2 peer replies include references please
1. Evaluating qualitative and quantitative designs rigour and quality should appraise the credibility of the data presented by the study with supporting evidence as to the outcome of what was studied. Transferability of the survey finding to different situation and dependability of the research design is being applied to differential circumstances (Harley & Cornelissen, 2020). Confirmability of the research outcome assures the empirical data that the techniques used ensured objectivity by minimizing cognitive and personal biases within the research team in influencing the development. Harley & Cornelissen (2020) highlight that the rigour and trustworthiness of the qualitative research include a clear rationale for sampling design, prolonged engagement and persistent observation of participants, ethical consideration and triangulation of collected data.
According to Johnson, Adkins & Chauvin (2019) qualitative research focuses on analyzing lived experiencing. Therefore, sampling design includes a purposeful sampling of participants instead of random sampling applied in quantitative research. Data collection and analysis are conducted concurrently in qualitative research until new information stop emerging from the sampled participants. Data saturation is achieved variably depending on the quality of description received from participants, while in quantitative analysis, the data collected from the sampled participants are assumed to be adequate. Data triangulation is applied to converge data obtained from different sources to minimize biases and optimize accuracy, unlike quantitative research, where statistical analysis gives the distribution and patterns from the collected data sets (Johnson et al., 2019)
2. Qualitative and quantitative, while both very different research designs, should be equally appraised when evaluating the quality of the research. Remember, quantitative research designs are used to describe a phenomenon, and explain both the relationships and differences among variables where as qualitative research designs are use to answer how and why questions in relation to behavior.
As we have learned, there are published articles that include and dissect the evidence collected and there are others that review these articles. There is a pyramid of evidence that is followed and referenced in nursing that consists of the 5 s’s. These include, from bottom to top, studies (qualitative, quantitative, case studies, concept analyses), syntheses (meta-analyses, systemic reviews, integrative reviews, traditional literature reviews), synopses, summaries, and systems. These provide a framework to “explain the importance and contribution of various levels of information to evidence-based healthcare delivery has been developed” (Schmidt & Brown, 2015). The basis of evaluating quantitative and qualitative designs is assessing whether or not the study’s research questions (hypotheses), methods and results (findings) are sufficiently valid to produce useful information (Jack et al., 2010).
Quantitative designs begin with, of course, the publication title, followed by and abstract which is a brief summary of the research, an introduction which provides a better idea than the abstract of the research, research methods used to address the research question(s) or hypothesis, statistical analysis used, results, and the researcher’s interpretation and conclusion or recommended use of results to inform future research or practice (Jack et al., 2010). After reviewing these, it is the job of the reader to decide the appropriateness of the design method used for the particular hypothesis/research question being addressed. Next is evaluating and assess the sample size, the criteria in which researchers chose their participants/study subjects, and how representative the sample size was in relation to the general population. Depending on the design method such as cross-sectional study or cohort study, it is important to identify the use of a control group.
Qualitative research is slightly different from quantitative due to the nature of the use of the research designs. But, like quantitative, qualitative research publications begin with the title, abstract, introduction, method used, results, and the discussion/conclusion. The appropriateness of the research design method used needs to be assessed, in regard to the research question attempted to be answered.
A characteristic of qualitative research that is not present in quantitative research is the use of interviews. “Most interviews consist of the researcher using an interview guide to ask semi-structured open-ended questions that are intended to help the participant openly share personal experiences. Interviews vary in length and are traditionally audio-taped in mutually agreeable locations where privacy can be ensured” (Jeanfreau & Jack, 2010).
With any evaluation of research, as the reader, it is best to be mindful of any biases. Whether that be from the perspective of the researcher(s) or you yourself as the reader. Sample size is just as, or even more so important.