COMM 419002 Towson University

Write 11 page ethnography, follow directions given, will tip if all requirments are met. Example of ethography in file below. Choose any organization and just make data up.

Procedure: You are a storyteller! An academic storyteller is called an ethnographer. It is a person who studies and tells the stories of specific cultures. You are to research an organization’s culture through the use of participant observation and interviews. You will gather data both passively and actively. You will gather their stories and help explain the meaning and importance of those stories through a written report. Businesses use these reports to target their customers, develop action plans, and to improve organizational cultures.

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  • In his original book Organizational Culture and Leadership (1985), Edgar Schein outlined a model of organizational culture that articulates three interrelated levels of culture: its artifacts and creations, its values, and its basic assumptions.

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For details go to: https://www.educationalimpact.com/resources/usl2/pdf/usl2_3_organizational_culture.pdf

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A. Artifacts and creations, consists of the tangible, physical, or hearable things in the environment of the organization.

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1. Researchers often begin their study of an organization’s culture by familiarizing themselves with its artifacts.

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2. Although artifacts and creations are observable elements of organizational culture, they should not be confused with the culture itself.

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B. Schein (1985) defined values as an individual’s or group’s “sense of what ‘ought’

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to be, as distinct from what is.”

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1. Values are inherently intangible, cognitive constructions, but many are expressly articulated or codified by the organizational

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members.

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2. Organizational members (particularly leaders) may articulate a value that contradicts the artifacts and behaviors.

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C. Basic assumptions represent the essence of culture for Schein.

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1. Members holding the basic assumptions find behavior that deviates from them to be incomprehensible.

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2. Schein put forward five basic assumptions around which organizational cultures may form.

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a. Humanity’s relationship to nature.

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b. The nature of reality and truth.

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c. The nature of human nature.

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d. The nature of human activity.

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e. The nature of human relationships.

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D. Schein’s model offers a useful means for both the researcher and the organizational member to comprehend the culture of an organization and provides a tool for digging into the deep layers of organizational culture so that one does not mistake surface elements for the heart of the culture.

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Goal: To conduct a QUALITATIVE ethnographic study exploring an organizational setting using a model/theory of organizational culture as a method of analysis.

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Outcome: A 10-15 page typed paper (not including the cover page, abstract page, references, or appendixes) is required. APA formatted (this includes citations, cover pages, abstract, headings, subheadings, organization, appendixes, and references). Sample APA paper is available at : http://my.ilstu.edu/~jhkahn/APAsample.pdf

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  • You must incorporate a minimum of 20 sources. More sources are always welcome. These sources will focus on your theoretical model, the concept of organizational culture, other organizational culture studies and your actual organization.

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There are many ways of writing an ethnography. However, there are several factors that must be addressed to make sure your readers understand what you studied and why you studied it. You are writing an OBJECTIVE ETHNOGRAPHY. The following format and questions are meant to GUIDE you.

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****** NO first person or the use of our class textbook shall be used in this paper

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The general organizational pattern is: See sample paper format at: http://my.ilstu.edu/~jhkahn/APAsample.pdf

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GENERAL STRUCTURE:

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  • Cover page
  • Body includes (estimated pages)
  • Reference pages
  • Appendixes

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  • Introduction 1/2 page

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  • Literature Review 1 page

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  • Methodology/Method Section ½-1 page

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  • Analysis Section 2-4 pages

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  • Conclusion 1/2

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SPECIFIC CONTENT: Follow these steps and the paper will write itself.

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  • Introduction (about 1 page – see sample below)

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  • This is a set-up for the study.
  • It should offer an explanation/brief history of the organization/people you are studying use sources to establish credibility for the people or organization.
  • It should discuss the goals of the study. Why is it important to study this group and this organization?
  • This section offers a clear thesis/preview outlining the organizational structure/parts of the paper.

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  • Literature Review (about 1 pages) (Use the two articles you read in this section “Icecream” and “Beer Guys”)

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  • According to Taylor and Proctor (2005) “a literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the materials available, or a set of summaries” (para. 1).
  • A literature review must prove there is a need for your study. It does so by including these things:
  • Paragraph one:Use 3+ sources to tell me why it is important to study organizational culture.
  • Paragraph two:Use 3+ sources to tell me about Edgar Schein’s model of culture.What is it and how has it been used before by other researchers?
  • Paragraph three: Use 1-2 sources to tell me how your topic (CSR or Diversity) and organization should be studied from a cultural perspective using Schein’s model and the research question.
  • What research question are you using?
    • How is the concept of diversity integrated into the everyday functioning of X organization by management and/or employees?
    • How has X organization communicated caring and concern to employees during the Covid 19 pandemic?

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Or

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  • Methodology (about 1/2 page1 long paragraph)

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  • How do you fit into the picture? What do you bring to the study? What are your goals? What are your experiences. How are you bracketing your biases?

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  • Analysis of data (3 +-pages)

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  • Provide an internal preview explaining how Schein’s theory will be used as a framework to guide the discussion below. This part of your paper is organized by artifacts, values, and basic assumptions.

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  • This will be the long part of your paper. Here you present your findings, engage in thick description, analyze/interpret the data you collected by applying your model. Go through your research, find out if there is any pattern, major points that come up again and again, discrepancies that are important to note. Make sure you explain why you chose the information you are presenting and why you leave out other aspects that you also explored but are not telling us about. You are describing the culture.
  • Similar to any other paper, you need to support and develop your main points by using specific examples(interviews) from your data collection. You can structure your study around

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  • Thematic units (Artifacts, Values, and Assumptions)
  • Distinct cultural practices within the group you studied
  • Creating an argument means:

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  • Claim X is a great place to work because of its training program
  • Support
  • Analysis
  • Conclusion

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  • Employee face book pages say this………
  • My interviewee says so too
  • Newspaper articles say the same thing

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  • All evidence points to this organization having an effective training program.

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  • Repeat and answer your research question
  • Link it back to the literature review. How are the ideas of others linked to your research?

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  • Strengths and weaknesses of your study.What would you do differently next time?

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  • References (APA)

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  • Appendix

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  • This will include your observation log and any extraneous information

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  • It must be typed or scanned into the paper.

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TIPS:

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  • Use the CRAAP test with judging source citations. Using any sources such as textbooks, Wikipedia, and dictionary.com in a formal research paper is a bad idea.
  • You must use published research describing your theory/model Anytime your theory/model is mentioned there must be a citation from the original author of the theory/model.

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  • The research question must appear at the end of the literature review. The literature review should progress towards this –question logically and with transitions. It should be clear that there is a need for your study.
  • The analysis must apply and utilize a communication model/theory
  • The conclusion must answer the research question and be supported by the analysis

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T0 Get You Started (Sample intro):

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The Organizational Culture of Trader Joes

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Introduction

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It all started in 1967. When Trader Joe himself, Joe Coulombe, took a small chain convenient store and made it into the well-known, family-friendly super market known as Trader Joes (Traderjoes, 2018, p. 1). All of Trader Joes employees seem to share the same belief that value is important. According to the company’s website, value is “great everyday prices on all our great products — no sales, no gimmicks, no clubs to join, no special cards to swipe.” (Traderjoes, 2018, p. 2). Trader Joes lives up to their mission because they keep their prices low while still delivering great tasting food. The company can do this because their products are under the “Trader Joe” name, and they “buy direct from the supplier whenever possible, bargaining for the best prices” (Traderjoes, 2018). After interviewing with multiple Trader Joes managers and employees from different Trader Joes in Maryland; it is evident that they truly value their customers and want to serve them the best food at the best prices. Trader Joes doesn’t want people to have a specific look, they embrace individuality and uniqueness. Rather, they want their employees to have specific character traits which include: outgoingness, selflessness, and the propensity to want to serve others (Mission, 2018, p. 3) .

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The goal of this study is to find out if community is co-created through the organizational culture of employees at Trader Joes. This will first be done through the literature review which is going to explore the importance of organizational culture through the use of Edgar Schein’s (1985) model of culture. Second, qualitative research will be conducted from Trader Joes management and employees through researching Trader Joe’s social media pages and seeing what employees and customers are saying about the company as well as conducting interviews of management and employees from different Trader Joes in Maryland.Third, Schein’s 3 step model will be applied to the data.Finally, a conclusion will offer analysis and links between the findings and past research.

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