National Youth Advocacy Program is reviewing a grant through SAMHSA for their community-based, prevention services.Each goal must be able to answer the questions:who, what, how, where, and when.By answering these questions, project design becomes clearer, and it can be converted to the grant proposal (Carr, 2014).

Goal # 1

The first goal of NYAP for this grant is to provide prevention services for children ages 12-17 in their homes that will reduce the reliance on out of home care by 20% in the first year.

Who?The project will be comprised of front-line staff providing the service and administrative staff who will be overseeing the progress.Collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Resources must occur for successful implementation.Utilization of the current staff will occur.

What?Preventative services will be provided in the home to prevent removals from occurring.Services will follow the national wraparound model.

How?Front-line social workers will go into the home and provide services needed for a family to maintain without the need of removal of a child or children.

Where?The services will be brought to the home.Families will be able to participate in their own communities.

When?Proposed start date is September 2021 which will allow school to begin in the fall.

Goal # 2

The second goal of NYAP is to provide services to the families of children who are in out of home care that will expedite the reunification process to under 9 months for children 0-17.

Who?Current frontline social workers will take the clients we serve and provide parenting and other reunification services.

What?The services will help expedite the reunification process for children who have been removed from their homes due to abuse and neglect.The services are provided in the homes and communities in which the children live.

How?Social workers will work with families on building their protective capacities to keep their children safe.

Where?Services will occur in the home or community.

When?Services will begin in September of 2021, allowing staff to become acquainted with the services.

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Response Guidelines

Read the posts of the other learners and respond to the initial posts of two. In each response, suggest ways the learner might improve the clarity or appeal of the stated goals. How could the learner make the goals more attractive to the funder?

Student post down below:SMART

Long Term Goal

Specific: To achieve a specific goal to make progress towards obtaining the grant is to continuously review the grant application, the requirements, the purpose, the expectations, the questions, and answer process. Learning the grant and the rules associated with the grant is an ongoing process and is a long-term goal because it should continue until the grant is submitted. Start reviewing the internal financial needs to know how much money to ask for.

Measurable: The long-term measurable goal is completed when the entire grant has been written and evaluated by a few sets of eyes. The goal is completed when each section of the grant has been evaluated for accuracy and edited for errors.

Attainable: The goal to achieve the grant Higher Education for Leadership, Innovation, and Exchange is attainable, because it is line with the mission and vision of BOLD.

Relevant: The goal is relevant and necessary to achieve the primary goal of grant approval.

Time Bound: The posted date is April 3, 2020 as posted on the grant. April 29, 2021 is the start for BOLD to work towards obtaining the grant. The submission date I set is April 29, 2021-October 2021 to have all aspects of the grant completed and ready for submission by November 2021.

Short term Goals

Specific: Read the grant. Take notes. Develop a team and a strategy to achieve the goal and obtain funding.

Measurable: Look at what worked in the past and what did not work and apply the positive to measure the process.

Relevant: The short-term goals are relevant and doable as first steps towards the goal.

Time Bound: The short-term goal start date is April 30, 2021, until May 31, 2021.

Who? The team and I will work towards achieving the goals.

What? The grant will be the priority for the team to complete the grant process on time.

How? Team working, planning, delegation, consistency.

Where? In the BOLD office/organization.

When? Starting April 29, 2021

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As the newly hired human resources (HR) manager for a jewelry store, you have placed your initial focus on the areas of staffing and training development. During your organizational analysis, you discovered the following with regard to staffing and training: 

Line managers are currently handling the recruiting and staffing functions. Each manager tends to follow different hiring practices. Some of the managers are reluctant to hand over the hiring of their staff to the HR department. Other managers feel burdened with the staffing responsibilities and are anxious to turn it over as quickly as possible. No job descriptions exist within the organization. 

Upon hire, employees are given a 2-hour orientation session focusing on department policy and procedure. There is no additional training given, but rather, it is on the job training and learn as you go. There are no formal training classes and no management training programs. 

  • You would like to obtain feedback from the line managers prior to making a presentation to the chief executive officer (CEO). Taking the above conditions into consideration, address the following questions in a presentation that you will deliver to a team of three to four line managers:
  • Staffing Function:

What are your preliminary recommendations with regard to centralizing the staffing function under the HR umbrella? 

What will the new process look like? 

With regard to this new staffing strategy, what challenges do you anticipate, and what is your plan to overcome those challenges? 

  • How can you position this to demonstrate how this will impact the performance efforts of the organization? 
  • What results do you anticipate? 
  • Training and Development Function:
  • With regard to the training/development function, what preliminary recommendations would you make? 
  • What challenges do you anticipate with this new employee development strategy, and what is your plan to overcome those challenges? 

How can you position this decision to the CEO to demonstrate how this will impact the performance efforts of the organization? 

What results do you anticipate? 

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Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least two. For each response, focus on how your peer has applied the ethical standards to the two examples given. Provide feedback to expand on your peer’s points or present alternative interpretations. Consider whether other ethical standards that your peer did not address might also apply to the examples, and explain how.

Student post down below:(Kelly)

Ethical procedures are an important part of all research, and have rules and regulations covering the conduct of research. This arises because researchers  in the past have engaged in forms of inquiry that have put participants at risk, by carelessly revealing information that put them in situations that are harmful (Stringer, 2014).  Researchers have a “duty of care” and need to take specific steps to ensure that participants come to no harm as a result of their participation in the research project, the process known as informed consent (Stringer, 2014). As such, the success of action research depends on attending to all aspects of ethical conduct and behavior.  As professionals, one must seek to obtain permission to complete the research and resolve to keep all parties informed throughout the process (McNiff, 2016).

Based on this learner’s research project addressing teen homelessness, the Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals by the National Organization of Human Services (NOHS) that will be utilized include Standard 12 and Standard 13.  Accordingly, Standard 12 states, “Human service professionals are aware of local, state, and federal laws.  They advocate for change in regulations and statutes when legislation conflicts with ethical guidelines and/or client rights” (NOHS, 2015).  Standard 13 states, “Human service professionals stay informed about current social issues as they affect clients and communities. If appropriate to the helping relationship, they share this information with clients, groups and communities as part of their work” (NOHS, 2015).

Informed consent and issues of confidentiality are primary ethical concerns when collecting data.  All participants must know the nature of their participations and the potential risks and benefits involved.  Unfortunately, personal information collected may be damaging to either individuals or a community if disclosed to others including stigma attached to mental illness, sexual taboos, etc. (Emanuel, Wendler, & Grady, 2000).  To decrease any ethical risks that may surface, one must be able to assure participants that all information collected will be protected and, where appropriate, will not be linked to an individual or community group.  Depending on the research topic, participation itself may have to be treated in a confidential manner (Emanuel, et. al., 2000).        

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Complete and answer Sections 1- 5. Be sure to cite your work in Apa format. It is important that you separate your answers according to each section and part. Your references should also only be in the correct section.

  • Section 1

Make 8-10 PowerPoint slides with 240-260 words of speaker notes per slide .Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

At your next luncheon meeting with Rae Marie, Vice President of Operations for MyShoppingSpreeTV, she arrives visibly troubled. She discloses, “I have 17 people reporting to me, and now I have 2 open positions. I feel confident that my people know what they are doing, but I am not sure they trust me. Until I can get this position filled, I have spread out the responsibilities of the open positions to everyone on the team, but, as a department, we seem to get less and less done. As soon as we solve one problem, another one appears. In addition, my boss Jim, keeps adding more to our project list.”

She confides that she is concerned that her employees do not respect her authority. When you inquire about her approach, her personal leadership style, and the methods she uses to influence her employees, she admits that she has not had time to reflect on her leadership style and is not quite sure what you mean. You share with Rae Marie that there are studies of leadership styles and multiple definitions of leadership styles can be found. However, a leadership style can be broadly defined as the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.

Hoping to offer some perspective on the subject, for your next visit, you offer to put together a slide presentation to illustrate theoretical models of leadership related to the methods that leaders use to influence their employees. Your dedication to sharing your knowledge of leadership reassures her that she has a solid resource in you.

In your presentation, do the following:

  • Analyze the differences between 3 theoretical models related to leadership (one of the theoretical models should be transformational leadership)
  • Identify the goals of each theoretical model that you have selected
  • Illustrate the relationship between each of the 3 theoretical models
  • What is the difference between a theoretical model of leadership and a leadership style?

[ place your answer and references for Section 1 here only ]

  • Section 2 Part 1

Reflecting on your last meeting with Rae Marie, the new Vice President of Operations for MyShoppingSpreeTV, you acknowledge that she may have legitimate concerns about the employees in her department not yet trusting her position of authority. Effective leadership is a common and critical element of a successful organization. Not surprisingly, the period of leadership transition from the departure of a former leader and the hiring of a new leader can be seen as an unwelcome and resisted change.

If poorly managed, these transitions can create a turbulent period for the organization, leading to decreased organizational efficacy. Even well-established organizations can falter during and after a shift in power or change in leadership.

Research and identify methods and actions that will be required to sustain any change in leadership or shift in power. In a 900-1000-word response, identify ways in which leaders can build trust.

  • Provide examples of evidence of trust within a work environment.
  • Identify how Rae Marie can use office politics in a positive way to improve her leadership effectiveness.
  • Create a list of actionable recommendations that will be required to sustain this change in leadership.

[ place your answer and references for Section 2 Part 1 here only ]

  • Section 2 Part 2

Keep in mind that transition periods offer organizations great opportunities for reflection, the rethinking of mission, and the reordering of priorities. However, they can also be times of great anxiety for employees. Often, the biggest challenge for the incoming leader in the first months is making relationship building a priority while addressing critical organizational issues.

For an organization, one of the biggest challenges is to resist the pressure to act too quickly by bringing in a new leader. Additionally, quite often, a change in leadership will also highlight other needed changes, that is, in staffing, systems, or structure. Therefore, one change may inevitably lead to subsequent changes. Although these changes can come in many forms, the organization can plan for change to be best prepared to advance the organization with a new strategy.

With the scenario in mind, design an action plan that would prepare the organization for a future executive leadership change.

Address the following in 900-1,000 words:

  • In your plan, discuss the strategies you would recommend to guide the organization through an executive leadership change and a successful leadership transition for the MyShoppingSpreeTV organization.

[ place your answer and references for Section 2 Part 2 here only ]

  • Section 3

Your previous meeting with Rae Marie and the challenges she faced with her transition to her new leadership role as the Vice President of Operations for MyShoppingSpreeTV has prompted a discussion regarding what is required of leaders in various organizational situations and climates. Rae Marie has learned firsthand that what works in one situation will not always work in another.

For this paper, discuss the various sources of power that are available to leaders. In an assignment response of 1300 – 1500 words, complete the following:

  • Describe the sources of power and how leaders can use this power to motivate subordinates or employees.
  • What ethical guidelines are critical for leaders to consider regarding power and responsibility?
  • Discuss how your findings might help you to become a better leader.

[ place your answer and references for Section 3 here only ]

  • Section 4 Part 1

As you reflect on previous conversations with Rae Marie regarding her new role as the Vice President of Operations for MyShoppingSpreeTV, you remember her calling you to question her earlier career success and doubting her current leadership capabilities needed in her new role. For several years she had been a successful manager for another company in which you worked at together years ago. You witnessed her previous successes and have confidence in her leadership.

A change in leadership is a significant organizational transition for all employees. After all, responsibility for group effectiveness is not only on the leader’s shoulders, but it is shared by the group. However, creating the right team is a responsibility of the leader. In your discussion with Rae Marie, you shared that research suggests that some individuals are better suited to work and lead in a collaborative team environment. After this discussion, you are prompted to become aware of the characteristics of effective teams and the dimensions of team leadership.

Write a 1300 – 1500-word essay that covers the following:

  • Identify and analyze the characteristics of effective teams.
  • Discuss and analyze the need for leaders to monitor both the internal and external environments of a team.
  • Include in your essay a response to the following:
    • What are the dimensions of team leadership?
    • What is team leadership? What are and include examples of situations where it is frequently used?

Cite all references in a reference list. Be sure to reference all sources using APA format. For more information on APA, please visit the APASTYLE Lab.

[ place your answer and references for Section 4 Part 1 here only ]

  • Section 4 Part 2

For this Part, you will be completing your Key Assignment Outline. Your first task is to write your own Key Assignment Outline so that you are able to review your plan. Include notes and information you feel are appropriate to explain your assignment. The purpose of this assignment is to help improve the quality of the Key Assignment that you will complete for yourfinal part.

[ place your answer and references for Section 4 Part 2 here only ]

  • Section 5

As you arrive to your next scheduled meeting, you meet Rae Marie, VP of Operations for MyShoppingSpreeTV, who, arrives with an unusually positive outlook about her current situation. When you inquire about her new perspective, she shares that her department has been through its share of changes and challenges and that your conversations have helped her think about her new leadership role.

Rae Marie recognized that her new leadership role requires her to manage projects and lead people. You agree with Rae Marie and share that, leaders must also be concerned for their people, and have some concern for the work they do. As you and Rae Marie continue in conversation, Rae Marie asks, “how much focus should I give to the people? How much focus should I give to their work?

In an effort to answer Rae Maries question, write a 1400 – 1500 word essay addressing the following:

  • Identify 2-3 leadership styles and discuss the situations in which they will be most appropriate
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each leadership style
  • Discuss and analyze the differences and similarities between leadership and managing
  • Create your own personal definition of leadership
  • Provide 3 examples of individuals who have demonstrated leadership that fits your definition

Cite all references in a reference list. Be sure to reference all sources using APA format. For more information on APA, please visit the APASTYLE Lab.

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Toggle Drawer

[u02a1] Unit 2 Assignment 1
Identifying a Chosen Issue and Its Background
This is the first assignment in your Action Research Project. Before you begin, review the course project description and all of the project assignments at this time. Pay particular attention to the elements needed for the final project assignment in Unit 9. Also, examine the Identifying a Chosen Issue and Its Background Scoring Guide in order to familiarize yourself with the requirements for this assignment.In this assignment, you will build the content for the Introduction and Background for the Study sections of your final report.Assignment Instructions
Choose a human services issue that has been examined in a study for a program within a human services organization. You will use this issue as your focus throughout the course project. You may choose to base your project on a program and organization presented in the Riverbend City multimedia scenario for this course, or on an existing study that you must acquire on an issue in a real-world program at your current organization or the organization where you wish to do your future doctoral research.

If you choose to base your report on an issue presented in the Riverbend City scenario, you will need to work with the data and background from the Riverbend City scenario to develop an analysis of your own that would be equivalent to a study that has been conducted on the issue. You may find you need more information for the project than is provided in the scenario. If so, create realistic information, using your own local city or community population or data.

If you choose to base your report on a study that has been conducted on an issue at a real-world organization, you must be able to access sufficient information about the study, issue, program, and organization to complete all of the project activities.

Important: Consult your instructor before submitting this assignment if you wish to use a real-world issue and organization.

Once you have chosen the issue for your project, examine the associated study (or the Riverbend City multimedia scenario) thoroughly. Conduct research that addresses or relates to your chosen human services issue, including its history and previous work that has been conducted on it in the field. Apply theoretical frameworks and systems thinking to your chosen study (refer to your Unit 1 readings).Write a paper in which you provide a detailed profile on the issue and the study from your chosen organization. Include the following components:Introduction

  • Briefly describe the human services organization and the program being examined.

Explain the focus of your chosen study.

State what the study is attempting to learn and understand about the issue.

List the specific research questions of this study. (Note: You will outline them further in the next section of the paper.)

Identify your overall goals for the issue, program, and organization. (Note: You will define them further in the next section.)

Background for the Study

Discuss research that addresses or relates to your chosen human services issue, including the following:

Explain what you have learned about the research.

State the history of the issue and how the history is relevant to the current state of the issue. 

  • Describe the previous work that has been done on this issue.
  • Analyze how other research relates to this issue.

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Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two peers. Select the strength or weakness of the post that most interests you and explain how it relates to an aspect of the data analysis you are doing with your selected organization.

Student post down below:

Data analysis is a direction towards looking into an organization and viewing what that organization is supporting, completing, and working on or towards. However, data representation and analysis are only as useful as the information being gathered. When analyzing data, its speaking for the organization as a whole. Understanding what is happening within the organization, how the data is organized, what information is being represented, etc. is helpful. It helps determine what is working, not working, what changes are needed for the organization to be successful, what are the opinions and views of stakeholders and community members, and much more (Guenole, Ferrar, & Feinzig, 2017).

           The Maslow Project is a community resource and outreach program to assist homeless and at-risk homeless youth and their families. There is a range of demographics in the data that is representing age, race, ethnicity, how many youths were helped with or without guardians, what items were helped with (food boxes, clothes, housing assistance, etc.), graduation rates, case management assistance, and much more. Their continuous growth has allowed more access and connections to the local resources within the community. The limitations of the data are that they do offer diverse services that they are working with in the community, however the population that is served in not very diverse and is predominantly white. The data needs to represent the reality of the population in need and show how all populations are being served based on those needs. The problem focus area for the Maslow Project is not only working and assisting with homeless or at-risk homeless youth and their families, but the “why” that is behind it. Why are the numbers of homeless and at-risk homeless youth increasing? What services are working for the needs of the community? What services are missing? What are the needs of the community in its entirety? What is causing the need of assistance (mental health, poverty, substance misuse, etc.)? 

           The strengths of The Maslow Project are its partnership with the local children in the community and its partnership with other local community resources (Department of Human Services, tutoring services, employment opportunities and training, case management, housing, etc.). The data is representative of what is happening in these areas of need and how they are serving that population. The weakness of the data for the Maslow Project is that the “why” is not being answered when reading or analyzing the data. Being able to see what is being served to the members of the community and ow much help was given per category is extremely beneficial for the organization, however being able to identify a possible cause or barrier can potentially reduce the number of individuals in need and increase their access in receiving help to be able to transition off services. 

Limitations of Data

The data from The Florida Department of Elder Affairs (DOEA) will be analyzed using Excel. Since the data is in a table format, the analysis will visualize the information on graphs and charts. Bar graphs and pie charts will be appropriate for the visualization. However, there are limitations, such as limited access to data and issues with the sample size. Although DOEA provided much of the information about the elderly in Florida, it did not cover some critical characteristics of the population. For example, the data did not indicate the proportion of seniors living below or above the state poverty level. Additionally, the organization used a small sample size for the caregiver data (The Florida Department of Elder Affairs, 2016). This sample size may not reflect the caregiver population’s actual characteristics, leading to inaccurate conclusions.

The organization has strengths in the caregiver support program since it receives financial support from state and federal governments. This assistance is valuable when creating the budget for program improvements. Moreover, DOEA has clear mission and vision statements that help focus on its primary goal of improving the well-being and safety of senior adults in Florida (The Florida Department of Elder Affairs, 2021). The agency also has a well-structured administration which helps provide direction for the various operations in the caregiver support program. Nevertheless, DOEA has an insufficient number of trained caregivers in their program. This issue presents a weakness in the organization since it cannot attend to all the elders in need (The Florida Department of Elder Affairs, 2016). Therefore, the data will help improve the issue by identifying the shortage of caregivers. The data will also be used to decide when to recruit more caregivers and what skills to teach them during the program. This approach will ensure the caregivers have the necessary skills and knowledge to care for the seniors. 

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The course scenario stated the following relative to this assignment: As happens on occasion, there were some factors that had an effect on company profits, but the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Jared Smith, was in a position to focus on several internal strategic areas, including structure, work design, motivation, conflict, and company culture as a whole. To stay profitable, the company had to eliminate several management positions in an effort to flatten the organizational chart. Many of the responsibilities fell to the employees, and many people resisted the change.

As the economy recovers, CMA continues to rebuild. Since 2012, the company has been divided into a functional structure that includes four departments: Research and development (R&D), marketing, production, and finance. Each department is headed by a vice president who has responsibility over each of the functional areas. The company currently sells components to computer manufacturers. As technology continues to advance, the CMA R&D department and its vice president, Kevin Adams, are feeling pressure to keep up with the competition. However, because of the differentiation and separation between the departments, the CEO is concerned that communication is hampered.

You as the OB consultant had a training and development session about teams with the managers that went very well, so well that the participants expressed a desire to have some of the information that you discussed to be available in writing so they can reference it, as needed. One person wrote the following in the post-session questionnaire: The information I got during this training was very good. I’d like to have something I can read about the different types of workgroups and teams you talked about during the training session. Also, could you give us something that compares and contrasts the various types of teams? Jared, the CEO also wants your recommendation on which types of groups and teams you think would work most effectively at CMA.

If there are any questions on any of this, reach out to your instructor and also be sure to attend or listen to the chats as that is where you will be able to ask questions and gain many insights in what is being asked for here.

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Data Analysis Results and Recommendations

This is part three of the Data Analysis Project and will be incorporated into the final assignment. Please review the elements needed for the final data analysis report in Unit 9. This section will discuss the results, recommendations, limitations, and executive summary.

For this assignment, you will evaluate the data for your organization, report the results, make recommendations, discuss the limitations of the data, and summarize the entire paper.

Results (three pages including charts or graphs): Analyze your data by summarizing participant variables and presenting totals for the variables. For example, how many are of which gender, race, religion, homeless, and whatever applies. Include the following:

  • In the results sections, create charts, pie graphs, or other graphs to represent the data.
  • Formative Evaluation.
    • Look at the program that already exists for your topic and decide whether the new program you desire supports or improves the existing program.
    • Break down the variables into subcategories and analyze how those subcategories are different.
    • Discuss how the data you found impacts the issue you are researching.
  • Create possible questions to ask yourself regarding the data.

Note: If you are using the Riverbend City media example, you may project reasonable data variables.

Limitations (one page): Discuss limitations of the results of your available data to solve your issue. In the limitations section, discuss the limitation of the data and if there is a problem generalizing it to other organizations.

  • Explain whether the data you see is representative of the specific population involved with your chosen problem or issue.
  • Further, discuss whether the data is representative of the general population.
    • For example, would you see the same data for another agency?

Recommendations (1–2 pages): Propose recommendations for an organization regarding an identified problem. In the recommendations section, you make suggestions for the organization, which will move the organization forward using the data to support the recommendations.

  • Discuss what needs to change immediately versus long term.
  • Explain how your data will best support your budget to make the change.
    • Identify grants and funds from your sources.
  • Analyze effective communication methods and practices to effectively interpret your data to diverse internal and external stakeholders.

Executive Summary (two double-spaced pages): Create an efficient and effective executive summary analysis, using your chosen data so internal and external stakeholders can make decisions for your organization in an efficient and effective manner. Complete the following for the analysis:

  • State an overview analysis.
  • Describe the findings.
  • Suggest what executive decisions would help to solve the problem.
  • Describe what your agency does well.

Note: In Unit 9 this Executive Summary will be in the beginning.

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I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

In the last employee satisfaction survey, the CEO became aware of growing feelings of mistrust between employees and managers. Hiring practices are also under scrutiny and criticism, because allegations of nepotism have been leveled at the company. For these reasons and others, employee turnover and absenteeism is on the rise in all four divisions. Staffing problems have made it difficult to meet customer expectations as the demand for company products grows.

So far, you are seeing inconsistencies in leadership practices in each of the departments, and you are concerned that while the company is trying to improve its communication protocol, the different leadership styles may be creating confusion. For example, when you talked to one of the production employees, Sonja Diaz, she explained that she had many ideas for helping to streamline the production process, but feels she cannot share them because of the transactional leadership. In the marketing department, one sales rep, Jerry McVie, felt that he was not being challenged with his current goals and is even considering leaving the company to join one of the competitors. Lack of communication between the divisional leaders might also be the cause of conflict between the departments because they operate in silos. This separation between divisions may also be having a negative effect on middle management staffing issues.

Leadership practices at CMA tend to be inconsistent throughout the company. Vice presidents (VPs) of the four divisions have unique ways of leading their employees; their styles resemble four classic leadership types: transactional, transformational, situational, and charismatic. In addition, staff has observed a lot of conflict between the VPs. You and Jared are meeting now to brainstorm ideas about how to address these issues.

“During my interviews,” you say, “I discovered that CMA doesn’t have a protocol in place for conflict resolution. I think this is a more serious situation and another opportunity for training and development. The VPs and managers would all benefit from this information.”

“Give me something in writing that describes what participants need to know about identifying the different types of conflict and the steps they can take to resolve it. I want to think about this some more.”

If there are any questions on any of this, reach out to your instructor and also be sure to attend or listen to the chats as that is where you will be able to ask questions and gain many insights in what is being asked for here.

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Once a juveniles enter the system, an intervention team is set up to address the best interests of the child and that child’s future potential. Intervention teams get together to share their professional opinions on what the child needs and are often required to submit a form of presentencing report to the judge.

As this class progressed, you explored Sarah’s major life events from the age of 5–17 years old. Sometimes, children get stuck in the system and need court intervention to help them and their families. This means that the youth services professionals who have been working with Sarah all this time may have to come together to provide a recommendation to the court on what is likely to help Sarah the best now that she is a teenager and almost an adult.

Judges rely on the information in these court reports as they make their decisions. The court report provides a way to systematically organize pertinent information to give the court a clear mental image of the child’s situation. Based on all of your study and your interactions with your peers throughout this course, you will complete the following:

  • Provide a recommendation to the court on what you think should happen with Sarah and her family for the next year until she turns 18.
  • Include any relevant information that you learned from your peers throughout this course in their service provider roles.

Be sure to address the following in your report:

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Paper of 1,500 words with citations and references

You represent a large U.S. corporation that manufactures rubber tires, and you want to begin manufacturing and distribution in another country. Choose a country that you think you would want to start a manufacturing plant in. Answer the following questions about your company and its chosen new market. Organize your paper into four sets of concerns: Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer. Select 2-3 bullet points from each perspective listed below and respond with cited research.


  • Discuss the macro environment of the country.
  • What is the company strategy there?
  • How will you be socially and economically responsible?
  • What would be the role of management?
  • What is the mode of entry you are going to use, and why?
  • What do you think would motivate the workers to bring about collaboration?
  • How would you design the right culturally appropriate program?
  • What kind of leadership would work in this country?


  • What are the political, cultural, environmental, and economic risks of doing business there?
  • If you do decide to do business there, how would you staff the operation?
  • What type of concerns would you have?
  • What do you need to consider when you recruit, evaluate, train, and deal with labor relations issues?
  • How would you select the manager?
  • What if it does not work out?


  • What are some of the legal issues you would have to deal with as a company if you decide to expand there?
  • What are some of the opportunities and strengths of doing business there?
  • What are some of the cross-cultural issues you are going to have to deal with particular to engaging a team?
  • What are some of the protocols and etiquette issues you must incorporate into your business behavior?
  • How are you going to deal with management issues such as assertiveness, conflict resolution, and team building?


  • What are some of the foreign trade issues you will have to deal with?
  • What are the determinants to foreign entry there, and how would you enter there?
  • What are the 5 stages of negotiation, and how are you going to prepare for them at this international level?
  • What would be some of the political, legal, economic, and ideological issues that may come up?
  • How would you manage conflict if it should come up in the negotiations?

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I don’t know how to handle this Criminal Justice question and need guidance.

Unit 4 – Individual Project 


Assignment Description

Key Assignment

Ocean Port is a major seaport and shipping city with approximately 150 miles of open ocean waterway to the east. The socioeconomic and ethnically diverse population approximating 825,000 people forms a community of mixed occupations, businesses, and financial and shopping centers. A neighboring community, Rest over, with approximately 132,000 people who normally make the morning and evening commute to work in Ocean Port, lies to the southwest, immediately across the quarter-mile wide river separating the two cities.

To the northwest of Ocean Port is an international airport serving three counties; a basic-training facility for the army supporting 3,000 soldiers forms the boundary to the west and connects to the international airport. The two cities have separate governments and infrastructures that include power; water; public transportation; telecom; oil/gas assets; and police, fire, and emergency medical facilities.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Students will explore the role of a      community-based emergency response team for the combined cities and      create, using a real-world scenario, a plan for common communications      during a major attack against the electrical power grid serving the twin      cities, airport, and military base.
  • Address the following in 3-5 pages:
    • Your communications plan should       consider the following:
      • Interagency/interoperable        communications systems
      • Communications languages among        regional response agencies
      • Finances and software and        equipment updates
      • Hiring and training of maintenance        personnel
      • Equipment training for first        responders
      • Contingency plan for power failure
        • Keep in         mind the possibility of electrical power be disrupted; all facilities         dependent on electricity will be inoperable.
      • Recruitment and training of a        public spokesperson
        • Purpose
        • Roles
        • Challenges
        • Media
      • Public information dissemination
        • What         methods will be used to notify the public? Explain.
    • The plan must be written in a       manner as though being presented to a city council.
    • The plan must follow a format       including headings, subheadings, conclusions, and recommendations.
    • Answer the following questions:
      • What complications will be        faced regarding working and communicating with an ethnically        diverse population? Explain.
      • What complications will be        faced regarding working and communicating with military personnel,        aircraft, and ships? Explain.

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Respond to at least two peers. In your response, focus on any issues that your peer has identified that the organization has not. Speculate as to why these issues might be visible to your peer but not to the organization, and give an example from your own project.

Student post down below:

The data was gathered from a total of 520 Males that consisted of 250 African Americans, 150 whites, 95 Hispanics, and 25 others. There were a total of 650 females that consisted of 300 African Americas, 250 Whites, 85 Hispanics, and 15 others in this group.

The data also provided that only 23% of people that are 25 years of age or older have graduated high school, less than 13% have completed high school, and less the 26% have gone on to complete their GED. There are 20.3% of the population live in poverty.

The violent crime rate in Sumter is 10.54 compared to SC is 5.11 and the Sumter crime rate per square mile for Sumter is 69 and South Carolina is 33. (

Guenole, Ferrar, & Feinzig ( 2017) reports that A Big Bet project is a high-complexity project that is expected to deliver high impact. The ROI program is working to decrease the dropout rate, increase the graduation rate, and decrease the crime rate in the community and in the schools. There were surveys, questionnaires, and interviews conducted among the participants and their parents. The responses do indicate a need in the community. This project is a very complex project and will involve other local and state agencies. The data gathered from the surveys and interviews help to provide a good visualization of future progress. Guenole, Ferrar, & Feinzig (2017) reports that we can cognitively process graphs and images faster than text, which is why visualization is a means of communication. Once the data is presented with the future numbers will assist with educating the team with the facts. This will help everyone determine if the program will deliver a positive impact on the community.

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Assignment Description

Key Assignment Draft (Objectives from Weeks 1–4)

Refine your Leadership Style Action Plan (based on your key learnings from Weeks 14) by completing the following sections:

Part 1: Your Leadership Vision

Review information about how to write a leadership vision statement.

  • What is a leader’s vision, and why is it important?
  • In 25 words or less, write your vision statement, articulating your leadership goal based on what you learned about leadership in the past few weeks.

Part 2: Your Leadership Goals

Goals represent your specific plan on how to enhance your leadership skills.

  • Provide an assessment of your existing leadership competencies from Weeks 1 and 2.
  • In 500 words, list and describe your 5 top leadership goals.
  • Explain how they contribute to your vision statement.

Part 3: Action Plan

Setting goals is one way of learning to translate your visions into realities and action. Write 700–1,000 words describing your action plan for leadership, and explain how you will reach your goals.

  • The narrative part of the plan should include any formal and informal educational opportunities such as books, courses, or symposiums.
  • Use 1 real-world situation from your past, and identify how changing 1 thing about your leadership style may have led to a different outcome.
  • Explain other ways in which you will work on your leadership goals.
  • The graphic part of the plan should include a creative visual time line, including milestones, that depicts how you will accomplish your goals. Use visuals, words, illustrations, and so forth to show your plan.

Part 4: Leadership Ethics and Integrity

One critical part of a leader’s role is ethics and integrity. As you prepare your action plan, consider the ethics of leadership. Effective leaders inspire trust through their behaviors and personal integrity. Consider some of the characteristics of your own ethical behaviors and leadership integrity, and add this section to your Leadership Style Action Plan this week.

  • Write 300–500 words about the 2 most important values of leadership: ethics and integrity.
  • How will you maintain high standards of integrity as a leader?

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Choosing a Problem

If you have not already done so, read the course project overview and all of the project assignments and their scoring guides.

For this discussion, choose and share a potential topic of interest for your course project, based on the following prompt: Describe a problem that requires human services intervention, in which organizations representing the for-profit, nonprofit, and government sectors participate in a collaborative effort to benefit a selected community or population. This can be a real past event, current situation, or a hypothetical case (such as a natural disaster, a community crisis situation, or a significant need identified for a community). Explain the rationale behind your selection of this particular problem.

A Collaborative Case Study Presentation

The culminating course project is a full case study presentation, as it would be presented to a donor organization or another entity, to secure funding, partnership, or support for a project to resolve a human services problem. You will apply theories and principles of collaborative governance, negotiation, mediation, and communication to the process of intersector collaboration based on the example of a specific human services intervention. You will discuss how the integration of theories supports successful outcomes for collaboration among organizations. The final presentation should be a synthesis of the three previous assignments and result in a scholarly, professional presentation with audio.

Read each of the course project assignments as well as their scoring guides to develop a full understanding of what this project entails.

Understanding Community and Organizational Problems

Assignment Overview

In your work as a human services leader for an organization, you will often be called upon to make presentations to stakeholders, such as a board of directors, to secure funding or support, or propose partnerships. In any of those situations, you will want to be fully prepared with a well-researched statement of the problem, an analysis of the community affected, and identification of the key partners that can be engaged in finding a solution. Think about what you would be looking for as an audience member for this kind of presentation and what would make the message engaging and sticky.


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Response Guidelines

Respond to at least one other learner. Share something about his or her explanation that triggered thoughts about your own experiences in changing trends in your organization or your work with constituents as a leader or future leader.

Your response must be substantive and contribute to the discussion. Compare your analysis to that of your peer and comment on the similarities and differences that you see. If there are aspects that you do not agree with, present an argument to support your position. If you need more information from your peer, be sure to ask questions for clarity.

Student post down below:

Bryson (2018) suggests that key to helping constituents gain an accurate view of an organization or program in a changing environment is to share a long view over the history of the organization and its place in the historical context of social, polictical, economic, technological, and ecological internal and external changes. The author asserts that by close examination of the past, it becomes easier to imagine distinct new futures. Also, by understanding the internal and external context in which an organization or program exists, it becomes easier for planners to develop strategies and tactics that are more likely to be adopted by the organization or program.

I think by illuminating the history of change, leaders can associate the slowly rising tide of change with progress and momentum, and even the inevitability of an organization or program’s need to evolve with the times and to meet the changing needs of the communities or individuals they serve. I suppose it is human nature to be swept away by a vision of change inspired by historical precedent. Sometimes those ideas of the inevitability of change are (I suspect) what really creates the change. For an example, I would look back to the idea of manifest destiny, which was quite literally, a “destiny” that was manifested by the strong cultural belief that American settlers were destined to expand across North America from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans. The better you do at convincing your constituents that they are part of a historical movement towards greater and greater progress and achievement, the easier it will be to implement change.

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I’m working on a social science question and need support to help me learn.

Research Design

For your initial discussion post, address the following:

  • Identify and share with your peers the type of research design (such as teacher research, experimental, case study, qualitative, quantitative, and so forth) that was used in your chosen study for the Action Research Project, drawing from your textbook readings for this unit to support your statements.
    • Why might the researchers have chosen this research design for this study?
  • Describe how the data was collected in your chosen study and how it was used.
    • Text book: Action Research by Ernest Stringer



        Reflection and Analysis

        In their day-to-day lives in work and community settings people act and behave according to well-established routines and recipes that have emerged from their socialization or professional development. In organizational and agency settings these taken-for-granted procedures and processes are usually incorporated into common practices based on particular ways of thinking about activities in that setting—care plans, lesson plans, interview procedures, meeting procedures, administrative arrangements, and the many other ways that people structure and organize their professional or community activities. These are often so deeply ingrained in people’s experience that they are not conscious that the very forms of organizing and implementing activity may themselves be part of the problem they wish to investigate.

        Action research processes are designed not to take these procedures for granted but to include them as necessarily part of the investigation. They need to “re-search,” look again, at things they have never seen as problematic, making them subject to investigation and analysis and ultimately as potentially in need of change. Rather than being assumed to be an immutable part of the context, the taken-for-granted becomes available for inspection and analysis. People need to be able to think about all aspects of the situation, to critically examine all features of the setting so they are able to fashion effective solutions to the problems they confront. The following processes therefore provide the means by which people can “re-theorize” the situation, to look past the taken-for-granted theories and explanations for events that are embedded in their everyday work, professional, and community lives.

        The purpose of the Think phase is to sift through the accumulating body of information that emerges from the Look phase—identifying significant features and elements that seem to have a significant influence on events. These are then organized into a framework of ideas or concepts that enables participants to better understand problematic features of the situation. These systematic processes of analysis provide the means for a deeper or more extended understanding of the situation that lead to a more effective and sustainable resolution of the problem or issue investigated.

        I sometimes work with people who indicate that “I’d like to be able to do that, but it’s too time consuming. I’m just too busy to do that.” In these circumstances they continue to implement practices that are a part of their professional “stock of knowledge,” experiencing frustration and irritation when, despite their best attempts to devise better ways of doing the job, they fail to accomplish their objectives. I’ve seen teachers who continue to be frustrated when children in their class continue to achieve poorly and remain “turned off” and fractious; social workers angry at clients who fail to achieve “targets” to which they have agreed; health professionals whose patients’ health continues to decline because they fail to make changes to a lifestyle that is the nominal cause of their problems; and so on. Often they are held in place by mandated requirements of their organization or agency to apply particular procedures to client, student, or patient problems. These cases emphasize the need to include all stakeholders at all levels of a system and all relevant aspects of the situation if effective resolution to problematic events is to be achieved.


        Denzin (1989) has written of the need to make the problematic, lived experience of ordinary people directly available to policy makers, welfare workers, and other service professionals, so that programs and services can be made more relevant to people’s lives. He suggests that an interpretive perspective identifies different definitions of the situation, the assumptions held by interested parties, and appropriate points of intervention:

        Research of this order can produce meaningful descriptions and interpretations of social process. It can offer explanations of how certain conditions came into existence and persist. Interpretive research can also furnish the basis for realistic proposals concerning the improvement or removal of certain events, or problems. (p. 23)

        The task of the research facilitator in this phase of the research process is to interpret and render understandable the problematic experiences being considered. Interpretation builds on description through conceptual frameworks—definitions and meaning—that enable participants to make better sense of their experiences. It uses experience-near concepts—terms people use to describe events in their day-to-day lives (rather than, e.g., theoretical concepts from the behavioral sciences)—to clarify and untangle meanings and to help people illuminate and organize their experiences. The researcher must provide the opportunity, in other words, for participants to understand their own experiences in terms that make sense to them.

        Interpretive activity exposes the conceptual structures and pragmatic working theories that people use to explain their conduct. The researcher’s task is to assist participants in revealing those taken-for-granted meanings and reformulating them into “constructions [that are] improved, matured, expanded, and elaborated” and that enhance their conscious experiencing of the world (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). These new ways of interpreting the situation are not intended as merely intellectualized, rational explanations; rather, they are real-life constructs-in-use that assist people in reshaping actions and behaviors that affect their lives.

        “Interpretation is a clarification of meaning. Understanding is the process of interpreting, knowing, and comprehending the meaning that is felt, intended, and expressed by another” (Denzin, 1989, p. 120). The purpose of interpretive work, therefore, is to help participants to “take the attitude of the other” (Mead, 1934), not in a superficial, mechanistic sense but in a way that enables them to understand empathetically the complex and deeply rooted forces that move their lives.

        In some instances, initial interpretive work provides the basis for immediate action. Some problems, however, are more intransigent and require extended processes of exploration, analysis, and theorizing. The form of analysis should be appropriate to the problem at hand. Complex or highly abstract theories, when applied to small, localized issues, are likely to drain people’s energy and inhibit action. Explanations and interpretations produced in action research processes should be framed in terms that participants use in their everyday lives, rather than those derived from the academic disciplines or professional practices. The use of experience-near concepts does not eliminate the need for rigorous inquiry. Restricted or cursory analyses that produce superficial solutions to deep-seated and complex problems are unlikely to be effective. Researchers and facilitators can ensure that explanatory frameworks are sufficiently rigorous to move people past stereotypical or simplistic interpretations of their situations, but these frameworks must be grounded in the reality of their everyday lives. They must acknowledge the experiences and perspectives of those to whom programs and services are directed, rather than of those who deliver those services.


        Two major processes provide the means to distill the data that emerge from the ongoing processes of investigation. The first is a categorizing and coding procedure that identifies units of meaning (experience, perception) within the data and organizes them into a set of categories that typify or summarize the experiences and perspectives of participants. The second data analysis process selects key experiences or transformational moments and “unpacks” them to identify the elements that compose them, thus illuminating the nature of those experiences. Researchers may use either or both of these techniques of data analysis as they seek to acquire clarity and understanding by distilling and organizing the information they have gathered.

        Categorizing and Coding

        The major task of this procedure is to identify the significant features and elements that make up the experience and perception of the people involved in the study (stakeholders). All analysis is an act of interpretation, but the major aim in analysis is to identify information that clearly represents the perspective and experience of the stakeholding participants. Those involved in data analysis must “bracket” their own understandings, intuitions, or interpretations as much as possible and focus on the meanings inherent in the world of participants. This difficult task requires some practice and feedback to identify the ways in which we tend to view events through our own perspectives, and it points to the need to ground our analysis in participant terms, concepts, and meanings. This is tricky ground, especially when we come to coding procedures, where we must use a term or heading to represent the data within a category:

        Maria Hines, a member of a city neighborhood collective, is most explicit about her experience of analyzing data in a project in which she participated. With a slight frown she describes how “I never knew how difficult it was not to put my own words and meanings in. We had to really concentrate to make sure we used what people had actually said and not put it in our own words. It was hard.” (Stringer, 2004)

        To minimize the propensity to conceptualize events through their own interpretive lenses, researchers should, wherever possible, apply the verbatim principle, using terms and concepts drawn from the words of the participants themselves. By doing so they are more likely to capture the meanings inherent in people’s experience.

        Because stakeholders are likely to have different experiences and perspectives on any issue, analysis of each stakeholding group should initially be kept separate and more general categories developed at later stages of a project. Thus initial analysis will keep, for example, teacher, student, and parent perspectives separate to identify ways that these stakeholders see the situation. Even within these groups, however, there will be groups and individuals who describe and interpret events in different ways. Analysis should identify these diverse perspectives in ways that enable research participants to understand the elements their perspectives have in common and the ways in which they diverge. Likewise, city planners, businesspeople, and residents may have differing perceptions of a neighborhood development project that all need to be acknowledged and incorporated into planning procedures. Managers, professional staff, administrative staff, and customers or clients may differ in the way they describe their experience, affecting the way a business or agency operates.

        Procedures for this form of analysis involve

      • Reviewing the data
      • Unitizing the data
      • Categorizing and coding
      • Identifying themes
      • Organizing a category system
      • Developing a report framework
      • Reviewing the Data

        Commence this phase by first reviewing the issue on which the study is focused and any associated research questions. The purpose of analysis is to identify data (information) pertinent to these issues and questions. As data analysis continues, there may be considerable amounts of data that are either irrelevant or peripherally relevant, so that choices need to be made about which data to incorporate into processes of analysis.

        Researchers should first review transcripts or records of interviews, reading them to familiarize themselves with the contents and to get a feel for the views and ideas expressed. Other types of information will be incorporated in further cycles of analysis.

        Unitizing the Data

        As people talk about their experience and perspective, their narrative is composed of a wide range of related and interconnected ideas, activities, and events. They will often change direction or focus on the many parts of the story that compose the interrelated aspects of everyday experience. The next phase is to identify the discrete ideas, concepts, events, and experiences incorporated into their description to isolate the elements of which their experience is composed.

        Using a photocopy of the original data, block out each separate item of information using a pencil to identify units of meaning. A unit of meaning may be a word, phrase, sentence, or sequence of sentences. You can then literally cut out each of these pieces and paste it onto a card, labeling the card to indicate the origin of that unit—the interview from which it was drawn.

        When pasting units onto a card, extra information may need to be added to make the meaning clear. For example, to the unit “Some parents refused to consider this,” researchers would need to add in brackets “starting a Parent Teacher Association.” The intent is to identify units of meaning—statements that have discrete meaning when isolated from other information.

        Categorizing and Coding

        Once the data has been unitized, the units of meaning must be sorted into related groups or categories. The previous boxed example provides information about parent activities, experiences, and perspectives about a PTA. It provides the basis for a category that may be identified (coded) as “Parents’ perspectives on a PTA.” Information from other interviews could be added and the category resorted to identify different dimensions of their perspective. Each pile of cards, or category, could then be labeled to identify the particular dimension; for example, an initial set of categories based on the previously discussed data might be “Starting a PTA,” “Parents with good ideas,” or “Parents with interest and enthusiasm.” As data from other interviews are included, however, these categories might be seen as inappropriate and the code revised.

        As the data are analyzed, categories might emerge that enable a large number of activities to be included under a relatively small number of headings. For instance, analysis of interviews that focus on PTAs might reveal the following categories: “Organizing a PTA,” “The structure of a PTA,” “Parent activities,” “Improving the school,” and so on. This is a natural way of organizing information. Many people would include oranges, apples, pears, and peaches within a category called “fruit.” Likewise, shirts, shorts, slacks, and sweaters might be categorized as “clothing.”

        Identifying Themes

        When the categories associated with each stakeholding group have been placed in a system of categories it may be possible to identify themes held in common across stakeholder groups. Within a school we may see that teachers, students, and parents are concerned about “results,” even though their concerns are expressed differently. Neighborhood stakeholders, similarly, may be concerned about the effect of a new roadway, though they may see that effect in either positive or negative ways. All perspectives would need to be incorporated under the overarching theme “Effect of a new roadway.”

        Research participants therefore need to identify themes—issues, experiences, or perspectives that people have in common—by comparing categories and subcategories across stakeholding groups.

        Organizing a Category System

        The category system must then be recorded in some rational form, providing a clear picture of the categories and subcategories of information related to the topic investigated.

        A manager of a service agency engaged in a project to investigate the operations of one of the agency’s services. The analysis identified the key features emerging from analysis of interviews with agency staff, clients, and client parents and the elements comprising each of those features:(attached pic of the words)

        Developing a Report Framework

        This type of category system provides a framework for reports or presentations that communicates the outcomes of this phase of the research to relevant stakeholders. Themes, categories, and subcategories provide the headings and subheadings for this purpose but may be preceded by an introduction that provides contextual information and the purpose of the report and followed by a conclusion that presents the outcomes of the investigation.

        Analyzing Key Experiences, Epiphanic Events, or Critical Incidents

        The purpose of this approach to analysis is to focus on events that seem to have a marked impact on the experience of major stakeholders. Denzin (1989) talks of moments of crisis, or turning-point experiences that have a significant impact on people. Such events may appear as moments of crisis, triumph, anger, confrontation, love, warmth, or despair that have a lasting impact on people. They may result in a “lightbulb” or “a-ha” experience that provides people with greater clarity about puzzling events or phenomena or leaves them with deep-seated feelings of alienation, distrust, anger, or hopelessness. Key experiences or epiphanic events, however, can be moments of joy and triumph, wonderful experiences that affect people’s lives in positive ways. Analysis of events where people overcome great obstacles to achieve something momentous, or when they work exceedingly hard to accomplish something important, can provide great insight into the underlying dynamics of people’s lives.

        The analysis of critical incidents has an extended history in the human service professions, for as Tripp (1993) indicates, this enables teachers to acquire the means to self-monitor their techniques and routines in order to increase the power of their professional judgment. Analysis of critical incidents now extends to a wide range of areas, including education, counseling (Juhnke & Kelly, 2005; Tyson, Perusse, & Whitledge, 2004), and management (Hinkin, 2005).

        As we interview people systematically over an extended period they are likely to focus on events that have special significance for them. By unpacking these events we can learn the features that make them so meaningful, and in the process we extend our understanding of the way the issues affect their lives. This may require ongoing cycles of investigation with participants to explore the significance of the identified events or incidents. This type of analysis requires researchers to

        Review the Data

        Review the data as suggested in the Categorizing and Coding section.

        Identify Key Experiences

        For each participant, identify events or experiences that appear to be particularly significant or to have an especially meaningful impact on them.

        Identify Main Features of Each Experience

        For each significant event or experience, identify the features that seem to be a major part of that experience.

        Identify the Elements That Compose the Experience

        For each feature, identify the elements that compose the detailed aspects of that experience.

        Identify Themes

        List experiences, features, and elements for each participant. Compare lists to identify experiences and features of experience common to groups of participants. List these as themes.

        Case Example: Facilitating Workshops

        This example demonstrates how a piece of data can be analyzed and the category system used as the basis for a report on workshop facilitation. The analysis commences with a piece of raw data and identifies a key experience and its associated features and elements.

        Key Experience

        Experiencing an effective workshop

        Features and Elements(attached second picture)

        This example provides the key features of Anxiety, Careful Planning, Identifying Learning Tasks, Flexible Processes, and Accomplishing Purposes. The elements composing details of the first and last features are drawn from the previous data. A following interview revealed the elements composing Careful Planning and Flexible Processes. These features and elements provide the basis for a report that enables agency administration to understand how the team had presented an effective workshop.


        The first cycles of an action research process enable researchers to refine their focus of investigation and to understand the ways in which primary stakeholders experience and interpret emerging issues. In following cycles other information is incorporated that further clarifies or extends participants’ understanding by adding information from other stakeholders and data sources. In a school research process, the perspectives of parents might be added to those of students and teachers, and school or student records or the research literature might provide relevant information. In a health program, patient and health professional perspectives might be complemented by evidence-based information from the professional literature.

        The purpose for this activity is to provide the means for achieving a holistic analysis that incorporates all factors likely to have an impact on achieving an effective solution to the problem investigated. Thus the part that each major stakeholder plays will be taken into account, as well as the substantial information from policy and program documents and the research literature.

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Colorado Technical University

The e-business’s board of trustees wants Will Learner to provide assurances that the e-business health institute’s traditional customer constituents will be served well by its e-marketing process. Mr. Learner has turned to your team to provide current information on the ability of online portals, such as the e-business health institute’s Web site, to facilitate more adaptable links among the e-business customer types. More broadly, the board of trustees and Will Learner want to determine the student target market that MedEd should attract.

You will use your expertise on segmentation to determine the psychographic market segment that you think MedEd should now attract. Furthermore, as a team, you will also draw on your e-marketing expertise to compose a presentation analyzing the following 4 key strategic connections created by the e-business health institute’s Web site portal:

  • Business-to-business (B2B) exchanges among the e-business’s business/organizational customers
  • Business-to-customer (B2C) exchanges between the e-business’s business/organizational customers and its individual consumer network of online users and visitors
  • Customer-to-business (C2B) exchanges between the e-business’s individual consumer students/users and business/organizational customers
  • Customer-to-customer (C2C) exchanges among the e-business’s constituents

In addition, President Learner has made you aware of the extreme concern among powerful members of the MedEd board of trustees regarding ethical and cross-cultural considerations associated with an online learning platform. Your team’s presentation should propose policies for ethical safeguards related to online privacy and guidelines for embracing cross-cultural, diversity health care education considerations.

Individual Portion

Each member of the team should research and complete an individual paper. This individual paper may be made in either Word or PowerPoint, and it should determine the student psychographic market segment that the integrated MedEd/CHC should now attract. The paper should address the following areas:

  • Explain the specific psychographic market segment of students whom you wish to attract and the qualities of this psychographic market segment. (The Live chat this week will discuss different psychographic segments and their qualities. Select one of the psychographic segments from the Live chat. If you strongly believe that, another psychographic segment is better, email the professor to explain why, and so the professor can approve it, by Monday before the assignment is due.)
  • Justify why the psychographic segment is appropriate for the new MedEd university that you envision.
  • Discuss at least 2 marketing strategies that reflect the segment’s qualities, and explain why the marketing strategies support the segment’s qualities.

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Colorado Technical University

Response Guidelines

Respond to at least one other learner concerning his or her assessment of employing a strategy related to his or her chosen organization.

Student post down below:

Family Christian Association of America Head Start/Early Head Start has made many accomplishments in the communities they assist. Still, the need to prepare young children for school readiness has become more stringent due to COVID-19 and the social and economic restrictions. My role in facilitating the committee will be to encourage them to find information or best practices of other organizations to create a model or a benchmark of what we are trying to accomplish. As a human service leader, I will advise the planning committee to establish core competencies that will define or keep the objective or goal we are trying to achieve (Bryson, 2011, pp. 452 – 453). Establishing a collaboration with each other and other organizations by sharing ideas and giving and receiving assistance is very important to the organization and the communities we serve.

According to UNESCO, the origin of strategic planning was developed in the military. The business world adopted it in the 1960s, and it was derived in the public arena in the 1980s (UNESCO, 2010). As a human service leader, I noticed that both the business and public creating a strategic plan for an organization is paramount for the organization’s success. It allows the human service leader and those in the planning committee to focus on the purpose and mission of the organization and what direction they should take to bring the mission into realization. The human service leader may begin with a baseline to see what the organization has done in the past and what they are accomplishing currently. Doing this will give the team goals based on what they have done well and provide a guideline of the company’s future endeavors.

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Colorado Technical University

The e-business’s board of trustees wants Will Learner to provide assurances that the e-business health institute’s traditional customer constituents will be served well by its e-marketing process. Mr. Learner has turned to your team to provide current information on the ability of online portals, such as the e-business health institute’s Web site, to facilitate more adaptable links among the e-business customer types. More broadly, the board of trustees and Will Learner want to determine the student target market that MedEd should attract.

You will use your expertise on segmentation to determine the psychographic market segment that you think MedEd should now attract. Furthermore, as a team, you will also draw on your e-marketing expertise to compose a presentation analyzing the following 4 key strategic connections created by the e-business health institute’s Web site portal:

Business-to-business (B2B) exchanges among the e-business’s business/organizational customers

Business-to-customer (B2C) exchanges between the e-business’s business/organizational customers and its individual consumer network of online users and visitors

Customer-to-business (C2B) exchanges between the e-business’s individual consumer students/users and business/organizational customers

Customer-to-customer (C2C) exchanges among the e-business’s constituents

In addition, President Learner has made you aware of the extreme concern among powerful members of the MedEd board of trustees regarding ethical and cross-cultural considerations associated with an online learning platform. Your team’s presentation should propose policies for ethical safeguards related to online privacy and guidelines for embracing cross-cultural, diversity health care education considerations.

Individual Portion (160 points)

Each member of the team should research and complete an individual paper. This individual paper may be made in either Word or PowerPoint, and it should determine the student psychographic market segment that the integrated MedEd/CHC should now attract. The paper should address the following areas:

Explain the specific psychographic market segment of students whom you wish to attract and the qualities of this psychographic market segment. (The Live chat this week will discuss different psychographic segments and their qualities. Select one of the psychographic segments from the Live chat. If you strongly believe that, another psychographic segment is better, email the professor to explain why, and so the professor can approve it, by Monday before the assignment is due.)

Justify why the psychographic segment is appropriate for the new MedEd university that you envision.

Discuss at least 2 marketing strategies that reflect the segment’s qualities, and explain why the marketing strategies support the segment’s qualities.

Group Portion (40 points)

The members of your team should work together to develop a PowerPoint presentation that provides a few illustrations, and their justifications, for each of the following 4 exchanges for MedEd/CHC:

1–2 slides: B2B-pattern e-marketing processes that entail exchanges among business/organization customers (e.g., financial donors supporting suppliers/vendors, advertisers promoting educational involvement of health care organizations)

1–2 slides: B2C-pattern e-marketing processes that entail exchanges between business/organization customers and individual consumer students/users (e.g., health care organizations and practical student learning, government agencies and student financial aid)

1–2 slides: C2B-pattern e-marketing processes that entail exchanges between individual consumer students/users and business/organizational customers (e.g., administrative records management for health care organizations, online advertising graphics for advertising sponsors)

1–2 slides: C2C-pattern e-marketing processes that entail exchanges among individual consumers (e.g., providing health care education webzine/blog subscriptions, selling health care education merchandise such as electronic textbooks and virtual lab programs)

In addition, the group portion should address the following:

1–2 slides: Ethical and cross-cultural considerations related to the e-business’s online safeguards for health care education and student ethnic diversity

Use the Small Group Discussion Board to explain how the e-business digital customer strategy achieves strategic connections for the 4 key customer exchange patterns (B2B, B2C, C2B, and C2C), including ethical and cross-cultural issues.

MY section is 1–2 slides: B2B-pattern e-marketing processes that entail exchanges among business/organization customers (e.g., financial donors supporting suppliers/vendors, advertisers promoting educational involvement of health care organizations)

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Colorado Technical University

After viewing the video with Mrs. Warren, Delusional Disorder Grandiose Type and Ray, Delusional Disorder Persecutory Type, discuss the presentation observed that fits the criteria for this disorder. What other criteria would be needed to confirm this diagnosis? Professional terminology is required. Must provide 3-4 paragraphs. If you can not open the videos, the transcript is provided below.

Mrs. Warren:

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:29] Hi Mrs. Warren, nice to see you again. How are you doing?

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:33] OK.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:34] Can you tell me about why you came to the emergency room tonight?

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:38] Feeling unappreciated.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:40] Oh tell me about that.

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:42] I’m supposed to be the president.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:44] President of what?

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:44] Of all countries.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:48] Wow. That’s a lot to be president of.

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:51] Exactly. And nobody cares.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:53] Who doesn’t care?

MRS. WARREN: [00:00:55] Mom, neighbors, the people at the shelter. Nobody.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:01] Tell me about being president.

MRS. WARREN: [00:01:04] It’s who I am.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:06] When did you become president?

MRS. WARREN: [00:01:09] Yesterday.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:10] Was there an election or did someone appoint you?

MRS. WARREN: [00:01:14] It just happened.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:15] And no one believes you?

MRS. WARREN: [00:01:18] Do you?

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:19] Well that’s quite a fantastic thing to believe. President of the world.

MRS. WARREN: [00:01:25] You’re like them. I have to go. I have lots to do.


[OFF CAMERA:] Ray, have you been distracted lately, under stress?

[RAY:] No and no. Nothing like that.

[OFF CAMERA:] Then what do you feel is wrong?

[RAY:] It’s Professor Yu.

[OFF CAMERA:] What’s wrong with Professor Yu?

[RAY:] He has it out for me, okay.

[OFF CAMERA:] Why do you feel that?

[RAY:] He gives me this nasty look every time I come into class. I sit in the back row now.

[OFF CAMERA:] Why do you think he gives you nasty looks?

[RAY:] I mean I talked during his first class. Maybe that’s it.

[OFF CAMERA:] Why do you feel this would affect your grade?

[RAY:] He’s messing with me. I mean, he’s sabotaging my grades. I think he knows this is a no-fail option for me. I need this credit. I’m trying to graduate early. He’s screwing with me.

[OFF CAMERA:] Is there something more than talking in class that could have contributed to this?

[RAY:] He said something to me the first week… Made me suspicious.

[OFF CAMERA:] What was that?

[RAY:] He said… uh… it was something like: “Ray… you can’t skip ahead, your gonna mess yourself up.” And then he wrote on my home work too, he said… he said: “what are you doing here?”

[OFF CAMERA:] Do you think he could have been referring to a specific homework problem? Perhaps he didn’t understand the logic in your equation?

[RAY:] No. He’s trying to get me out of his class. He has it in for me. I don’t think it was just the talking on the first day. I can tell he doesn’t like me. He hates me. Maybe he’s a racist or something. Doesn’t like Americans, bitter he doesn’t have tenure and taking it out on me.

[OFF CAMERA:] And just going back for a second, what was it he said to you again?

[RAY:] He said, “Ray, you can’t skip ahead, your gonna mess yourself up.”

[OFF CAMERA:] What does that mean to you?

[RAY:] It means get the hell out of my class or I’m going to flunk you.

[OFF CAMERA:] How did he say it to you?

[RAY:] Venom, pure venom in his voice. He’s trying to get me.

[OFF CAMERA:] Are there any other people in the class that are flunking?

[RAY:] No! The class is a sinch! Everybody gets hundred percents and straight A’s! I get the “D”! The only freaking failing grade in the class, that’s got to tell you something!

[OFF CAMERA:] Have you seen everyone else’s grades?

[RAY:] Well, no, not every one’s. But it’s an easy class. I was just able to see my friends grade.

[OFF CAMERA:] And what was that?

[RAY:] A “B”.

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Colorado Technical University

The student, using the identified client for their Biopsychosocial Assessment assignment, is to write a Mental Status Examination. This assignment will be written using the guidelines below. While the student may not have access to the client to conduct an MSE directly, they are to use information from their time spent with them as well as embellish information to fully address the components of the MSE. This is to provide the student with the experience of writing an MSE.

Mental Status Examination Guidelines

The Mental Status Examination is often referred to as the psychological equivalent of a physical exam (House,2014). The Mental Status Examination (MSE) is a component of the biopsychosocial assessment. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of how the client presents to the social worker during the assessment process in several areas. Those areas include appearance, motor activity, memory, speech, mood, affect, thought content, thought process, perception, intellect, and insight.

Observation examples


Groomed, unkempt, appropriate clothing, disheveled. What is being worn? Scars? Tattoos? Hair clean, combed?


Is the rate normal, pressured, circumstantial, tangential


Calm, cooperative, agitated, aggressive


Euthymic, irritable, elevated, anxious, depressed


Constricted, normal, flat, labile, blunted congruent to mood.

Thought process/content

Logical, disorganized, delusions, hallucinations, obsessions/compulsions, Suicidal Ideation


To time, place, and person


Able to recall remote, recent, and immediate events. An example of recent memory is to name, remember, recall and repeat the names of three items.


Serial 7’s or 3’s. Follow a three-step direction

Abstract thought

Can the person interpret proverbs


Have insight into their condition. Good judgment observed.


Observed to be within normal limits

The Mental Status Examination is written in a paragraph format of approximately 300–400 words. Here are some examples.

Additional Guidance

The video linked below can also be found in Week 3’s “Weekly Resources Section” it provides a more detailed walkthrough of the assignment guidlines.

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Colorado Technical University

Part 1: Project Proposal  (1–2 pages)

Throughout this course, you will be developing a systems engineering management plan (SEMP) for a project of your choice. This week, you will choose a project and develop a proposal. The project can be for a systems engineering problem of your choosing, or it can be for the standard class problem. If you choose a problem other than the standard problem, it must be approved by the instructor. The proposal should consist of the following:

  • Working title: Systems Engineering Management Plan
  • Project summary (1/2–1 page): This will provide the context for all decisions made in the SEMP.
    • Short description of the focus of the systems engineering effort (1/21 page)
    • Identifies key assumptions about the systems engineering project implementation
  • Working list of project references (4–8 references): This will be used to guide your research. It is not the final list, but should be enough to give you a good start on your project (4–8 references should be provided).

Turn in your proposal to your instructor to get approval before beginning the project.

Part 2: Document Shell for SEMP

In the Discussion Board assignment for this week, you chose a SEMP template for your project. Create your shell document using the chosen SEMP template. You will add to this document each week as you complete your individual projects. Each week, you will populate the shell document with information that will be identified by section name. The final SEMP will be the Key Assignment that you turn in at the end of the course. The following is the standard template for the SEMP that is provided for the class. Your shell document may differ if you decided as a class to use a different template or if you have decided to use your own template (approved by the instructor).

  1. Title page
  2. Executive Summary
  3. Document History
  4. Table of Contents
    1. Introduction
    2. Purpose
    3. Document Overview
    4. System Overview
    5. Project Schedule
    6. References
  5. System Engineering Processes
    1. Project Organization
    2. Environments
    3. Decision-Making Process
    4. System Engineering Model
    5. System Engineering Processes
      1. Configuration Management
      2. Requirements Engineering
      3. Functional Analysis
      4. Design Processes
      5. Development Processes
        • Software
        • Hardware
        • System Integration
        • Build Management
    6. Verification
    7. Validation
  6. Specialty Engineering
  7. System Deployment
    1. Site preparation
    2. System installation
    3. System checkout
    4. User training
    5. Support engineer training
  8. Product Support
    1. Maintenance
    2. Logistics support
    3. Disposal

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Colorado Technical University


Respond to at least two peers as the stakeholder. Take the role of the main stakeholder and let the organization (peer) know what you will do and how much funding they will receive from you. Explain the main points that swayed you to make that decision. Provide your approval based on the updated recommendations. Include the percentage you will approve for the project in your feedback. Be as specific as possible.

Student post down below:(Victor)

A new data that can be presented to stakeholders to help them fund my project, which is on eradicating Indiana’s state of child abuse and neglect is the elaborative data that states that Marion County recorded the most child deaths caused by abuse or neglect of any Indiana County with14 deaths in the period studied. The next-highest areas reporting fatalities were Allen, Elkhart and Tippecanoe counties, which reported three fatalities each. This made Indiana State to record 25 fatalities being 42 percent as covered in this report, which were determined to be accidental with 24 being 41 percent were declared to be homicides (Prevent Child Abuse Indiana, 2021).

Additional 4 fatalities listed of Indiana fatalities out of abuse and neglect were 7 percent, which were listed as the result of natural causes and the manner of death was were undetermined was six being10 percent children. Nine others had prior substantiated Division of Child Services history. This record was got from the record period of July 1st 2015 to June 30th 2016 (Prevent Child Abuse Indiana, 2021). This data can help to persuade a group of stakeholders to fund my eradication of child abuse and neglect program for Indiana State because it can state how child abuse and neglect can be regarded seriously because of its occurrence at a period of time. Also stating that child abuse and neglect can lead to serious situations as death situations for them to believe that child abuse and neglect eradication programs like mine should be funded, especially when it gets to preventing this maltreatment from occurring.

What could have changed in this data set are that there could have been decrease in fatality state and degrease in the occurrence of child abuse and neglect. This is because it is bad morally to abuse or neglect a child kept in the care of an adult, which can make an adult to be imprisoned or fined or brought into a correctional facility when this type of maltreatment occurs. So, either a child can be prevented from being injured, being mentally stressed or depressed or being dead as a result of being maltreated or abused. Or an adult to be prevented from punishments like imprisonment, going to correctional facility or being fined because of maltreatment by making sure that child abuse and neglect are being prevented in places like Indiana State of United States.

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Colorado Technical University

This is two parts- First part due Friday – Second part due Tuesday

FIRST PART- Outline of paper. Detailed outline with 1-2 sentences for each topic on the paper.

SECOND PART- You are a rookie investigator assigned to the Juvenile Sex Crimes Unit. Because you are new to the unit, the supervisor of the unit has assigned you to work with veteran investigator Jake Wilson to get your training in sex crimes unit investigations. During your tour of duty on your first day, you receive a call to proceed to 1255 Maple Street to meet a patrol officer who is on a juvenile sex assault call at the No Tell Motel. On arrival, you learn that the suspect was seen by law enforcement officers acting suspicious in the parking lot earlier in the day, and when he spotted officers, he quickly drove away from the motel parking lot. After a short chase, officers took the subject, Jose Torres, H/M 35 years of age, into custody.

After taking the suspect into custody, he was asked by officers why he ran, and he opened up to officers and told them that he had been having sex with an underage 14-year-old girl, his girlfriend, in the motel room and had gotten scared when he saw the police. You also learn that officers did not read him his rights before asking him questions regarding the scene and recognize this might be a problem in the case. The crime scene had been entered already by several police officers who stopped by to visit the crime scene, and office management had also stopped by. The 14-year-old female was also at the crime scene, and your partner is interviewing her on the scene to find out what happened.

Based on the above crime scene and information, answer the questions listed below regarding the scene.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 3–4 pages:

Evidence and Scene Processing

  • Considering the evidence at the crime scene, make a list of this evidence, and also advise what equipment you will utilize to recover the evidence.
  • Describe the process of protecting the crime scene and recovering the evidence, labeling it, transporting it, and exactly what type of analysis you would request to have performed with the evidence by the lab.
  • After reading the scenario, is there a problem with scene contamination?
    • What role will this evidence likely play in your case?
    • Would a warrant be needed at the crime scene? Why or why not?

Victim and Witness Statements, Suspect Interrogation

  • What is the proper process for obtaining a statement from both the suspect and the victim in this incident?
  • Will you be able to use the information provided to patrol officers by the suspect immediately after his arrest?
  • If your partner interviewed the suspect at the scene and threatened him, would this be lawful? Why or why not?
  • If your partner lied to the suspect to gain information from him, would this information be usable?
    • What if your partner read the suspect his rights before the interrogation?
  • What has the Supreme Court said about the use of deception in interrogating a suspect?
  • Where would you interview the female victim?
  • Who would do the interview, and how should it be conducted?
  • What types of questions should the interviewer ask the suspect and the victim in this crime? Why?

Training Needs

  • What type of specialized training would you need as a sex crimes investigator?
    • Describe some of the training you feel would be useful for a rookie detective who just got promoted and placed into a sex crimes unit.
  • What types of training would you recommend for a veteran detective who had just transferred into the sex crimes unit?
  • How does experience play a role in the types of training that you would recommend for each of these two types of officers—a rookie and a veteran? Explain.

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Colorado Technical University

The company that you are working for is considering buying another smaller firm. However, there is some business analysis needed for your company to make its final decision about purchasing. Throughout this course, you will be working on creating the Business Strategy and Management Plan.

Keep in mind that the final Business Strategy and Management Plan template should contain the following elements:

  • Title page
  • Course number and name
  • Project name
  • Your name
  • Date
  • Table of contents
    • Auto-generated
    • Up-to-date
    • Maximum of 3 levels deep
  • Section headings

Each week, you will add a section to your Business Strategy and Management Plan and submit it for grading. For Week 1, you will make a qualitative evaluation of the industry’s strategic position using Porter’s five forces. (Please note that the summaries below for Weeks 2–5 do not need to be completed in Week 1. Just create the section headings at this time). As a preview, each section will contain the following subsections:

  • Qualitative Evaluation of the Industry’s Strategic Position (Week 1 IP)
    • Choose an aspect of the information technology (IT) industry that has not been previously used as an example in this course. Use Porter’s five forces to make a qualitative evaluation of the industry’s strategic position. Be sure to explain each of the five forces as well as explain how they relate to your chosen industry.
      • Note: The mobile phone industry was provided as an example in the video material and may not be used as the subject for this assignment.
    • Remember to include the following elements (Porter’s five forces):
      • Threat of new entrants: Are new entrants being attracted to the market, and are there barriers to entry in the industry?
      • Threat of substitute products or services: Are there other products that could be alternatives to offerings in the chosen industry?
      • Bargaining power of customers: What degree of bargaining power do the buyers have in terms of putting the industry under pressure to provide more products or less cost?
      • Bargaining power of suppliers: What is the importance of raw materials, components, labor, and services that are required for the industry, and are there substitutes for those inputs? Discuss the possibility of switching suppliers, if necessary.
      • Intensity of competitive rivalry: Does the industry have a sustainable competitive advantage?
  • Strategic Information Systems Assessment (Week 2 IP)
    • Analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the case study organization that are related to its present information systems environment.
    • Assess the forces that are presently governing competition for the case study organization.
    • Using Wiseman’s framework of strategy development, define the strategic thrusts (and related advantages) that the case study organization should use to build a business case for implementing an information systems management plan.
  • Information Systems Business Case (Week 3 IP)
    • Based on the information contained in the Business Systems Plan and the Strategic Information Systems Assessment, write an IT strategy statement that details the following:
      • Critical success factors for the IT manager
      • A general strategy for how the IT department will determine congruence between the goals of the IT department and the goals and objectives of the case study organization
      • A general strategy for how the IT department will support the goals and objectives of the case study organization
  • Strategic Business Plan (Week 4 IP)
    • Executive summary
    • Marketing analysis
      • You should identify a target market.
      • You should establish a strategy for acquiring a customer base.
    • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis
    • Financial statements
    • Summary of the relevance of Porter’s five factors
    • Conclusion
  • Project Management Plan (Week 5 IP)
    • Initiating
    • Planning
    • Executing
    • Monitoring and Controlling
    • Closing

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Colorado Technical University

Response Guidelines

Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least one other learner regarding his or her position.

Your response must be substantive and contribute to the discussion. Compare your analysis to that of your peer and comment on the similarities and differences that you see. If there are aspects of his or her post that you do not agree with, present an argument to support your position. If you need more information from your peer, be sure to ask questions for clarity.

Student post down below:

Cultural identity is the identity of belonging to a group. It is part of a person’s self-conception and self- perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. According to Samovar (2017), “Competent communication is achieved when the participants find commonality in ascribed and avowed identities” (pg. 263). Understanding the role of the cultural identity in the human service field is an essential part in understanding how to address the needs and concerns of the individuals within the community. Cultural competence in human service requires social workers to examine their own cultural backgrounds and identities while seeking out the necessary knowledge, skills, and values that can enhance the delivery of services to people with varying cultural experiences associated with varying characteristics.

Two types of identities that explain the importance of communication between cultures social identity and personal identity. According to Samovar (2017), “Social identities are represented by the many groups you belong to, such as racial, ethnic, occupational, age, hometown and numerous others (pg. 245). This is a major factor within the human service field, especially when understand each background. The second identity that plays a major role within the human service field is the personal identity. Personal identity is what sets you apart from other in-group members and marks you as special or unique (Samovar, 2017, pg.245). Both are important to the human service leaders from the standpoint of macro practices because it provides a different understanding that allow individuals to understand the perspective of individuals within different cultures.

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Colorado Technical University

Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least one other learner regarding his or her position.

Your response must be substantive and contribute to the discussion. Compare your analysis to that of your peer and comment on the similarities and differences that you see. If there are aspects of his or her post that you do not agree with, present an argument to support your position. If you need more information from your peer, be sure to ask questions for clarity.

Student post down below

:In effort to have healthy collaborative compliance with other United States sectors, it is important for every organization to appraise corporate authority and mission. Therefore, a highlighted mission statement is identified, which contains a general statement regarding how the vision will be achieved (Hofstrand, 2016). Additionally, the mission and corporate authority highlights on the purpose and goals of the organization (Pandey et al, 2017). The vision contains the bigger picture of “what you want to achieve” (Hofstrand, 2016, p. 1). When working in collaboration with other stakeholders, it is important for everyone involved to be informed about the mission and vision of every organization. Furthermore, the core values will indicate how the human services leaders within the organization will conduct themselves during the process (Hofstrand, 2016).

As human service leaders, it is essential to also communicate effectively with the U.S. sectors and citizens living who live within the city. To better serve the citizens within the community, it is important for human service leaders to collaborate and possess knowledge about resources.  According to Netting, Kettner, McMurry, and Thomas (2016), the illustration of “a complete agency assessment should include a determination of whether the organization makes appropriate efforts to direct clients…” (p. 237). However, the social, community, and political assets ought to be thoroughly evaluated to determine the effectiveness of resource programs toward addressing the need. Doing this demonstrate the importance of providing effective services for the community as a whole.

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Colorado Technical University

Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two peers. Focus on the discoveries that your peer presented from the data. Add any additional insights you may have and include an example from your own chosen organization.

Student post down below:(Kellie)

To further explore the whether staff burnout impacts the successfulness of families, the researchers utilized the following research design; quantitative. This was done by exploring the relationships between staff and families, staff and family outcomes, critical and staff caseloads. Several variables were explored in order to achieve the goal of the study. Rather than focusing on one or a small number of subjects the researchers explored a larger subject which included Family Intervention Specialist and Family feedback gathered through questionnaires. In addition to this, the researcher depended on patterns in order to make predictions. The study took an organizational approach to conduct an action research with the purpose of improving the practices of the company and lives of the families in which they serve. This was achieved by exploring issues across several offices. This design and approach was most beneficial because it allows for the researcher to simplify the findings for a larger population. After further review the data suggest that ,although families highly perceives Youth Villages services as effective, while actively enrolled. The data tell us that most families struggle with managing the youth’s behaviors independently in the home after discharging from services. The data also suggest that staff are carrying high caseloads that experience reoccurring high intensity incidents. The overall goal for the company is to not exceed 2% in serious incidents (serious incidents includes runaway, injuries to youth, law enforcement involvement, staff injuries, CPS investigations, etc). Since the 2016, excluding July 2020, the organization has experienced an average of 2.5% incidents a year. In addition, to this staff should not exceed 100% of caseload however staff carries 105% of case on average a year (Youth Villages Research Department, 2020). The increased critical and case overload for staff may lead to staff burnout which contributes to the high turnover number for the company. The overall goal for turnover a month should not exceed, however the company has an average of 4.01% of staff turnover a month. After review of the data there are several gaps as the data does not provide description around the specific questions asked to staff and/or families. This information would be critical in identifying further themes, etc.

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Colorado Technical University

I’m working on a business question and need support to help me study.

Response Guidelines

Read the initial posts of the other learners and respond to two. In each response, ask clarifying questions or provide suggestions for improving the learner’s budget justification.

Student post down below:

When it comes to this week’s discussion we concentrate on our budget, which is a great aspect of our grant proposal. My budget is a projected budget based on receiving $800,000 a year annually for a 12-month year contract. I decided to go with a yearly contract as when it comes to social services many things tend to switch around and more necessities are usually added.


Executive Director: The agency executive director will be responsible for the supervision of the project director, a small part of community networking, attending the funder’s yearly conference, and providing overall program fiscal and operational compliance representing 4 hours a week of her time (.05 FTE), for a total of $9,600 a year. (Coley, 2016).

Administrative- This will consist of all employees hired to provide the accurate services needed, clinical team, medica team, direct care staff, HR, maintenance, IT staff, case managers and support staff.

Program supplies-Program supplies which include, flyers, large training post it signs, paper, desk guides, and resource guides will be ordered for training staff and minors monthly.

Staff travel- Will include flight parking and overnight stay, car insurance, company vehicals when needing to transport a child to their designated states. I think this will reflect on the minor’s age.

Equipment- This will include equipment such as computers, office phone, cell phones, internet, wifi access while in the field. In addition, the program will rent a copier, shredder, projectors, and smartboards.

Rent-The program space will be a private residential treatment and will estimate $2000 a month not including utilities. I do believe the rent will be higher as we will need an administrative office, 2 cottages that will house 12 boys and 12 girls.

Fringe-Fringe benefits will be provided for full-time employees only at 28%.

Other- This will allow expense to be used for food expense, clothing, and emergency.

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Colorado Technical University

View the videos of Ali and Cynthia. In 4-5 paragraphs, using professional terminology, reflect upon the symptoms that present in both cases. Do they meet the criteria of Alcohol Use Disorder and Multi Substance Use Disorder? If not, what differential diagnosis seems more appropriate? Please use diagnosis from readings. Transcripts for videos are below.

Readings: DSM-5



OFF CAMERA: [00:00:30] I want to come back to a couple of things you said earlier about just kind of stress a job at your work and then your life like I mean with hard work.

ALI: [00:00:40] I mean there’s just you know a lot of times where the students would act unruly they won’t follow instructions or things will just get out of hand and it’s my job to you know simmer them down. But it’s hard. There are kids there have a lot of energy just want to run around and it’s normal but it’s just you just as a teacher wanted to try to find moments of just not thinking about that and just getting through the day.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:12] So so is going to reining them in. That’s the hardest part of the day is that piece.

ALI: [00:01:21] That’s part of it that’s part of it and bringing certain issues up to. I guess my direct supervisor or the principal it’s kind of hard to have a clear I don’t know dialogue to make sure things are being addressed and the parents are aware about what’s going on in the classroom. It may not just be something that’s our fault as educators. It could be maybe your child might be acting out for some reason that we don’t we’re not aware about could be starting low. So all of those things out layers you know at stress levels could be could be high for a lot of us. But you what do you do. No job is without stress I guess.

OFF CAMERA: [00:02:10] You know you feel like the stress is pretty constant like it’s always been. I feel like it’s gotten better in the beginning of the year or is it worse.

OFF CAMERA: [00:02:18] Or is it just it’s just there all the time.

ALI: [00:02:23] Well right now we’re in the period where students are getting ready for their standardized testing and all their admissions to like the magnet school so yeah stress levels can be pretty high for a lot of us and I guess more so for maybe perhaps a teacher is because more meetings are involved more PTA meetings and you just you know you just try to assure the parents that.

ALI: [00:02:51] Their kids are doing well and we’re doing the best that we can. More time spent at school. If my students need tutoring sessions so it can be draining at the end of the day.

[00:03:08] Now with I guess recent breakup I’m sure that doesn’t help.

ALI: [00:03:15] Yeah. I mean certainly took a toll.

ALI: [00:03:18] And I’m sure my colleagues will tell you to be on is that it was hard for me to really hide my how I felt.

ALI: [00:03:27] You know it was a it was a tough period.

ALI: [00:03:30] Recently a month ago or so but I just had to put a smile on my face and just managed to get through the day do my job and be committed to doing a good job. Despite all the stress and at work in my personal life.

OFF CAMERA: [00:03:50] Feel like I did a lot just kind of put a smile on your face and just get stuff done.

ALI: [00:03:57] Yeah it’s all I want to do especially like just hurtling through the next coming towards end of the school year. I just want to just I just look forward to the end of the day.

OFF CAMERA: [00:04:15] How are you sleeping.

ALI: [00:04:16] No sleep.

ALI: [00:04:18] No not really. I’m a pretty pretty good sleeper. I don’t say I wouldn’t say I get the normal eight hours night but it’s been hard.

ALI: [00:04:30] Falling asleep because again what’s been going on but it wouldn’t.

ALI: [00:04:38] I don’t know. I don’t know.

ALI: [00:04:39] I don’t know if I can say I’m well rested every day. I just like as I try to get through the day.

ALI: [00:04:48] Coffee helps me talking to my colleagues just like you know venting out about the classes what’s happened during that day helps. But it’s it’s hard to fall asleep so easily at night.

OFF CAMERA: [00:05:07] Has it always been like that or is that something that’s more recent.

ALI: [00:05:11] And I would say it’s something more recent for me.

OFF CAMERA: [00:05:13] OK. When do you think it started.

ALI: [00:05:18] Definitely with like with what’s been going on with the school year again students are prepping for the standardized test and with my breakup it’s just another thing about it so much you know can’t really let it affect me.

ALI: [00:05:42] I have to carry on with my life to do my job.

OFF CAMERA: [00:05:50] The difficulty falling asleep but once you’re asleep you’re asleep you don’t wake up in the middle of the night.

ALI: [00:05:55] Oh well I mean I have. I have.

ALI: [00:05:58] So it’s not like a peaceful night’s rest or something like that. Many times when I will wake up in the middle of night just because I’m thinking about the next day the agenda is making sure that I’ve checked everything off my list graded the papers and answered you know answer all the e-mails that I get from the parents.

ALI: [00:06:18] So it keeps me up at night sometimes a little wake me up go.

OFF CAMERA: [00:06:25] You seem pretty relaxed, you seem like you’re pretty like OK right now do you feel like you’re that way most of the time.

ALI: [00:06:36] I would like to think so. I mean it’s hard to I guess I have to put myself in that state of mind especially when I’m in a classroom full of like 30 kids.

ALI: [00:06:47] Running interference beats.

OFF CAMERA: [00:06:50] Is there any that helps to kind of put you in that calmer spot.

ALI: [00:06:56] Well yeah I mean you know we have social hours at work. A lot of teachers like to get together and just have a little bench session after work and we’ll have like you know a glass of wine or two yeah.

ALI: [00:07:09] So it’s I feel like it’s just a little time off to not think about work and then obviously vent about it but it’s nice to relax it’s me you know ease off and like look forward to going home and just shutting that off no stress management I guess.

OFF CAMERA: [00:07:32] is there anything you’d feel like if you don’t do it or you don’t finish it. That it does stress you out.

OFF CAMERA: [00:07:39] It’s concerning or.

ALI: [00:07:42] If i don’t finish something.

ALI: [00:07:45] I well when I first got hired as a teachers very obviously very excited you know my first teaching job at a public school. And I don’t know. I was very very committed. I mean not to say that I’m not now but it’s definitely changed over the years. The structure of the classroom the number of students the volume.

ALI: [00:08:09] So I think a lot of us were log different hats making sure that things are running smoothly. And of course because of that stress levels are multiplied what happens.


OFF CAMERA: [00:00:30] How’s your mood been lately.

CYNTHIA: [00:00:34] You know normal I guess I’m I guess have been down.

OFF CAMERA: [00:00:43] And how are things at home.

CYNTHIA: [00:00:50] Stressful I guess.

CYNTHIA: [00:00:54] You know I’m trying and trying to get the place ready for camper.

CYNTHIA: [00:01:00] And you know Zane says he’s all for that but I don’t know I guess things have been a little weird between us. The last month or so.

CYNTHIA: [00:01:17] Yeah.

OFF CAMERA: [00:01:22] Have you stopped doing things or activities that you used to enjoy doing or not getting the same amount of pleasure out of doing things that you used to.

CYNTHIA: [00:01:32] Yeah that’s like a really good way to describe it. I’m kind of I’m not I’m you know I’m doing the same things that I’ve been doing but they don’t. Yeah I don’t feel the same pleasure about them. That’s that’s yeah that’s a really good way to. I’ve been trying to figure out how to say how that feels like out. Yes so I guess lately I’ve been feeling like what’s the point of doing it. You know especially since you know it’s just a lot easier if I just stay home with. Like that’s what he likes so if nothing else is fun. Like why would I you.

CYNTHIA: [00:02:11] Why would I go out.

OFF CAMERA: [00:02:14] How have you been sleeping.

CYNTHIA: [00:02:16] Yeah.

CYNTHIA: [00:02:17] Normal good. I got I’ve got stuff to help me with that so that’s still working.

OFF CAMERA: [00:02:22] How about your appetite how’s your appetite.

CYNTHIA: [00:02:26] Yeah normal. I guess I’ve never really had that big of an appetite. So I don’t think I’ve noticed any any difference with that.

OFF CAMERA: [00:02:37] How’s your energy. You mentioned feeling a little down.

CYNTHIA: [00:02:44] Yeah yeah I mean I have been yeah I’ve been I’ve been a little heavier on the Adderall lately and then I guess I normally am just because I feel like yeah I feel like I need something to like get me get me up.

OFF CAMERA: [00:03:06] How is your concentration.

CYNTHIA: [00:03:11] I mean great. And if I’m on adderall like you see me up I guess I do feel distracted a lot.

CYNTHIA: [00:03:21] I got a lot of thoughts going through my head sometimes it’s kind of hard to get out of that. Like you know you kind of get into that thought loop thing I guess is the best way to describe it.

CYNTHIA: [00:03:36] Yeah I find that that’s happening a lot more lately I’ve been feeling down on yourself. I mean yeah.

CYNTHIA: [00:03:44] That’s like oh it’s not anything new.

OFF CAMERA: [00:03:48] Do you ever feel like life is not worth living.

CYNTHIA: [00:03:56] I mean is it.

CYNTHIA: [00:04:02] I don’t know. I do sometimes.

CYNTHIA: [00:04:08] You know sometimes you’ll be like scrolling through Facebook and you see that someone’s someone’s died. And I know I feel like my first feeling is like I’m a little jealous of them I guess.

OFF CAMERA: [00:04:30] Why do you feel that life is not worth living.

CYNTHIA: [00:04:35] I don’t know I guess just like I don’t really see any.

CYNTHIA: [00:04:45] Like if this is what it is you know I don’t I you know I don’t I don’t know if I’m going to.

CYNTHIA: [00:04:59] I don’t know if I’m going to get cancer back. I don’t know if I do.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:02] If that’s even good for him I don’t see any change or sort of a way out from where I am. I mean I guess I should just I don’t know.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:24] I don’t know why I can’t feel happy where I am.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:26] You know like I should probably just like accept it for what it is you know and try and find joy wherever it is.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:35] You know that’s what you’re supposed to do but I can’t find my path there I guess.

OFF CAMERA: [00:05:42] Do you have any plans to hurt yourself.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:46] No no. Nothing like that.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:49] Made any plans.

OFF CAMERA: [00:05:51] Have you ever thought of hurting yourself.

CYNTHIA: [00:05:57] Not like on purpose.

CYNTHIA: [00:06:02] But I definitely have had the thought that like if I did die I wouldn’t be so you sometimes engage in activities that may place yourself in harm or place you at risk of getting hurt.

CYNTHIA: [00:06:23] I mean yeah I guess I do. I don’t know.

CYNTHIA: [00:06:29] I mean I I you know I drive when I’ve been drinking I guess that’s not the smartest thing in the world. You know I probably should have known better than to drink wine. Take oxys. I have a play don’t hang out with the best people I don’t know. I guess they don’t make the best decisions all the time.

OFF CAMERA: [00:07:02] How does your future look to you.

CYNTHIA: [00:07:11] I don’t know I don’t really like thinking about that.

CYNTHIA: [00:07:13] I just kind of makes me feel bad. I think I’d rather just nothing about anything.

OFF CAMERA: [00:07:26] You did mention wanting a future where you could be happy.

CYNTHIA: [00:07:32] Yeah.

OFF CAMERA: [00:07:35] Are you able to envision a future where you’re happy.

CYNTHIA: [00:07:44] I don’t know.

CYNTHIA: [00:07:44] Maybe if I was a different person I don’t know. I just don’t think I’m think I made that I don’t think that’s possible for somebody like me.

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Colorado Technical University

The multimedia/mobile company you work for is currently attempting to transfer large media files from older disks to newer disks (on various servers). The task of simply copying over all of these files in any haphazard order is fairly straightforward; however, you believe that you can improve upon a haphazard approach and hope to improve the efficiency of storage space on the new disks. You have a collection of m disks, but you believe that if you smartly organize the media files onto the disks, you may not need to use all m disks.

You plan to design a greedy algorithm to efficiently transfer media to storage devices. Note that this is an optimization problem. Optimization problems have a general structure and consist of some quantity to be maximized or minimized under some list of constraints. In this problem, you have n files (f1, …, fn) with corresponding sizes (in MBs) s1, … sn. Your goal is to store these files onto m disks, d1, …, dm, that have corresponding storages amounts t1, …, tm. Note that one file cannot be spread across multiple disks. In this problem, the goal is to minimize the amount of storage that is not used on each disk (that is used). This should also minimize the total number of number of disks being used. That is, you would like to fill up each disk as much as possible while leaving a minimally small amount of unused storage. (In the perfect case, each disk would be perfectly filled, and there would be no unused storage.) If there are any disks left unused, you will be able to return them for a refund.


Part 1

  • Design a greedy algorithm using pseudocode that solves this optimization problem of transferring files to disk while minimizing unused storage. The inputs to this algorithm are the number of files n, corresponding sizes (in MBs) s1, … sn, m the number of disks, and corresponding storages amounts t1, …, tm. The algorithm should return an array map[i] which contains the disk index of which the ith media file should be stored.
  • Comment your pseudocode for increased readability.

Part 2

  • Discuss the optimality of your algorithm. Is it guaranteed to return an optimal result?
  • What is the Big-O time complexity of this algorithm in terms of m and n? Justify your answer.

Part 3

  • If you were to solve this problem using a brute force or exhaustive search method, what would be the time complexity? Justify your response.

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Colorado Technical University

As the manager of CTU Health Care Systems, you have done your research on three vendors to which you would like to outsource the implementation of the electronic health records (EHRs) for the clinics. As the manager, you have a number of critical decisions regarding the electronic medical record systems. At first, you thought you could either implement the existing EHR system at the other acute care organization or implement an entirely new EHR in both facilities.

You met with your staff, and after researching several companies that offered both products and services, you have solicited request for proposals (RFPs) from the following three companies:

  • ABC Systems Consulting, the leading company in health care systems integration services, refused to bid on the systems integration required for bringing the current EHR system into the other organization. This was because of the risks and time requirements for designing, implementing, and testing the large number of interfaces required and the required time line for the completion of the project as identified by the client.
  • XYZ EHR Systems proposed that its new, recently redeveloped EHR be implemented in both facilities, which included a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) module, standardized drug interaction alert functionality, and customizable clinical alert functionality. It estimated that the merged entity would get a much better price than $50 million for purchasing this new system. Unfortunately, XYZ was unable to provide evidence of successful installation of its recently redeveloped EHR system at a similarly large delivery network or anywhere.
  • QRS EHR Systems, a leading provider of EHR systems for large acute care facilities, proposed that its EHR be installed in both acute care organizations with a $50–60 million price tag. QRS included a CPOE module, standardized drug interaction alert functionality, as well as evidence-based clinical alert functionality. QRS also had a physician office EHR system with an embedded patient registration system; however, QRS has had minimal experience with integrating the physician office registration system with the acute care (hospital) registration system—an integration feature that was a priority for this project based on the client’s information technology (IT) strategic plan.

The stakes surrounding your recommendation to the chief information officer (CIO) and chief executive officer (CEO) could not be higher in terms of dollars and your career.

Discuss the following in your paper of 3-4 pages, not including title page and reference page:

  • What pieces of information are the most critical for your decision on selecting the right vendor?
  • What other options, if any, do you have?
  • What are the critical success factors in the case?
  • What are your recommendations to the CIO and CEO based on the RFPs that you received?

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Colorado Technical University

Assessing Human Service Organizations

As mentioned in the reading materials for this unit, human service organizations operate in a unique framework that requires them to understand their organizational domain, cultivate appropriate organizational culture, and be competent in the areas of diversity and relationships with various stakeholders. In your view, which three areas of assessment mentioned in Chapter 8 of your Social Work Macro Practice text are critical for building healthy collaborative cooperation with other sectors of the U.S. economy? Explain the rationale behind your choice, using at least three credible sources.

book down below:

Framework for Organizational Assessment

As discussed in Chapter 7, contingency theorists propose that organizations are best understood by examining both external and internal forces that influence their functioning. Similarly, Schein (2010) explains that organizational culture develops in response to two archetypical problems faced by any collective—how to adapt to and survive in the external environment, and how to create internal processes that will ensure capacity to adapt and survive. Beginning in Task 1 by gathering contextual information, we then move to Task 2 (external) and Task 3 (internal) aspects of the focal organization. Having learned about the external and internal work of the organization, one is better able to assess the organization’s cultural competency in Task 4. See Figure 8.1 for an overview of the tasks in the framework for assessing an organization.

Task 1: Identify Focal Organization

It may be that you work in a particular organization and are knowledgeable about its background. Or you may be approaching an organization from the outside in an attempt to effect change. Regardless, it is important to identify the history, cultural artifacts, and domain of the organization.

Search for Cultural Artifacts

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What is the history of this organization?

How would you describe the organization’s identity, and is it congruent with its image?

Figure 8.1 Tasks in the Framework for Assessing an Organization

What are the basis for and extent of the organization’s corporate authority?

What is its mission?

What physical, social, and behavioral artifacts are observed?


Every organization has a history, some much longer than others. A chronology of events in the life of the agency may be listed on the agency’s website. Older agencies may have donated their historical records to archives in a local library or historical society. Others may have had a staff member, former leader, volunteer, or scholar write an historical monograph. Whatever form that history takes, it is an important cultural artifact that provides clues to cultural values and assumptions and how they have changed over time.

Equally important are the historical narratives that organizational members tell. Chen (2013) asserts that these stories promote organizational memory and change. Stories provide information on past events and the persons involved as well as interpretations of what happened. They reveal the symbolic meaning in challenges faced and in relational conflicts. Chen goes on to say that sharing historical perspectives is part of relationship building in that organizational members engage newcomers (e.g. new staff, consumers, or other groups and organizations in the community) in communicating about the organization’s narrative. Some organizations will have grand narratives vetted as their dominant stories, and others will focus on pivotal events that symbolize the organization’s legacy.

Founders frame and shape the beginnings of organizational cultures. They, too, become cultural artifacts and icons either through continued participation or through legend. Their actions may become the touchstone with a set of values to which newcomers are oriented even after the culture has changed (Netting, O’Connor, & Singletary, 2007).

Identity and Image

Organizational identity refers to a co-constructed vision for the agency shared by people who play founding, development, staff, and leadership roles (Gioia & Thomas, 1996). Identity is what is unique, core, and enduring to the organization and to which organizational members cling when faced with major challenges (Schmid, 2013). In HSOs, identity may be tied to serving the needs of various population groups, to advocating for system-wide change, or both, depending on how programs are designed and implemented (Almog-Bar & Schmid, 2014). Identity pertains to what insiders want to believe about their organizations or their programs, which becomes particularly important in holding people together in times of change or great uncertainty.

Whereas identity is how organizational members see themselves, image is constructed by persons beyond an organization’s boundaries. Images shift as public perceptions change. For example, a health care organization may be proud of its identity as a leader in the field, but when incoming patients feel they are not well treated, image will not align with identity. Also, as many child welfare organizations have discovered, years of building up a positive reputation for protecting vulnerable children can be damaged literally overnight when one case of a child’s death hits the media. Thus, as organizational identity emerges and changes, so do the images held by multiple constituencies who hear about or come in contact with an organization and the programs it sponsors.

Projecting an organizational identity is often done through branding, selling the organization. Some organizations are iconic, such as the American Red Cross or UNICEF, in that images immediately come to mind. Artifacts that project identity and impact image include documents such as strategic plans, public relations materials, websites, Facebook postings, tweets, and other social media postings. In preparation for a revisioning or strategic planning process, organizations may have conducted an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). SWOT analyses reveal a great deal about organizational identity.

Corporate Authority and Mission

An agency’s corporate authority forms the legal basis for its operations, and this represents one of the ways it defines its domain. If the organization is public (governmental), its legal basis rests in a statute or executive order. If it is private, its legal basis is in its articles of incorporation. It may be important to examine these documents firsthand, since organizations that are incorporated for one purpose, such as operating the orphanage from which LFS arose, may gradually add new populations and services, such as help for pregnant teens. The changes may be reasonable and well intentioned, but may still result in the agency operating outside its legal authorization. Important sources of information for analyzing corporate authority and mission include the following:

Articles of incorporation, statutes, or executive orders

Mission statement

Bylaws of the organization

Minutes of selected board meetings

Interviews with selected administrators, managers, and staff

A good statement of mission specifies the problems, needs, and/or populations the agency serves, along with client outcomes to be expected. It also states the reason for the agency’s existence, which should not change in fundamental ways unless the reason for existence also changes. Lack of clarity in a mission statement or disparities between the mission and current activities can be signs of a problem. For example, LFS is a prime candidate for reexamining its original mission, which was established when orphanages were both necessary and commonplace. If LFS has not revised this mission, it is unlikely that its current work has any connection to its stated reason for existence. Revisiting and, if necessary, reconceptualizing the mission can begin the process of redirecting operations or sharpening their focus. Box 8.1 illustrates what the wording for the mission statement for LFS might be.

Evidence suggests that clear mission statements can have beneficial effects on employees. For example, results from a study by Clark (2007) showed that familiarity with an organization’s mission statement was positively associated with job satisfaction and with behaviors that tend to strengthen relationships among employees. Table 8.1 depicts a tool for use in assessing agencies’ corporate authority and mission.

Multiple physical artifacts become part of organizational functioning, and they will become evident as one moves through the assessment process. These include

Box 8.1 Example Mission Statement for Lakeside Family Services

The mission of Lakeside Family Services is to help members of our community solve problems facing them. This includes a special concern for families, children, and older adults. Our goal for families is to strengthen relationships and help each family support and care for its members. For children, we work to promote good parenting, quality education, safety, and growth. In collaboration with older adults, we seek to support continued growth and to ensure basic standards for health, health care, housing, and income.

Table 8.1 Assessing Corporate Authority and Mission

Checklist Yes No

1. Are articles of incorporation on file?        

2. Is there a written set of bylaws?        

3. Are board members and agency director familiar with bylaws?        

4. Is there a mission statement?        

5. Is the mission one paragraph or less?        

6. Does the mission make a statement about expected client outcomes?        

7. Are staff aware of, and do they practice in accordance with, the mission statement?        

organizational products such as annual reports, organizational charts, job descriptions, case records, and a host of others. The physical environment, pictures on the wall, the language used, the clothing staff wear, rituals and events, and the social interactions between staff and with clients are all cultural artifacts. The question to ask about these artifacts is do they reflect the espoused values within the organization’s mission statement or are there potential discontinuities in what is espoused and actual behavior. Many times, change is needed because there are disconnects. For example, an organization with a mission to serve the neediest clients may have begun focusing primarily on marketing to clients who can pay. Similarly, an organization with a well-written diversity plan may not be serving diverse clients.



Collect and organize date, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies.

Critical Thinking Question:

What ethical responsibility does a social worker have when she or he discovers discontinuities between espoused values and organizational behavior?

Learn about Organizational Domain

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What is the organization’s domain (e.g., the populations served, the technology employed, and services provided)?

What target populations are recruited or mandated to participate?

How are the costs of client services covered, and how does the organization deal with those clients who cannot pay?

Are there defined legal, geographical, or service areas that establish organizational boundaries?

Without consumers of its services, an organization has no reason to exist. However, some clients are a good fit with an organization’s services while others are not, so most agencies establish definitions of the types of clients they serve. These often take the form of eligibility criteria that clients must meet in order to be considered a fit. Clients who meet the criteria are said to be within the organization’s domain (Levine & White, 1961). An organization’s domain may be understood as a boundary it draws around itself to define what it does and whom it serves.

Domain setting refers to the process by which organizations create a niche for themselves and establish their roles among others within their environment. One part of the process is domain legitimation, in which the organization gains acknowledgment of claims it makes as to its sphere of activities and expertise. Legitimation is not always immediately forthcoming, and there may be gaps between what an organization says are its boundaries, the claimed domain, and what these boundaries actually are, the de facto domain (Greenley & Kirk, 1973).

Consistent with the resource dependency theory, organizations seek to attract clients who fall within their domain, while referring or rejecting those who don’t. This improves operational efficiency but can result in some client groups being systematically disadvantaged by certain criteria or the manner in which they are applied. When assessing organizations, therefore, it is important to address questions such as whether enough clients apply to fill the capacity available, whether many applicants are declared ineligible and turned away, and whether, even after services commence, the number of unserved clients in the community remains large.

Also important in understanding which clients an organization views as resources and which it does not is the financial relationship it has with its clients. In commercial firms, consumers usually pay directly for goods or services they receive, and the organizations carefully design their outputs to meet consumer needs. In human service organizations, however, those who consume the services may be different than those who pay for them. For our purposes, we will define the clients of HSOs as those who receive services, not necessarily those who pay. Clients who cover the cost of their services, either personally or through third-party reimbursement, will be termed full-pay clients. These clients are important resources that agencies seek to attract and are most likely to serve, because the revenues they provide can be used to offset the cost of serving other clients.

Human Rights and Justice


Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice.

Critical Thinking Question:

When contracting with private agencies, what are some strategies that may help to ensure that vulnerable populations still are served?

Clients who pay less than the cost of their services or who pay nothing at all are termed non-full-pay clients (Netting, McMurtry, Kettner, & Jones-McClintic, 1990). Because revenues for serving these clients must be generated from other sources (e.g., charitable donations or profits earned from full-pay clients), agencies often do little to attract these clients and may erect eligibility barriers to restrict their numbers. A prominent example of this is the tendency of health-care providers to restrict or refuse services to Medicare or Medicaid recipients because of reimbursement rates viewed as insufficient to cover service costs (Bisgaier, Polsky, & Rhodes, 2012). Restrictions or refusals can also occur with clients who seek relatively costly services or services the agency does not provide.

A complete agency assessment should include a determination of whether the organization makes appropriate efforts to direct clients it rejects to organizations that may be able to serve them. It should also identify formal and informal arrangements among agencies for exchange of clients, whereby those that do not fall within one agency’s domain are referred to others, and vice versa. This increases the likelihood that clients will receive services and that agencies will receive clients they need. Interorganizational relationships of this sort are often viewed as being of equal importance as those with funding sources. Table 8.2 depicts a tool that may be helpful in identifying client populations.

Organizational boundaries may not be as clear-cut as one might think, and boundaries may change over time. Like communities, organizations may have geographical or nonplace parameters. For example, an international advocacy organization has the goal to assist victims of human trafficking (Hodge, 2014). Since this is a global problem and victims are likely to be identified anywhere there is illegal activity, the target population transcends geographical boundaries. Thus, the agency’s domain is geographically broad in scope, even though it is more narrow in terms of whom it targets. In contrast,

Table 8.2 Identifying Client Populations

Client Groups Served

1. Couples or individuals relinquishing children

2. Couples wanting to adopt

3. Foster parent applications

4. Foster parents

5. Individuals in need of personal counseling

6. Families in need of counseling

7. Drug abusers

Demographic Makeup of Client Population

Age (years) Percentage Ethnicity Percentage Gender Percentage Fees Percentage

Under 20 5 American Indian 3 Female 64 Full pay 26

20–29 15 African American 14 Male 36 Some pay 38

30–39 22 Asian American 4No pay 15

40–49 29 Hispanic 19Contract 21

50–59 19 White 60

60–69 8

70+ 2

agencies may have defined geographical boundaries (e.g. jurisdictional boundaries, school districts, planning and service areas, and catchment areas) within which they are mandated to provide services.

Agencies seek to take advantage of available resources, and most are constantly adjusting their domains in order to do so. Trends in the availability of funds from charitable or governmental sources are usually closely watched, and in order to ensure resource flow some agencies may attempt to compete for funds in areas where they have little experience or expertise.

Task 2: Assess the Organization’s Environmental Relationships

As mentioned, organizations have to be able to navigate the external environment beyond their domains and build internal capacity to adapt and survive within that environment. Thus, Tasks 2 and 3 may be thought of as collecting information about organizations’ environments, how they behave in those environments, and how they internally structure themselves (see Figure 8.2).

To understand considerations external to the organization, we use the concept of an organization’s task environment. As noted in our review of the work of James Thompson (1967) in Chapter 7, the task environment consists of elements outside an organization that enable it to operate and that set the basic context for these operations. Thompson notes that, as originally defined by Dill (1958), the task environment includes four key components: consumers, suppliers, competitors, and regulators (pp. 27–28). These are illustrated in Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.2 Organization, Task Environment, and Interface

Figure 8.3 Typical Task Environment for an Organization

Identify and Assess Relationships with Revenue Sources

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What are the agency’s funding sources?

How much and what percentage of the agency’s total funds are received from each source?

What are the nature and quality of the relationship between funding sources and the agency?

Does the organization use volunteers? If yes, how many, and for what purposes?

What in-kind resources (e.g., food, clothing, physical facilities) does the organization receive?

What tax benefits does the organization receive?

In a study of nonprofit agencies’ involvement in political lobbying, Twombly (2002) compared more than 2,000 secular and faith-based organizations and found that the latter tended to have a lower diversity of services and slower rates of service expansion. This appeared to be a result of these organizations’ greater dependency on private contributions, which offers less predictable funding than the more diversified funding base typical of secular organizations. Ruggiano and Taliaferro (2012) found that lobbying occurred in ways that allowed agencies to maintain access to resources while not endangering relationships with other key elements in the environment by appearing to be too aggressive in seeking them. Table 8.3 summarizes these and other points, and it can be helpful in assessing agencies’ relationships with revenue sources.

Table 8.3 Assessing the Relationship to Funding Sources

Relevant Funding Sources Nature of Communication, Length of Relationship, and Changes in Funding

Contract with State Department of Social Services Quarterly site visits; have contracted for 12 years; funding has always stayed steady or increased.

Client Fees Most clients are seen on a weekly basis; they either pay directly or through their insurance plan; client fees have declined 2% in the past three years.

Charitable Donations Largest donations come from church groups; agency staff visit church representatives once a year; donations have increased 3.5 percent in the past year.

Chaidez-Gutierrez and Fischer (2013) studied the dynamics between grassroots organizations in communities of color and philanthropic funders. They found that these relationships may be particularly challenging because of accountability requirements that are developed by dominant cultures that may not mesh well with local communities. Power dynamics and status differentials may result in misunderstandings. It is important to assess these relationships from a critical theory perspective in order to address needed changes in communication and relationship building.

Cash Revenues

Understanding how an agency is financed is often essential to understanding the agency itself, but this process can be difficult because HSOs typically obtain funds from a multitude of sources. Also, many do not make detailed funding information readily available except where public funds are used and budget documents are a matter of public record.

The first step in assessing organizational funding is to determine the sources from which funds are acquired. The following list details potential sources for HSOs:

Major Cash Revenue Sources for Human Service Organizations

Government funds

Direct government appropriations

Government purchase-of-service contracts

Government grants

Matching funds

Tax benefits

Donated funds

Direct charitable contributions (from individuals, groups, and associations such as religious groups)

Indirect contributions (e.g., via United Way)

Private grants (e.g., foundation monies)


Fees for service

Direct payments from clients

Payments from third parties (e.g., private or public insurers)

Other agency income

Investments (e.g., interest, dividends, and royalties)

Profit-making subsidiaries

Fundraising events and appeals

The sources of an organization’s funds affect its flexibility in responding to proposed change. Governmental agencies that depend on direct appropriations are likely to have most of their activities rigidly specified by public policy. Nonprofit agencies, which usually receive funds from a wide variety of sources, may have greater flexibility. But with this comes greater uncertainty about the reliability of each source, and even donated funds may come with strings attached. For-profit agencies that depend on paying clients also have greater flexibility than public agencies, but their decision making is driven by demands to return profits to their investors.

Among government organizations, direct appropriations are usually the only source of revenue, including federal, state, county, and local agencies. State, county, and local organizations also may use a mixture of funds from higher levels of government. In general, the lower the level of government, the larger the variety of funding sources used. Among the most important mechanisms for dissemination are block grants (lump-sum federal appropriations in which specific allocations are left to state or local governments), matching funds (which typically provide a certain amount of federal funds for each dollar expended by the receiving agency), and grant programs in which funds are targeted for a specific use and are restricted accordingly. In the vignette regarding Canyon County Child Welfare Department earlier in this chapter, the agency was funded solely by government funds, although from a combination of direct appropriations, block grants, and matching funds.

Many people assume that nonprofit agencies such as LFS in Vignette 2 obtain most of their revenues from donations, but those contributions often make up only a small portion of annual budgets. The most recent figures available show that in 2010, nonprofit organizations received an average of 13 percent of their funds from charitable contributions, 50 percent from fees paid by individuals or other privates sources, 24 percent from fees paid by government sources, 8 percent from government grants, and 5 percent from other sources (Blackwood, Roeger, & Pettijohn, 2012). The 13 percent of nonprofit budgets accounted for by charitable donations is half as much as in 1977, partially due to dropoffs in donations resulting from the economic downturn that began in 2008 (Association of Fundraising Professionals, 2010). This suggests that “charitable organizations” may be more accurately viewed as quasi-public or quasi-fee-for-service organizations, and the most important elements in their task environments will be public agencies with which they contract, along with paying clients or members.

Clients themselves sometimes pay for services from HSOs, but because many are unable to pay it is more common for their costs to be covered by other organizations. This can mean that consumers are a less important part of the task environment of private agencies than insurance companies and other third-party payers who establish criteria and rates for reimbursement. For example, a for-profit counseling agency may draw most of its clients from the employee assistance program of a nearby manufacturing plant; thus relationships with the manufacturer are likely to be the key environmental consideration for the counseling agency. More generally, almost all revenues of HSOs come with strings attached, and decisions on how to spend them often rest more with the funding agency than with the recipient.

Using governmental organizations as an example, a county agency that appears to be subject to local decision-making processes may in fact operate more like a local extension of the state agency that provides the bulk of its funds. A change episode that attempted to influence the use of these funds would be unlikely to succeed unless those seeking change recognize that decision-making power rests with organizations in the agency’s task environment rather than inside its own boundaries.

The number of sources from which an agency’s funds are drawn is also a key consideration. Some agencies with many funding sources may have greater autonomy and flexibility than one with few, because the loss of any single source is less likely to jeopardize the organization as a whole. But the greater the number of funding sources, the more complex the agency’s operations become, as each new source adds another layer of regulatory constraints, program diversity, and accountability expectations. Agencies with a single funding source risk becoming rigid and overspecialized; those with many sources may have difficulty defining or focusing on their mission. Either way, there are advantages and disadvantages.

Noncash Revenues

When considering resources, it is important to remember that actual dollars coming into an HSO are not its only form of resources. Many other assets on which agencies rely are less obvious than cash revenues but sometimes equally important. Three such assets are volunteers, in-kind contributions, and tax benefits.

Volunteers have traditionally been a mainstay of HSOs. As noted in Chapter 2, the entire nonprofit human service sector originated with individual volunteers working together to make their efforts more productive. In the Lakeside Family Services vignette, volunteers were critical to the organization’s early development. Today, the contribution of these individuals to HSOs is enormous. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that “about 62.6 million people volunteered through or for an organization at least once between September 2012 and September 2013” in the United States (2014). This number included about 22 percent of adult men and 28 percent of adult women. The median number of hours per years devoted by each volunteer was about 50. Multiplied by the total number of volunteers, this corresponds to 7.7 billion hours of volunteer work which, at an estimated value of $23.07 per volunteer hour during 2013 (Independent Sector, 2014) produces a total monetary value of $173 billion for all volunteering in the United States. According to the BLS report, religious organizations benefitted from the largest number of volunteer hours (33 percent of all hours), followed by educational or youth-oriented services (26 percent) and social or community services (15 percent).

Another type of resource is in-kind contributions of material goods. Examples include food, clothing, physical facilities, real estate, vehicles, and office materials. Sometimes, these are provided for use directly by the agency; at other times, they are intended for resale to generate cash revenues, or for distribution directly to clients. The dollar value of these resources is difficult to calculate, but estimates suggest it is substantial. For example, in 2011 about 23 million individual federal income tax filers claimed noncash charitable contributions, the monetary value of which totaled almost $44 billion (U.S. Internal Revenue Service, 2014).

Tax benefits such as these are particularly important for private, nonprofit HSOs, which are defined in part by their official designation as charitable organizations under section 501(c)(3) of federal Internal Revenue Service regulations. Meeting the requirements of this section allows nonprofit agencies to avoid income taxes that for-profit firms must pay, and this can be a critical benefit in service arenas such as health care, where nonprofit and for-profit hospitals often engage in intense competition for patients and physicians. Tax laws also have important effects on other revenue sources, such as charitable contributions. Changes to state and federal tax codes may encourage or restrict contributions to nonprofit agencies by individuals who itemize deductions on their tax returns. For example, tax deductions claimed for cash contributions (beyond the noncash contributions mentioned in this chapter) totaled more than $31 billion in 2011 (U.S. Internal Revenue Service, 2014), and it is likely that this source of funds for HSOs would drop precipitously if changes in tax laws were to make charitable contributions no longer deductible.

Any assessment of an organization needs to consider noncash resources because its behavior may be understood as efforts to acquire and maximize these assets. For example, organizations that rely heavily on volunteers may seek to protect this resource even over objections by professional staff that volunteers are ill trained for some types of work. Similarly, agencies may alter their structure to take advantage of one of these resources, as with the sizable number of nonprofit agencies that have begun raising funds by collecting donated material goods and reselling them through thrift stores. Attention to noncash resources may also be important in initiating change efforts, as when administrators are presented with opportunities to use noncash resources to add or augment services for which cash resources are not available.

Identify and Assess Relationships with Referral Sources and Other Providers

Relationships with Referral Sources

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What are the major sources of client referrals?

Does demand for services outstrip supply, or is there unused capacity?

What types of clients does the organization refuse (e.g., are there disproportionate numbers of poor persons, senior adults, persons of color, women, persons with disabilities, gays/lesbians, or other groups that are typically underserved)?

As noted earlier, clients are important resources, but individual clients may be viewed as liabilities if they do not fit within an agency’s domain or are unable to pay for services. This may lead to certain groups of clients, including the most needy, being deliberately excluded from access to services, as well as to creaming (taking on less needy clients who can pay or are more likely to succeed). Evidence of creaming has been observed in situations ranging from the allocation of services to cases in child protection (Jud, Perrig-Chiello, & Voll, 2011), to the awarding of training vouchers to the unemployed (Hipp & Warner, 2008), to the rejection of overweight and obese applicants by nursing homes (Zhang, Li, & Temkin-Greener, 2013).

Selection of clients is also driven by the types of clients an agency’s contracts with governmental providers allow it to serve. These dynamics relate to the issue of boundary control, which refers to the ability of the agency to reject clients it does not wish to serve. Boundary control is generally highest in for-profit organizations, where the primary goal is making money, and lowest in governmental organizations, which are intended to provide a safety net for clients who cannot obtain services elsewhere. However, since the early 1980s, governmental policies have favored privatization—the shifting of more services to the private sector. A guiding assumption has been that private sector organizations can provide services more efficiently and effectively than large governmental bureaucracies, and that, in the case of nonprofit organizations, they can also draw on their traditional commitments to addressing poverty to ensure that these clients are served.

Human service agencies adjust their boundaries due to a many factors, and a misunderstanding of these may lead to critical service gaps. One key criterion in boundary setting is the nature of the clients themselves, and being poor or having complex, long-standing problems are characteristics that simultaneously increase the level of need yet decrease the likelihood of being served.

Relationships with Other Providers

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What other agencies provide the same services to the same clientele as this organization?

With whom does the organization compete?

With whom does the organization cooperate?

Is the organization part of a coalition or an alliance?

Relationships among agencies that occupy each others’ task environments can be competitive, cooperative, or a mixture of the two, depending on the circumstances. Table 6.4 in Chapter 6 gave examples of five levels of interaction that represent some of those mixtures.

Competitive relationships characterize circumstances in which two or more agencies seek the same resources (clients, funds, volunteers, etc.) from the same sources. Nonprofit agencies compete among themselves for charitable donations as well as government and private foundation grants, and in some cases government agencies have sought to improve the cost-effectiveness of services by encouraging nonprofits to compete for grant funding. This has not always been successful, however. For example, Howard (2013), found that as dependence on fee-paying clients in nonprofit HSOs increases, their likelihood of serving nonwhite clients decreases, as does the range of service they offer to non-English speakers. Additional consequences included greater competition not only with other nonprofits but with for-profits as well, along with an increase in the frequency of some vulnerable clients being forced to seek services elsewhere.

Direct competition for funds is not inevitable. Cooperative arrangements are also common, as in the case of referral agreements between agencies, which are used as a means of exchanging clients who do not fit the referring agency but are considered resources by the agency to which they are referred. Other agencies have implemented large-scale coalition-building efforts to improve their ability to meet client needs (Eilbert & Lafronza, 2005).

Identify and Assess Relationships with Other Units in the Task Environment

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What state and federal regulatory bodies oversee programs provided by this organization?

With what government agencies does this organization contract for service provision?

What professional associations, licensing and certification boards, and accrediting bodies influence agency operations?

Within an organization’s task environment are groups that may not provide resources but that set the context in which the agency operates. One example is regulatory bodies responsible for establishing acceptable service practices. Some of these may be governmental licensing agencies that inspect and certify the services and physical environment of organizations such as nursing homes, child-caring institutions, and residential treatment facilities. Others may be contracting agencies that enforce adherence to procedural guidelines in order for the organization to be reimbursed for services it provides. Still others may be government revenue departments that levy taxes and monitor financial accounting procedures. Extensive accounting and funding-usage requirements are also imposed by nongovernmental funding sources such as the United Way.

Other organizations that impose some sort of regulatory boundaries include professional associations, labor unions, and accrediting bodies. In general, accrediting bodies certify the operation of organizations as a whole, whereas professional associations and licensing bodies certify the work of individuals. For example, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO) establishes requirements for how member agencies must operate, and loss of accreditation can threaten an agency’s viability by restricting its funding and client referrals. On the other hand, professional organizations such as the Academy of Certified Social Workers (ACSW) or state licensing agencies impose standards on how individuals carry out their work within agencies, whether or not the agencies themselves are accredited.

The “general public” is a constituent of almost all organizations, and by their nature HSOs are dependent on societal approval for their activities. The views of members of the general public are not always apparent, however, and public opinion is seldom unanimous, so organizations must decide which of a wide variety of expressed views represents the prevailing attitude. Still another complication is that agencies may be forced to stand against public opinion, as in the case of advocacy organizations that must confront ignorance or discrimination against particular clients or groups.

Within the task environment, public opinion is often conveyed through elected representatives, interest groups, civic organizations, and many others. Another indirect but important indicator of public views is funding sources, where patterns in the availability of dollars can reveal much about topics of interest to wealthy donors, private foundations, and ordinary citizens. Finally, mass media are critical purveyors of public attitudes, although they may highlight the extreme rather than typical opinions. In some cases, this can undermine the effectiveness of umbrella organizations such as the United Way in assessing community needs and distributing funds in more measured and planful ways (Cordes & Henig, 2001).

Table 8.4 Identifying Regulatory, Professional, and Media Organizations

Example Organization Programs Affected

Regulatory Bodies

State Department of Child Welfare

County Health Department

Day care

Meals on Wheels program

Organizations Issuing Grants and Contracts

Federal Demonstration Grants (

State Department of Developmental Disabilities

Respite care

Vocational training

Professional Associations

National Association of Social Workers (

American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) (

Individual and group counseling

Couple and family counseling

Accreditation Organizations

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) (

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

Home care

Day care

Licensing and Certification Boards

State Social Work Licensing Board

Individual and group counseling

Public Media and Advocacy Organizations

Local Network Television Affiliate


Child maltreatment investigations

Vocational training

Child protective services offer an example of the relationship between agencies, public opinion, and mass media (as both a carrier and shaper of public opinion). Deciding whether to remove an at-risk child from his or her home involves a delicate balancing act between concern for the child’s well-being and concern for parental rights. Egregious cases in which the abuse of a child resulted in death have led to public outcry, followed by legislative changes directing protective service workers to favor the safety of the child when investigating new reports. In other locations, protective service workers have been characterized as “child-snatchers,” prompting elected officials to impose stricter guidelines governing the removal of children.

The key point is that public opinion is dynamic rather than static, and agencies at different times or in different places may encounter widely divergent attitudes and expectations. Identifying important elements in the task environment is thus an ongoing process as public attitudes change and funding methods evolve, and Table 8.4 depicts a tool for use in this process.

Task 3: Assess Internal Organizational Capacity

Consider the examples of Canyon County Department of Child Welfare (CCDCW) and Lakeside Family Services (LFS) presented at the beginning of this chapter. When public organizations such as CCDCW experience problems in productivity, quality of client service, morale, or worker–management relationships, one response might be for an oversight body, such as the county board of supervisors, to hire a management consultant to evaluate the department and its problems. Similarly, in a nonprofit organization such as LFS that has become more professionalized, increased its dependence on government funds, and altered its mission, and now is experiencing funding cutbacks, a consultant may be engaged by the board of directors to conduct a study and recommend strategies for the organization to regain economic self-sufficiency.

Ideally, after interviewing representative staff, consumers, board members, and others, the consultants would be able to document problems such as those identified in the vignettes, formulate working hypotheses about their causes, and recommend solutions or remedies. Following from this approach, consultants often recommend short-term solutions such as staff development and training, employee incentive programs, morale-building activities like social events, relationship-enhancing activities between management and staff, attempts to humanize the chief executive officer, and so forth. The problem is that these steps rarely solve the kinds of fundamental concerns that brought about the need for a management consultant in the first place.

An alternative approach to organizational assessment is to conduct a systematic examination of key organizational elements. Within each element, one could examine ideal models or optimal levels of functioning, as illustrated in current theoretical or research literature. Using this ideal as a basis of comparison, the review proceeds to an examination of data that depict the actual situation as well as gaps between the ideal and real. The goal is to understand causes before proposing solutions and to solve long-term problems rather than treating present symptoms.

Under Task 3, we identify key elements to be examined within an organization. Readers may find it useful to consider how each elements might apply to an HSO with which they are familiar as an intern, employee, or even service recipient. The elements we address include the following:

Organizational and program structure

Management, and leadership style

Planning, delivery, and evaluation of programs and services

Personnel policies, procedures, and practices

Adequacy of technology and resources

Understand Organizational and Program Structure

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What are the major departmental or program units in this organization?

Is there a convincing rationale for the existing organizational structure?

Is the existing structure consistent with and supportive of the mission?

Is supervision logical and capable of performing expected functions? Are staff members capable of performing expected functions?

What can you learn about the informal structure (people who carry authority because they are respected by staff, and thus exert influence) that is different from those in formally designated positions of authority?

When we think of organizational structure, we often envision a pyramid-shaped chart with boxes and lines indicating a hierarchy that extends from the top administrator’s level down to many line-level positions. This helps visualize the organization in terms of who reports to whom, who is responsible for which divisions of the organization, and how the chain of command proceeds from bottom to top. As noted in Chapter 7, this system is patterned after the bureaucratic model described by Weber (1946). It is widely used because it is easy to understand and apply, ensures that everyone has only one supervisor, and provides for lines of communication, exercise of authority, performance evaluation, and many other functions necessary to ensure smooth operation.

As we also noted in Chapter 7, however, many critics of bureaucratic structure believe it is not the best design for human service agencies. Their central point is that bureaucratic structure was designed for organizations in which both inputs and operations are predictable and repetitive, whereas the individual clients and client problems served by HSOs are unique. Rules such as those that govern the production process in manufacturing enterprises may be helpful in ensuring consistent quality of the goods produced, but in an HSO these rules may simply constrain workers’ abilities to exercise professional judgment.

A number of terms have been used to describe the pitfalls that can accompany bureaucratic structure. Merton (1952) warned of learned incompetence that develops among employees in bureaucracies who rely so heavily on a policy manual to make their decisions that they cease to think logically or creatively about their jobs (such as addressing client problems in an HSO). Lipsky’s (1984) bureaucratic disentitlement describes situations in HSOs where clients fail to receive benefits or services to which they are entitled due to decisions based on rigid and sometimes illogical internal rules rather than client needs. Jaskyte and Dressler (2005) found that innovativeness in nonprofit HSOs was negatively associated with an organizational focus on stability, which is typical of bureaucratic structures.

Contingency theorists contend that structure depends on what the organization is expected to produce. Morse and Lorsch (1970) demonstrated that higher productivity in one type of organization (a container-manufacturing plant) was achieved through a traditional structure with clearly defined roles, responsibilities, and lines of supervision. A different type of organization (a research lab) achieved higher productivity through a very loose structure, which allowed researchers maximum flexibility to carry out their own work unfettered by rules, regulations, and supervision. Examples of alternative structures are depicted in Box 8.2.

No single organizational structure is likely to fit all HSOs well. For large public agencies, some type of bureaucratic structure may be useful because of size, predictability of operations, and accountability considerations. For a small, community-based agency, a collegial model might be best. As discussed in Box 8.2, much depends on variables such as the nature of the work and the background and roles of staff. Employees of HSOs often come from a wide range of specializations, including health, mental health, substance use, developmental disabilities, child welfare, services to older adults, residential treatment, adult and juvenile corrections, and many others. Disciplines in which they are trained include social work, counseling, psychology, child care, medicine, nursing, rehabilitation, and education, and their work may be supported by people from fields such as accounting, management, public relations, and finance. To bridge these differences the organization must have clear standards governing hiring and job expectations, such as specific requirements for education, experience, and licensure or certification for each position, along with documentation of adherence to these requirements.

Box 8.2 Options for Organizational Structures

Organizations can structure themselves in many different ways:

Hierarchical structure: This traditional, bureaucratic structure is quickly recognized in large organizations where multiple layers of units are depicted on an organizational chart.

Linking-pin structure: Originally named by Likert (1961, p. 11), this approach emphasizes the role of collaboration between work units, which is accomplished by selecting one or a few persons who are fully functioning participants in both and who ensure the flow of communication between them (Wager, 1992).

Matrix structure: In this model, staff members have different supervisors for different functions they perform. For example, direct supervision of a social worker for his or her activities on the ward of an inpatient mental health facility might come from a physician or nurse who is the ward leader, whereas a different supervisor might oversee the social worker’s efforts with outpatients. Matrix structures have been criticized because staff report to different people for different functions.

Project team structure: This model is used when work is organized by teams that work relatively independently on specific projects. For example, in starting up a community project one team might conduct a needs assessment, while another looks for funding, and a third locates a facility. Each team has a leader, and overall coordination is done by a committee of team leaders (Miles, 1975).

Collegial or network structure: This is most common in organizations composed of professionals who operate relatively independently and come together only in circumstances in which their work overlaps. Colleagues’ status is related to their professional competencies, and thus status differentials are removed. One example would be a private counseling clinic in which a small partnership of psychologists and social workers purchase a building and equipment and hire support staff. No single partner has more authority than others, and each generates her or his own income (Kaldis, Koukoravas, & Tjortjis, 2007).

Still, even a well-designed and clearly defined job will be the source of problems if it rests within a rigid bureaucratic structure or dysfunctional organizational culture. Cramm, Strating, and Nieboer (2013), in a study of nurses, found that organizational solidarity was greater in organizations with less hierarchical structure, more individual autonomy, and more formal and informal information exchange. At the level of service effectiveness, however, desirable results sometimes require the presence of at least some elements of bureaucratic organization, such as job routinization and precision of repeated steps. Regardless of how the formal organizational structure is designed, there will be a second structural level, often referred to as informal networks or emergent structures (Rank, 2008). Informal networks arise to compensate for what cannot be formally structured, and recognizing this important element of organizational culture is important in any assessment.

Watch this video that discusses the features of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). How might you use the OCAI in a human service organization?

Documentation and data to be examined in order to understand organizational structure might include the following:

Organizational charts

Job descriptions

Relevant policy and procedure manuals

Interviews with selected administrators, managers, staff, and representatives of each discipline

A tool such as the one depicted in Table 8.5 can be used to assess the appropriateness of organization and program structure.

Table 8.5 Assessing Organizational and Program Structure

Total Organization Program A Program B Program C

1. Would you describe the structure as rigid or flexible?                

2. Is the structure appropriate to the needs of the organization or program?                

3. Is communication primarily top-down, or in all directions?                

4. Are staff competent to do the jobs expected of them?                

5. Is supervision appropriate to the need?                

Understand Management and Leadership Style

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

How is the workplace organized, and how is the work allocated?

Are appropriate authority and information passed on along with responsibility?

How close is supervision, and what exactly is supervised? Is it tasks, is it functions, or is it the employee?

How are decisions made? Is information solicited from those affected?

Do employees feel valued at every level? Do they believe they are making a contribution to the success of the organization?

How is conflict handled?

A wealth of theoretical literature exists concerning approaches to administration, management, and leadership. One useful way to organize and understand them comes from Miles (1975), who classified managerial theories or models into one of three categories: (1) the traditional model, (2) the human relations model, and (3) the human resources model.

The traditional model is characterized by very closely supervising work, controlling subordinates, breaking work down into simple tasks that are easily learned, and establishing detailed work routines. Similar to McGregor’s characterization of Theory X, the assumptions of this model are that people inherently dislike work, they are not self-motivated or self-directed, and they do it only because they need the money. The traditional model would include such theorists as Weber (1946), Taylor (1947), and others committed to the basic tenets of bureaucracy or scientific management (as discussed in Chapter 7).

The human relations model is characterized by efforts on the part of management to make each worker feel useful and important. Management is open to feedback, and subordinates are allowed to exercise some self-direction on routine matters. Assumptions are that people want to feel useful and important, that they have a need to belong, and that these needs are more important than money in motivating people to work. Theories that support the human relations model would include Mayo’s human relations theory as well as many of the theorists who expanded on Mayo’s work and focused on employee motivation.

The human resources model is characterized by a focus on the use of untapped resources and potential existing within employees. Managers are expected to create an environment in which all members may contribute to the limits of their abilities, full participation is encouraged on all matters, and self-direction and self-control are supported and promoted. It is assumed that for most people, work means more than merely earning a paycheck and that they are willing to contribute to the success of the total work effort. Furthermore, people are assumed to be creative, resourceful, and capable of contributing more when given the opportunity. The theories that support the human resources model are drawn essentially from the work on contingency theory (Burns & Stalker, 1961) and supported by a number of contemporary authors (Forcadell, 2005).

Management practices are important to analyze because they influence so many facets of organizational life. They can affect, for example, whether adult protective service workers are instructed merely to collect facts from a battered older person and then turn to a supervisor who will direct the next steps, or whether they are allowed to use professional judgment to intervene as they believe is needed. Recent research supports the value of approaches that fall within the category of the human resource model in HSOs.

Some more important sources of information to be examined in understanding organizational administration, management, and leadership style include the following:

Job description of the chief executive officer (CEO) and other leadership staff

Interviews with board members (if the agency is private) or the person to whom the CEO is accountable (if the agency is public) to determine the expectations of the CEO

Criteria used for performance evaluation of the CEO and other leaders

An interview with the CEO to determine expectations for leadership staff

An organizational chart

Interviews with staff in various roles to determine perceptions about the job, the workplace, supervision, and administration

A tool such as the one depicted in Table 8.6 can be useful in assessing the agency’s management and leadership style.

Assess the Organization’s Programs and Services

Questions to be explored for this activity include the following:

What programs and services are offered, and are the services consistent with program goals and objectives?

Are staffing patterns appropriate to the services to be provided? Are workload expectations reasonable given expectations for achievement with each client and within each service and program?

Is there a common understanding among management and line staff within each program about problems to be addressed, populations to be served, services to be provided, and client outcomes to be achieved?

Are expected outcomes identified with sufficient clarity that program success or failure can be determined?

Table 8.6 Assessing Leadership and Management Style

Carried Out by Management Only Input Allowed but Ignored Input Solicited and Used Group Consensus and Full Participation

1. How are organizational goals established?                

2. What is the climate for supporting the achievement of goals?                

3. Where are program-level decisions made?                

4. How does information flow throughout the organization?                

5. Who has involvement in providing feedback about performance?                

6. Who is responsible for generating ideas about how to make improvements?                

Small HSOs may have one program with multiple services, whereas larger HSOs may have numbers of programs targeted to multiple population groups. Each program may have its own funding sources with different rules and regulations, each may have specialized staff, and some may share staff across programs. Informational brochures, funding applications, and strategic plans, may contain detailed program plans complete with goals and objectives. Accessing materials that describe programs, their rationale, and their designs will be important to understanding what services are available.

Go to the Foundation Center website, and search the free online database of funding sources. How might a human service organization use this resource in locating new sources of revenue?

Each program should have a clear statement of the problem(s) it is intended to address and the population(s) it is intended to serve. In reviewing this statement, it is not unusual to find that in some long-standing programs, there has been a shift in emphasis over the years. For example, a program that was designed to deal with heroin use may have begun with an emphasis on detoxification and long-term intensive therapy, later shifting to provision of methadone, and finally to intensive self-help groups. HBOs must typically report data on efficiency, quality, and effectiveness that reflect a commitment to providing the best services possible at the lowest cost. In particular, government contracting agencies often have detailed service standards and requirements for performance monitoring as a condition of receiving funds (Abramovitz, 2005; Polivka-West & Okano, 2008).

Standards typically emphasize three types of accountability: efficiency accountability, quality accountability, and effectiveness accountability (Martin & Kettner, 2010). Efficiency accountability focuses on the ratio of outputs to inputs or, more specifically, the ratio of volume of service provided to dollars expended. If Agency A provides 1,000 hours of counseling at a cost of $75,000 and Agency B provides 1,000 hours of counseling at a cost of $100,000, then Agency A is more efficient. Quality accountability focuses on the provision of services and differentiates between organizations that meet a quality standard and those that do not. For example, one quality standard might be to require that no more than 20 percent of clients given counseling services drop out before the counseling program is considered to be complete. Recent works emphasize that quality indicators must often be specific to particular services, and an increasing array of standardized quality-assessment tools are becoming available.

Effectiveness accountability focuses on the results, effects, and accomplishments of human service programs. While an assessment of quality accountability might ask whether standards for program completion were met, an assessment of effectiveness accountability would ask whether, across clients, measurable and clinically significant improvement occurred in the problem toward which the counseling was directed. In addition, effectiveness assessments also ask whether the programs and services offered resolved the client problems they were funded to address.

As suggested by the evidence-based practice approach discussed in Chapter 7, programs should also be designed, monitored, and evaluated using the best available information about “what works.” In fields such as child welfare, researchers and federal funders are increasingly focusing on child and family well-being as a measure of “what works” (Samples, Carnochan, & Austin, 2013). Also, family courts are also using well-being as a focus for decision making about dependent children (Casanueva et al., 2013). This is being made possible by improved tools for measuring well-being and other indicators of quality of life. Accordingly, it is important in assessing effectiveness to review the professional literature and become aware of the most recent trends and tools. Examples of relevant databases available in most university libraries include Social Work Abstracts, Medline, PsycINFO, and others.

Some of the more important documents and data sources to be

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Colorado Technical University

Understanding the Role of Cultural Identity

Reflect on the following statement: “competent communication is achieved when the participants find commonality in ascribed and avowed identities” (Samovar, 2017, p. 263). What does this imply for human service organizations that work with a wide diversity of populations and organizations in the macro environment? Choose two types of identities described in Chapter 7 of your Communication Between Cultures text and explain their importance for human service leaders from the standpoint of macro practice.


Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., McDaniel, E. R., & Roy, C. S. (2017). Communication between cultures (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.Identity is a term frequently used in media reports, popular culture discussions, academic studies, and numerous other contexts, but all too often it is inadequately defined or explained. Even here, you are probably wondering why identity has its own chapter in an intercultural communication textbook. A very good question, and by the end of this chapter you should have an answer as well as greater insight as to what identity is and an appreciation for the complexity of the concept.

Identity is a multifaceted, dynamic, abstract concept that plays an integral role in daily communicative interactions and particularly in intercultural communication. The accelerated mixing of cultures arising from globalization has added to the complexity of identity through increased immigration, cross-cultural marriage, international adoption, and an overall broadening of opportunities for people of different cultures to meet and interact across a variety of professional and social settings.

Because identity is so pervasive in social interactions and can be such a critical factor in intercultural communication, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of what it entails. To help you attain that understanding, we begin by providing a theoretical definition of identity. This is followed by a discussion of how identity influences social roles and guides social behaviors. We then examine a few of your many social identities and the different ways they are acquired and developed. A discussion of the different ways that you establish and enact your various identities and the role they play in communication is then provided. Next, the growing phenomenon of binational and multiethnic identities emerging from the globalized social order is examined. Finally, the chapter concludes with a brief discussion on ways of developing competency when dealing with people possessing dissimilar identities in intercultural communication interactions.


As we have just indicated, identity is an abstract, complex, dynamic, and socially constructed concept. As a result, identity is not easily defined, and scholars have provided a rich variety of descriptions. For instance, Tracy finds identity to be both inclusive and contradictory: “Identities, then, are best thought of as stable features of persons that exist prior to any particular situation and as dynamic and situated accomplishments, enacted through talk, changing from one occasion to the next. Similarly, identities are social categories and are personal and unique.”1 Ting-Toomey echoes this inclusive nature when she considers identity to be the “reflective self-conception or self-image that we derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic and individual socialization processes. Identity basically refers to the reflective views of ourselves and other perceptions of our self-images”2


Who am I? Who and what help to define me? Pause for a moment and reflect on those two questions. Write down a few of your thoughts. The answers you produce will provide insights into some of your many identities and the sources of those identities.

These two definitions treat identity in a broad sense, but some communication scholars address “cultural identity” more specifically. For instance, Fong contends, “culture and cultural identity in the study of intercultural relations have become umbrella terms that subsume racial and ethnic identity.”3 Fong goes on to define cultural identity as “the identification of communications of a shared system of symbolic verbal and nonverbal behavior that are meaningful to group members who have a sense of belonging and who share traditions, heritage, language, and similar norms of appropriate behavior. Cultural identity is a social construction.”4

Cultural identity for Ting-Toomey and Chung is “the emotional significance that we attach to our sense of belonging or affiliation with the larger culture”5 Klyukanov sees cultural identity as “membership in a group in which all people share the same symbolic meanings.”6 Dervin defines cultural identity as “what we construct whenever we are in contact with other human beings—regardless of the fact that they are from the same ‘environment or not”7 This series of definitions is not an attempt to confuse you. Instead, we are trying to demonstrate that due to its complexity and abstractness, it is difficult to construct a single, concise definition of identity that will be agreed on by everyone across the various academic disciplines. Some of the definitions use “identity,” while others rely on “cultural identity.” However, as we will illustrate throughout this chapter, we believe that culture plays a role in each of your many identities, no matter how they are acquired.

Regardless of the definition or term used, it is important to recognize that identities are dynamic and multiple. Throughout life you are continually acquiring new identities and discarding old ones. To illustrate these two points—dynamic and multiple identities—reflect on how you identified yourself in grade school, in high school, and after entering college. As you grew older, you gained new identities and left behind some old ones. For instance, after graduation from high school, you set aside many of the identities you had and on entering the university, acquired new ones. However, you also retained some of your previous identities, such as the regional identity of your hometown and state. Perhaps you gave up your identity as a member of a high school sports team or being in the band. In college you may have taken the identity of a sorority or fraternity member, and in that case you also assumed the identity of the specific organization.

People have a number of different identities as they move through life.

It should be clear that identity is not a single entity but a composite of multiple, integrated identities; they do not work in isolation, but rather operate in combination based on the social context or situation. For example, when you are in the classroom, your identity as a student takes priority, but you are still a male or a female, a friend to some of your classmates, perhaps an employee, a son or daughter, and for some, even a wife or a husband. Identities can also be associated with the sports teams you root for, your favorite genre of music, and many other aspects of your social life.


Identity is not a single entity. But rather it is a combination of multiple integrated identities that operate in combination based on the social context or situation.

To better comprehend people’s seemingly countless identities, researchers have constructed taxonomies categorizing the different types. Turner provides three identity categories— human, social, and personal.8 Human identities are those perceptions of self that link you to the whole of humanity and separate you from other life forms. Social identities are represented by the many groups you belong to, such as racial, ethnic, occupational, age, hometown, and numerous others. Social identities are a result of being a member of some social groups and nonmember of others (i.e., the in-group/out-group dichotomy). Personal identity is what sets you apart from other in-group members and marks you as special or unique. This form of identity can come from an innate talent, such as the ability to play a musical instrument without formal training or from some special achievement, like winning an Olympic gold medal. Personal identity can also come from something as intangible as a gregarious personality.

Hall’s three identity categories are similar—personal, relational, and communal. Personal identities are those that set you apart from other people and make you distinct. Relational identities are a product of your relationships with other people, such as husband/wife, teacher/student, and supervisor/employee. Communal identities are “typically associated with large-scale [social] communities, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, or religious or political affiliation.”9

Hall’s communal identities are essentially the same as Taylor’s social identities, and these identities carry importance during intercultural communication interaction, which is made clear in Gudykunst’s explication of social identity:

Our social identities can be based on our memberships in demographic categories (e.g., nationality, ethnicity, gender, age, social class), the roles we play (e .g ., student, professor, parent), our memberships in formal or informal organizations (e.g., political parties, social clubs), our associations or vocations (e.g., scientists, artists, gardeners) or our memberships in stigmatized groups (e.g., homeless, people with AIDS ).10

The objective of this discussion has been to provide a theoretical understanding of identity and illustrate that you have a variety of identities, which can change as a result of the social context. Because of its great relevance to intercultural communication interaction and study, we will now look at the influence of identity.


Identity represents an extremely important psychological component for the individual. Phinney writes that adolescents who fail to develop a “secure identity are faced with identity confusion, a lack of clarity about who they are and what their role is in life.”11 From this perspective, the need to understand your sense of identity is obvious.

The 2010 census survey was only the second time that respondents could indicate belonging to more than a single race. Over 9 million U.S. Americans, 2.7 percent of the respondents, identified themselves as belonging to two or more races, a 32 percent increase from the 2000 census.12 Although not included in the 2010 census survey, a question on the 2000 census form allowed individuals to write in their “ancestry or ethnic origin,” which resulted in “about 500 different ancestries” being reported, with ninety of those categories having U.S. populations exceeding 100,000.13 These figures illustrate the ethnic diversity in the United States and the level of awareness that people have about their identities. The dynamics of globalization have also made identity an important factor in contemporary social life. In other words, as people struggle to adapt to the new technology-driven social order, the push of globalization and pull of traditional norms are becoming considerations in how they live their lives and with whom they interact.

The study of identity in intercultural communication tends to focus on how identity influences and guides expectations about one’s own and others social roles and provides guidelines for communicating with others.14 For example, the cultural model for university classroom interaction in the United States is defined as studentcentered because students are free to interrupt lectures to ask questions, offer personal opinions, and respectfully question the professor’s claims. Also, students are aware that they may be called on to answer questions about the lesson, which instills a motivation to come to class prepared. One’s identity as a professor or a student provides the blueprint for assuming the appropriate U.S. classroom behavioral role. But is that blueprint applicable to other cultures? The short answer is, “No.” China and Japan, both of which are collective, hierarchical cultures, usually adhere to an instructor-centered blueprint. While the identity roles are the same as in the United States, the culturally instilled expectations are quite different. Normally, Japanese university students do not expect to be asked questions in class, and they seldom interrupt the professor’s lecture. Culturally established norms can also be seen in the way occupational identity can influence intercultural communication. In many cultures, teachers are afforded considerable social respect and shown deference by both students and the population as a whole. In the United States, however, status is more a function of material gain, and educators do not usually occupy an especially elevated societal position.

While somewhat oversimplified, these examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of identity in an intercultural environment. There are, of course, many more reasons to gain an appreciation of identity and its influence on intercultural communication, but the above discussion should convince you of the benefits of a greater awareness of your own identity and that of others. To help you with that task, we will discuss some of your many social identities and examine how they are influenced by culture.


As noted earlier, it is important to recognize that your identity is actually a product of multiple identities, sometimes acting in concert and at other times acting singularly. The community you are born into and those that you elect to belong to constitute a large part of your identity. And while identity serves to bind us to a larger group and makes us feel part of something bigger and more enduring, it can also isolate and even alienate us from other groups.15 The schism between Shia and Sunni Muslims exemplifies how identity can contribute to alienation.

The salience of any identity generally varies according to the social context. As situations vary, you usually choose to emphasize one or more of your identities. In the classroom, identity as a student is paramount, but at work, occupational and organizational identities take precedence. When visiting your parents, you are first a daughter or son. In any context, however, other identities, such as race and biological sex, are also present, albeit usually in a secondary role.


Identities such as race and biological sex are always present, albeit usually in a secondary role. However, regardless of the identity or identities being exhibited, all are influenced to various degrees by culture.

Regardless of the identity or identities on display, all are influenced to various degrees by culture. In this section we will examine a few of your many identities and illustrate how each is influenced by culture.


Perhaps the most important single aspect to remember about race is that it is a social construct arising from historical attempts to categorize people into different groups. The concept grew out of efforts by eighteenth-century European anthropologists to place people into hierarchically ranked categories based largely on their outward appearance. In retrospect, it is easy to see how those early endeavors were influenced by feelings of prejudice and ethnocentrism grounded in a strong sense of Western superiority. This concept of classifying groups of peoples as superior or inferior has, unfortunately, “been used as justification for brutalities ranging from repression to slavery to mass murder and genocide.”16 Today, racial classifications and identity are usually associated with a person’s external physical traits—principally skin color but also physiognomy and hair texture. Modern science, however, has discovered very little genetic variation among human beings, which erodes the belief that race can be used to categorize people. The concept is further discredited by centuries of genetic intermixing.17

However, as in many other countries, social categorization employing racial identity persists in the United States, no doubt abetted by the historical legacy of slavery, early persecution of American Indians, and issues of civil rights. The vestiges of early racial differentiation can be seen in question 9 of the 2010 census form, which offered respondents a choice of fifteen different racial categories, and clearly confused race (e.g., White, Black) with nationality and ethnicity (e.g., Chinese, Guamanian).18 More recently, issues of racial differentiation have become prominent in discussions on immigration and the relationship between police forces and minority community members.

Although “race” remains a commonly used term in the United States, it is usually ill defined and often used interchangeably with the term “ethnic group.” This lack of a clear definition and resulting confusion leads us to agree with Kottak and Kozaitis’s recommendation that “it is better to use the term ethnic group instead of race to describe any such social group, for example, African Americans, Asian Americans, Irish Americans, Anglo Americans, or Hispanics.” 19


Gender identity is quite different from biological sex or sexual identity, which is derived from an individual’s anatomy at birth. Gender is a socially constructed concept that refers to how a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles. Ting-Toomey considers gender identity as “the meanings and interpretations we hold concerning our self-images and expected other-images of ‘femaleness’ and ‘maleness.’”20

Gender identity refers to ways particular cultures and cocultures differentiate masculine and feminine roles.

What constitutes displays of gender identity varies across cultures and is constantly changing. For instance, the normative U.S. male appearance in the 1960s was characterized by long hair, often accompanied by beards and mustaches, as typified in the counterculture rock musical Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical. Today, however, style dictates short or no hair, which is evident in the many advertisements for men’s fashions. The growing number of men opting for colored nails, including toenails, is another indication of changing male gender appearance.21 In Japanese certain words are traditionally reserved for use by women exclusively, while men use entirely different words to express the same meaning. In English there is little or no distinction between male and female vocabulary.

A culture’s gender norms can also influence career decisions. For instance, male flight attendants are common on U.S. airlines, but in Northeast Asia the occupation is almost exclusively the domain of women. Traditionally, most people in the United States viewed nursing as a woman’s occupation.22 This was evidenced by the 1970 statistic reporting that only 2.7 percent of all U.S. registered nurses were male. However, in another indication of changing attitudes about gender roles and identity, by 2011 the figure had risen to 9.6 percent.23

In contrast to the rigid, binary classifications of either male or female traditionally used in the United States, many European nations, and the Middle East, there are a few cultures that offer a socially acceptable middle ground for transgender individuals. Some Native American Indian tribes historically held transgender individuals in high esteem, considering them to be blessed with the spirit of both man and woman.24 Thailand’s kathoeys, or “lady boys” do experience some discrimination but enjoy more social acceptance than their U.S. counterparts.25 In South Asia, the Hijras, generally men who assume feminine identities, are viewed as neither male nor female but rather as a third gender.26 In the United States, public media shows, such as the comedy-drama Orange is the New Black, have raised awareness of the country’s approximately 1.5 million transgendered individuals and eroded the conventional societal idea of gender as being only male or female.27

Ethnic identity, like all identities, can be communicated through art forms that are unique to a particular ethnicity.


As stated earlier, racial identity is traditionally tied to one’s biological ancestry, which results in similar physical characteristics in skin tone, facial characteristics, eye shape, etc. Ethnic identity, or ethnicity, on the other hand, is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviors, geographical area of origin, and in some instances, language.28

Most people consider their ethnic identity to come from the nation-state where they or their forefathers were born—German or German American, for example. However, some people’s ethnic identity is derived from a cultural grouping that transcends national borders and is grounded in common cultural beliefs, practices, and in many cases, a shared language. The three groups listed below are illustrative:

The Basques, located along the Spanish-French border, who speak Euskara

The Kurds, a large ethnic group in northeast Iraq, with communities in Iran, Syria, and Turkey, who speak Kurdish

The Roma (more commonly called Gypsies), scattered across Eastern and Western Europe, who speak Romani

As mentioned above, many U.S. Americans view their ethnicity as a product of their ancestor’ home of origin prior to immigrating to the United States, such as Italy, Mexico, Vietnam, Liberia, or any one of a host of other geographic locations. Members of generations following the original immigrants frequently refer to themselves using such terms as “Italian-American,” “Mexican-American,” or “Vietnamese-American.” For Chen, the hyphen both separates and connects the two social groupings.29

The United States is commonly characterized as a nation of immigrants, and during the nation’s formative years, new arrivals often grouped together in a specific location or region to form ethnic communities, such as Germantown, Pennsylvania, founded by German settlers. Some of these communities continue today, as seen in San Francisco’s Chinatown and Little Italy in New York. Newer ethnic enclaves, like Little Saigon in the Los Angeles area and Hong communities in Saint Paul, Minnesota, have developed in the wake of more recent immigrant arrivals. In these areas, the peoples sense of ethnic identity tends to remain strong because traditional cultural practices, beliefs, values, religion, and often language are followed and perpetuated. However, as time passes, members of the younger generations often may move to areas of greater ethnic diversity and many marry into other ethnic groups. For some, this may dilute their feelings of ethnic identity and today it is not uncommon to hear U.S. Americans explain their ethnicity by offering a lengthy historical account of their family’s many ethnic mergings. Others, especially those with a Euro-American heritage, will often simply refer to themselves as “just an American” or even “a white American.” Frequently, they are members of the U.S. dominant culture that grew out of Judeo-Christian religious traditions imported from Western Europe and whose lineage is characterized by an extensive history of interethnic Euro-American marriages.


How have you observed the dominant cultural values of the United States coming into contact with people of different nationalities or ethnicities? What have been some of the effects, both positive and negative, of these contacts as they apply to the beliefs and values of the dominant culture?


The majority of people associate their national identity with the nation where they were born. However, national identity can also be acquired through immigration and naturalization. People who take citizenship in a country other than their birthplace may eventually adopt some or all aspects of a new national identity, depending on the strength of their attachment to their new homeland. This attachment can be influenced by where the individual resides. For example, someone originally from Mexico may retain strong ties to their native land if they settle in the southwestern United States, where there is a large Mexican immigrant community. Strong nationalistic ties can be sustained in an immigrant enclave, like Little Saigon, in Orange County, California, where displaying the flag of the former South Vietnam government remains common practice. Alternatively, those ties may be eroded if the new arrival settles in an area of the United States that has a limited demography. Normally, national identity becomes more pronounced when people are away from their home country. When asked where they are from, international travelers will usually respond with their national identity, for example, “I’m from South Korea.” In some cases, however, a regional or local affiliation can outweigh nationality. Texans, for instance, are noted for identifying themselves as being from Texas rather than from “the United States.” Strong and sometimes emotional displays of national identity are common at international sporting events, such as the World Cup or the Olympics.

As indicated earlier, identity is dynamic and can change contextually over time. A particularly interesting example of this dynamism is ongoing in the European Union (EU) where younger generations are moving away from the national identity of their parents and adopting what might be termed a “transnational” identity. According to Reid, many young adults from the EU tend to “think of ‘Europe as their native land.”30 A particularly prominent display of this emerging attitude came from Anne (Ana) Hidalgo, the first woman to be elected mayor of Paris, France. Ms. Hidalgo was born in Spain, immigrated to France with her parents, and subsequently took French citizenship. When asked during an interview in 2014 if she felt Spanish or French, Ms. Hidalgo responded, “I feel European.”31

Most nations are home to a number of different cultural groups, but one group usually exercises the most power and is often referred to as the dominant culture because its members maintain control of economic, governmental, and institutional organizations. This control leads to the establishment of a “national character,” as defined by Allport: “ ‘National character implies that members of a nation, despite ethnic, racial, religious, or individual differences among them, do resemble one another in certain fundamental matters of belief and conduct, more than they resemble members of other nations.”32

In the United States the dominant culture is considered to be people with Western European ethnicity, and the cultural traits arising from that heritage are ascribed to the nation as a whole and referred to as the “national character.” The advent of globalization, however, has brought challenges to the primacy of U.S. dominant cultural values as people of different nationalities, ethnicities, and varied beliefs and values increasingly come into contact with each other. The “transnationalism promoted by globalization has also given rise to growing numbers of individuals with dual citizenship who carry two passports.33

National identity often plays a central role in contemporary geopolitics. In some instances national identity is seen as a panacea for overcoming divisions created by tribal ethnicities. For example, in an effort to heal the wounds of the 1994 conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes, a struggle that claimed over 800,000 lives, the Rwandan government has outlawed references to tribal ethnicity and is seeking to have new generations see themselves only as Rwandans.34 A similar effort was undertaken in Afghanistan, where U.S. military trainers worked to create a sense of nationality among Afghan soldiers that would transcend culturally instilled tribal loyalities.35 The crisis in Ukraine, which resulted in a commercial airliner being shot down in 2014, has its basis in a question of national identity—the Ukrainians see themselves being more oriented toward Europe, but the nation’s Russian-speaking minority maintain allegiance to Moscow.36 And political divisions resulting from war have imposed different national identities on residents of North and South Korea.


With the exception of very small nations like Lichtenstein, Monaco, or San Marino, every country can be divided into a number of different geographical regions, that are often characterized by varying cultural traits. These cultural contrasts may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, or different historical and political legacies. Residents in these areas often use one or more of those characteristics to exhibit their regional identity. For example, although the population of Belgium is just over 10 million, the country has three official languages— Dutch, French, and German, spoken by the Flemish, Walloon, and German ethnic groups, respectively, living in the Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels areas. Thus, individuals from the northern part of Belgium are likely to identify themselves as Dutchspeaking (linguistic and ethnic identity) Belgians (national identity) from Flanders (regional identity).

In the United States, state boundary lines define many regional identities, and almost everyone is proud of his or her home state. Louisiana is marked by a variety of distinct cultural traditions and in the Bayou Country, a regional language (Cajun French) derived from its Acadian French historical heritage. Residents of Alaska, California, and Texas offer prime examples of pride in regional identity. U.S. regional identity can also be based on a larger or smaller geographical area, such as New England, “back East” (i.e., East Coast), “down South” (i.e., southeastern United States), “West Texas,” or “Southern California.”

Regional identity in Japan is manifested through a variety of different dialects (e.g., Kanto, Kansai, Tohoku, etc.), and some of the dialects (e.g., Kagoshima and Tohoku) are difficult for Japanese from other regions to understand. Japanese living abroad often form clubs based on their home prefecture and hold periodic gatherings to celebrate their common traditions. In China, the majority Han ethnic group is also characterized by regional differences such as linguistic variation (e.g., Mandarin, Hakka, and Min), cuisine (e.g., Cantonese and Szechuan), and housing styles (e.g., wood in the south and brick in the north). Although reunited in 1990, East and West German identities remain a reality among the older generation. Mexicans demonstrate their regional identity when they tell you they are from Sinaloa, Michoacán, Oaxaca, or Mexico City.


A person’s organizational affiliation(s) can be an important source of identity in some cultures. This is especially true in collectivistic cultures but much less so in individualistic cultures. This dichotomy is clearly illustrated by contrasting organizational identity practices in Japan, a strongly group-oriented culture, with those in the United States, a very individualistic culture. Although becoming less prevalent, especially among younger workers, Japanese businessmen employed by large corporations have traditionally worn a small lapel pin to signal their company affiliation. There is no similar practice among managers and executives in the United States, although in some instances a polo shirt or a tie with a company logo may be worn.

Organizational identity is so important in Japan that in business introductions, the company’s name is given before the individual’s name. For example, Ms. Suzuki, an employee at Tokyo Bank, would be introduced as Tōkyō Ginkō no Suzuki san (“Ms. Suzuki of Tokyo Bank”). But in the United States, an individual is introduced first by his or her name, followed by their organizational affiliation (e.g., “This is Mr. Smith from ABC Construction Corporation”). On Japanese business cards the company and the individual’s position are placed above his or her name. On U.S. business cards, the company name is normally at the top, followed by the individual’s name in large, bold letters, with organizational position under the name in smaller type. These illustrations offer insight into how collective cultures stress identity through group membership, and individualistic cultures emphasize individual identity. The examples also demonstrate how hierarchy is emphasized in Japan and egalitarianism is stressed in the United States. In other words, among the Japanese the school you attended and the company you work for are indicators of your personal status. Although there are, of course, some status differentials among U.S. schools and corporations, they exert far less influence than in Japan.

There are many identities that play significant roles in the daily lives of peopleidentities they share in a very personal way.


As noted earlier, your personal identity arises from those characteristics that set you apart from others in your in-group—those things that make you unique and influence how you see yourself. Scholars typically use the term “self-construal” to denote how individuals view themselves in relation to others.37 Research by social and cultural psychologists has disclosed that an individual possesses an independent, an interdependent, and a relational self-construal and that “cultural differences in self-definition arise through differences in the relative strength or elaboration of these self-construals.”38 People from individualistic cultures, such as in the United States and Western Europe, with a high level of independent self-construal are likely to be self-promoting and favor direct communication. Conversely, someone of a collectivistic-oriented culture, such as those in Northeast Asia, may tend to emphasize their group membership and prefer indirect communication. Relational self-construal, according to Cross and her colleagues, can be considered a global dimension that expresses the degree to which people define themselves by their close, dyadic relationships (e.g., relationship with spouse, child, sibling, close friend, etc.).39 Someone motivated by relational self-construal can be expected to engage in efforts to enhance that relationship.


Our lives increasingly focus around the Internet. On a near daily basis, we spend time online engaged in a variety of activities—communicating, searching for information, shopping, seeking leisure, conducting work-related tasks, social exchanges, and a variety of other endeavors. It is common to see people in a coffee shop working on a laptop or walking along absorbed in some type of activity on their mobile device. The Internet allows you quickly and easily to access and exchange information on a worldwide basis. As Suler informs us, the Internet also provides an opportunity to escape the constraints of our everyday identities:

One of the interesting things about the Internet is the opportunity it offers people to present themselves in a variety of different ways. You can alter your style of being just slightly or indulge in wild experiments with your identity by changing your age, history, personality, and physical appearance, even your gender. The username you choose, the details you do or don’t indicate about yourself, the information presented on your personal web page, the persona or avatar you assume in an online community—all are important aspects of how people manage their identity in cyberspace.40

The Internet allows individuals to select and promote what they consider the positive features of their identity and omit any perceived negative elements or even construct an “imaginary persona.” The Internet is replete with a variety of websites, such as Internet forums, online chat rooms, massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), and massively multiplayer online worlds (MMOW) that construct a computer-driven virtual environment allowing users to construct a cyberidentity, that may or may not correspond to their actual identity. Infatuation with these invented identities can become so strong they can “take on a life of their own.”41


How does the Internet allow for individuals to select and promote what they consider the positive features of their identity and omit any perceived negative elements, or even construct an “imaginary persona”? What are some dangers of this feature of the Internet?

Fantasy identity, which also extends across cultures, centers on characters from science fiction movies, comic books (manga), and anime. Every year, people attend domestic and international conventions devoted to these subjects. For example, the 2014 Hong Kong Ani-Com and Games convention drew a record attendance of 752,000 and attracted 550 commercial exhibitors.42 Comic-Con International has been held annually in San Diego, California, since 1970, and in 2014 attendance exceeded 130,000.43 At these gatherings many attendees come dressed, individually or in groups, as their favorite fantasy character(s). For a few hours or days, they assume, enact, and communicate the identity of their favorite media character. But conventions are not the only opportunity for people to indulge their fantasy identities. “Cosplay” (short for “costume play”) is another venue that lets people attend events or parties dressed as media characters.


Space limitations preclude our addressing the many other forms of culturally influenced identity that play a significant role in the daily lives of people. For example, we have not examined the role of religion, which occupies a significant place in the lives of many people. To illustrate, New York City is home to the largest Jewish population outside of Israel,44 and a visit to Brooklyn will demonstrate the important role that religion plays in the identity of the Jewish community, especially the large number of Hasidic Jews, who adhere to a strict dress code and diet. Christian women often include a cross in their accessory wardrobe, and the hijab head covering and the abaya cloak represent a part of many Muslim women’s identity.45 Age, political affiliation, socioeconomic class, physical ability, and minority status, all of which are part of most individuals’ culturally influenced identity, have not been addressed. Nor have we examined the very important role that tribal identity plays in such places as Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, and Pakistan. Indeed, much of the ongoing Middle East conflict can be attributed to renascent tribal affiliation, which became prominent after several of the authoritarian leaders were removed from power.46 However, the various identities discussed here should provide you with insight into the complexity of the topic and the important influence of culture on identity. Let us look now at how we acquire our identities.


As previously discussed, identities are a product of contact with others. Ting-Toomey sees identities as being acquired and developed “through interaction with others in their cultural group.”47 Thus, your individual identity(ies) are derived from your larger group identities (e.g., you can only identify as a male, daughter, college student, etc. due to the existence of the larger collectivity of similar individuals).48 Identity development, then, can be described as a dynamic process of familial influences, cultural socialization, and personal experiences. We have already looked at the family in Chapter 3, but familial influence on identity is so great that we need to touch on a few points here.

The initial exposure to your identity came from your family, where you began to learn culturally appropriate beliefs, values, and social role behaviors.49 Development of gender identity commences at a very early age when family members start teaching children culturally based behaviors specific to boys and girls. Interacting with extended family members also instills age-appropriate behaviors. Moreover, it is the family that first begins to inculcate the concept of an individual- or group-based identity. At the start of your school years, you were required to learn and enact the culturally mandated behaviors of a student. Media also play a major role in your identity development. The near-constant exposure to media stereotypes creates a sense of how you should look, dress, and act in order to exhibit age- and gender-appropriate identities. Media also serve to recruit people to join different groups, for example those for or against a specific activity, such as gay marriage, abortion, or the use of enhanced interrogation techniques.

From a theoretical perspective, Phinney provides a three-stage model to help explain identity development. Although the model focuses on adolescent ethnic identity, it is equally applicable to the acquisition and growth of cultural identity. The initial stage, unexamined ethnic identity, is “characterized by the lack of exploration of ethnicity.”50 During this phase individuals are not particularly interested in examining or demonstrating their personal ethnicity. For members of minority cultures, diminished interest may result from a desire to suppress their own ethnicity in an effort to identify with the majority culture. Majority members in the United States, on the other hand, seem to take for granted that their identity is the societal norm and give little thought to their own ethnicity.51

Ethnic identity search, the second stage, begins when individuals become interested in learning about and understanding their own ethnicity. Movement from stage 1 to stage 2 can be stimulated by a variety of events. An incident of discrimination might move minority members to reflect on their own ethnicity. This could lead to a realization that some beliefs and values of the majority culture can be detrimental to minority members52 and provoke movement toward one’s own ethnicity. As an example, Dolores Tanno grew up in northern New Mexico and had always considered herself Spanish. After leaving New Mexico, she discovered that some people saw her as Mexican rather than Spanish, and this motivated her ethnic identity search.53 Increased interest in ethnic identity could also come from attending a cultural event, taking a culture class, or some other event that expands greater awareness of and interest in one’s cultural heritage. Ethnic Identity achievement, Phinney’s final stage of identity development, is reached when individuals have a clear and confident understanding of their own cultural identity. For minority members, this usually comes with an ability to effectively deal with discrimination and negative stereotypes.54 Identity achievement can also provide greater self-confidence and enhance feelings of personal worth.

Drawing on social science research, Martin and Nakayama offer multistage identity development models for minority, majority, and biracial individuals respectively. In the minority development model, the initial stage, unexamined identity, is similar to Phinney’s model, in which individuals are unconcerned about identity issues. During stage 2, conformity, minority members endeavor to fit in with the dominant culture and may even develop negative self-images. Resistance and separatism, stage 3, is usually the result of some cultural awakening that motivates increased interest in and adherence to one’s own culture. Concurrently, rejection of all or selected aspects of the dominant culture may occur. In the final stage, integration, individuals gain a sense of pride in and identify with their own cultural group and demonstrate an acceptance of other groups.55

Multistage Identity Development Models

Multistage Identity Development Models

Majority identity development follows a five-step model with identity in the initial stage, unexamined identity, being of little concern. Acceptance, the second stage, is characterized by acquiescence to existing social inequities, even though such acceptance may occur at a subconscious level. At the next stage, resistance, members of the dominant culture become more aware of existing social inequities, begin to question their own culture, and increase their association with minority culture members. Achievement of the fourth and fifth stages, redefinition and reintegration, brings an increased understanding of one’s dominant culture identity and an appreciation of minority cultures.56

In the first stage of Martin and Nakayama’s biracial identity development model, biracial individuals may rotate through three phases where they (1) become conscious of differences in general and the potential for discord, (2) gain an awareness of their personal differences from other children, and (3) begin to sense they are not part of the norm. The second stage entails a struggle to be accepted and the development of feelings that they should choose one race or another. In the third and final stage, biracial individuals accept their duality, becoming more self-confident.57 This development model is demonstrated in the historical experience of Japanese biracial children, often called hafu (half) in Japanese. The occupation of Japan by Allied forces after World War II saw the birth of increasing numbers of biracial children who generally encountered derision and overt discrimination. However, as their numbers have gown, especially with the increase of international marriages arising from globalization, they have become common figures in the contemporary social order, establishing a formal, worldwide organizational structure promoting organized events and public lectures about the biracial experience.58 As another example, the Hapa Project strives to “promote awareness and recognition of the millions of multiracial/multiethnic individuals of Asian/Pacific Islander descent [and] to give voice to multiracial people and previously ignored ethnic groups….”59

As you go about daily activities, entering and exiting various contexts, different identities come into play.

Identities can also be classified as ascribed or avowed, based on how they are acquired,60 a distinction referring to whether an identity was obtained involuntarily or voluntarily. Racial, ethnic, and sexual identities are assigned at birth and are considered ascribed, or involuntary. In hierarchical cultures where social status is often inherited, such as in Mexico, a person’s family name can be a strong source of ascribed identity. By contrast, your identity as a particular university student is avowed because you voluntarily elected to attend the school. Even though being a university student is a voluntary identity, your culture has established expectations that delineate appropriate and inappropriate social behavior for college students. When enacting your student identity, you will normally try to conform to those socially appropriate protocols, sometimes consciously and at other times subconsciously.


By now you should have an appreciation of identity as a social construct, what constitutes identity, an awareness of some of your own identities, and insight into how identities are acquired. This background will help you understand how cultural identities are established and expressed.

As you go about your daily activity, entering and exiting various contexts, different identities come into play. By interacting with others you continually create and recreate your cultural identity through communication,61 which can take a variety of forms, including “conversation, commemorations of history, music, dance, ritual, ceremonial, and social drama of all sorts.”62 Family stories told by family members connect us to the past and provide a “sense of identity and connection to the world.”63 These stories are also infused with cultural beliefs and values that become part of one’s identity.

Culture’s influence in establishing identity can be demonstrated by returning to the classroom and contrasting student interaction styles in the United States and Japan. In the United States individualism is stressed, and even young children are taught to be independent and develop their personal identity. Schools in the United States encourage competition in the classroom and on the playing field. Students quickly learn to voice their ideas and feel free to challenge the opinions of others, including teachers, as a means of asserting their own identity. Being different is a common and valued trait. This is in contrast to the collective societies of South America, West Africa, and Northeast Asia, where children learn the importance of interdependence and identity is “defined by relationships and group memberships.”64 This results in activities that promote group-affiliated identity. In Japanese preschool and elementary classrooms, students are frequently divided into small groups (han) where they are encouraged to solve problems collectively rather than individually.65 This practice teaches young Japanese students the importance of identifying with a group.


Once established, identities are enacted in multiple ways, beginning in childhood and progressing through adolescence into the adult years.

Identities are also established and displayed through cultural rites of passage that help adolescents gain an increased awareness of who they are as they enter adulthood.66 In some underdeveloped societies the rite can involve a painful physical experience, such as male or female circumcision, but in developed nations, the ceremony is usually less harsh and is often a festive event. The bar mitzvah, for instance, is used to introduce Jewish boys into adulthood when they become more responsible for religious duties. In Mexican culture, girls look forward to celebrating their fifteenth birthday with a quinceañera. This occasion is a means of acknowledging that a young woman has reached sexual maturity and is now an adult, ready to assume additional family and social responsibilities. In addition, the celebration is intended to reaffirm religious faith, good morals, and traditional family values.67 In the dominant U.S. culture, rites of passage into adulthood are generally not as distinctive but are often associated with the individual attaining a greater degree of independence or “freedom.”68 Graduation from high school or college, for example, brings increased expectations of self-sufficiency and a new identity.

Once established, identities are enacted in multiple ways, beginning in childhood and progressing through adolescence into the adult years. For instance, individuals in almost every culture have ways of displaying their religious or spiritual identity. As we noted earlier, many Jews wear yarmulkes or other distinctive clothes, and Christians frequently display a cross as an item of personal jewelry. As a display of humility, Muslim men often go unshaven, which can also convey their religious identity. Some men and women wear a red dot (pottu) on their forehead as a sign of their devotion to the Hindu religion. Male adherents of Shikism commonly wear a turban and refrain from cutting their hair as part of their devotion. Each of these outward symbols identifies the wearer as belonging to a specific religious group and thus is a sign of both inclusion and exclusion.

Identity can also be evinced through involvement in commemorative events. The Fourth of July in the United States, Bastille Day in France, and Independence Day in Mexico are celebrations of national identity. The annual Saint Patricks Day parade in New York City is an opportunity for people of Irish heritage to take pride in their ethnic identity. Oktoberfest celebrations allow people to rekindle their German identity, and the Lunar New Year is a time for the Chinese and many other Asian cultures to observe traditions that reaffirm their identities.

While many customs of identity enactment are tradition-bound, evolving circumstances can bring about new ways. This type of change was discovered by David and Ayouby’s study of Arab minorities in the Detroit, Michigan, area. They found that a division existed between how early immigrants and later arrivals understood Arab identity. Immigrants who arrived in the United States years earlier were satisfied “with meeting and enacting their ethnicity in a ritualistic fashion by eating Arabic food, perhaps listening to Arabic music, and even speaking Arabic to their limited ability.”69 The more recent Arab immigrant arrivals, however, had a “more politicized identity.”70 resulting from their experiences in the conflicts and political turmoil of the Middle East. They felt that being an Arab involved taking a more involved role in events in their native land, such as sending money back or becoming politically active.71

There are certainly many more ways of establishing and evincing your identity than we have discussed here. For instance, we did not address the obvious cultural identity markers of language, accents, or family names. But this overview should convince you of the complexity of your identities and how they are shaped by culture.


Increasing numbers of people are acknowledging multiple cultural identities.


There is no denying that the contemporary world social order is increasingly characterized by multiculturalism. In Chapter 10, we will talk about how business is now routinely conducted in a transnational environment, the growing field of crosscultural healthcare, and how multicultural education is a contemporary challenge. Contrary to the belief and dire predictions made by some, globalization does not appear to be producing a culturally homogenized global society. Giddens claims that rather than increased similarity, globalization is actually abetting cultural diversity and giving rise to “a revival of local cultural identities in different parts of the world.”72 Advances in technology have enabled people of similar backgrounds, ideologies, philosophies, etc. to quickly and easily interact with each other, both virtually and in person, regardless of their location. This capability promotes activities that tend to strengthen, and in some cases revive, feelings of cultural identity. However, openness to cross-border information flow and international travel can represent a threat in conservative states, where the introduction “of foreign content can erode the traditional values and indigenous cultural identity.”73 In Western European countries there is concern about how traditional national identities might be affected by the increasingly vocal immigrant communities and the rising numbers of new arrivals.74 So great is this concern that France established a government agency charged with “promoting national identity” and subsequently launched a national debate on the topic.75

From another perspective, people acknowledging multiple cultural identities are becoming more common. The globalized economy, immigration, ease of foreign travel, communication technologies, and intercultural marriage are bringing about an increased mixing of cultures, and this mixing is producing people who possess multiple cultural identities. Chuang notes, “cultural identity becomes blurry in the midst of cultural integration, bicultural interactions, interracial marriages, and the mutual adaptation processes.”76 Martin, Nakayama, and Flores further support this idea by reporting, “increasing numbers of people are living ‘in between cultural identities. That is, they identify with more than one nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion.”77 As mentioned earlier, dual citizenship has become common. For instance, citizens of any EU nation are also legal citizens of the EU, with the right to live and work in any other EU nation.

In the United States, immigration, intercultural marriage, and multiracial births are creating a social environment where the younger generations consider cultural diversity a normal aspect of social life.78 Kotkin and Tseng contend that among U.S. Americans there is “not only a growing willingness—and ability—to cross cultures, but also the evolution of a nation in which personal identity is shaped more by cultural preferences than by skin color or ethnic heritage.”79 Hitt points out that “more and more Americans have come to feel comfortable changing out of the identities they were born into and donning new ethnicities in which they feel more at home.”80

Globalization has also given rise to “intercultural transients,” those people who frequently move back and forth across cultural borders and must manage both cultural changes and identity renegotiations.81 Over the past decade a growing number of nations have made dual citizenship available, thereby increasing the community of intercultural transients.

Issues of identity can be expected to remain complex—and perhaps become more so—as globalism and multiculturalism increasingly characterize contemporary society. It is clear, however, that the old understanding of a fixed cultural identity or ethnicity is outdated, and identity is rapidly becoming more of an “articulated negotiation between what you call yourself and what other people are willing to call you.”82 Regardless of how they are achieved, the form they take, or how they are acquired, your identities will remain a product of culture.


We have already discussed that identity is established through communicative interaction with others. Hecht and his colleagues also point out that identity is “maintained and modified through social interaction. Identity then begins to influence interaction through shaping expectations and motivating behavior.”83 As was previously mentioned, you are constantly assuming different identities as you interact with other people, and with each identity you employ a set of communicative behaviors appropriate for that identity and context. Culture has shaped your understanding and expectations of appropriate communicative behaviors for various social settings—for example, a classroom, hospital, sales meeting, wedding, or funeral. But what is appropriate in one culture may be inappropriate in another. We have also illustrated how students and teachers in Japan and the United States have quite different culturally established standards for classroom communicative behavior. However, what if a Japanese student is placed in a U.S. classroom or vice versa?

In an intercultural meeting, the varying expectations for identity display and communication style carry considerable potential for creating anxiety, misunderstandings, and even conflict. This is why Imahori and Cupach consider “cultural identity as a focal element in intercultural communication.”84 Continuing with our student/teacher example, try to imagine how students from a culture that does not value individuality and communicative assertiveness would feel in a typical U.S. classroom. Being unaccustomed to having an instructor query students, they would probably be reluctant to raise their hands and would likely consider U.S. students who challenged the teacher to be rude or even arrogant. These factors would probably produce a degree of confusion and stress. To avoid potential problems during intercultural interaction, you need to develop what Collier calls intercultural competence, which is achieved when an avowed identity matches the ascribed identity.

For example, if you avow the identity of an assertive, outspoken U.S. American and your conversational partner avows himself or herself to be a respectful, nonassertive Vietnamese, then each must ascribe the corresponding identity to the conversational partner. You must jointly negotiate what kind of relationship will be mutually satisfying. Some degree of adjustment and accommodation is usually necessary.85

Collier is saying that in order to communicate effectively in an intercultural situation, to lessen the potential of tension and misunderstanding, an individual’s avowed cultural identity and communication style should match the identity and style ascribed to him or her by the other party. But since the communication styles are likely to be different, the participants will have to search for a middle ground, and this search will require flexibility and adaptation. As a simple illustration, the Japanese traditionally greet and say good-bye to each other by bowing. However, in Japanese-U.S. business meetings, the Japanese have learned to bow only slightly while shaking hands. In doing this, they are adjusting their normal greeting practice to accommodate U.S. visitors. Longtime U.S. business representatives to Japan have learned to emulate this behavior. Thus, a mutually satisfying social protocol has evolved. In achieving this, the participants have demonstrated the principal components of intercultural communication competence: motivation, knowledge, and skills.


Identity is a highly abstract, dynamic, multifaceted concept that defines who you are.

Identities can be categorized as human, social, and personal; another classification scheme uses personal, relational, and communal.

Every individual has multiple identities—racial, gender, ethnic, national, regional, organizational, personal, and perhaps cyber/fantasy, and others— that act in concert. The importance of any single identity is a result of the context.

Identity is acquired through interaction with other members of one’s cultural group. The family exerts a primary influence on early identity formation.

Identities are established through group membership and are enacted in various ways, including rites of passage, personal appearance, and participation in commemorative events. Concepts of identity within the same group can change over time.

Competent intercultural communication is achieved when the participants find commonality in ascribed and avowed identities.

As society becomes increasingly multicultural, new concepts of cultural identity are evolving.


Construct a list of as many of your identities as you can. Using the list, draw a pie chart with each identity receiving space proportional to that identity’s importance to you. Compare your chart with other classmates’ charts. Do members of the dominant and minority cultures differ in the amount of space allotted to their racial/ethnic identity? If so why?

In a group of at least three individuals, have each person go to YouTube and view at least two videos on one of the following topics—Christian, Jewish, or Muslim/Islamic identity. Afterward, compare notes for similarities and differences on how the respective identities are established, displayed, etc.


Why is an awareness of identity important in your personal life? What are some of the situations in which this awareness would be beneficial?

How would you define identity? How would you explain your identities to another person?

What are some of your different identities and how did you acquire them? What are some differences between your identities and those same identities in another culture?

How did you establish some of your identities? How do you enact those identities?

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Colorado Technical University

You currently work in an algorithm development group for a large multimedia, mobile device corporation. Your group has been tasked with creating an app that will play an audio file backwards (from end to beginning rather than the standard beginning to end). Because this app is likely to be used on a mobile device, your group figures that this algorithm should use as little memory and space as possible. Your group has therefore decided to construct this reversal order algorithm such that it is an “in-place” algorithm. This simply means that the audio file will be loaded to memory and reversed using the same memory locations (because you must use memory sparingly).


  • Part 1: Before attempting this implementation, you choose to develop a simple prototype version of this algorithm in C++. Specifically, you will build an in-place, order reversal algorithm. This algorithm will take as an input an array of ints and will reverse the order of the elements in the array, in place (essentially using only the memory in the array). For example, if the array contains five elements [1,2,3,4,5], the output of the algorithm will be [5,4,3,2,1]. Comment your program.
  • Part 2: Using this prototype, you will analyze the time complexity and space complexity of your algorithm in the worst case. Specifically, for time complexity, count the number of steps for each line of code, and write down the total lines executed as a mathematical expression where n is the size of the input array. For space complexity, write an expression for the number of memory locations and components that are required for algorithm in the worst case. (Assume that each int is one location.)
  • Part 3: Program a function, method or class that will track the true runtime of your algorithm. Find the true runtime of your algorithm using arrays of varying sizes (e.g., n = 500, n = 1,500, and n= 2,500) using your new tool. Plot, on a Cartesian plane, the runtime of your algorithm as a function of the size of the input array, n.

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