ELAC Hospital Readmission Dis

post 1

Issue:

The issue of hospital readmission represents a core concern for the current healthcare system because of the high cost and mortality rates involved. The healthcare stakeholders develop interventions that include enhanced post-discharge communication programs to minimize preventable readmission incidences.

Research Question:

Therefore, a suitable research question to guide a study to evaluate the efficacy of enhanced post-discharge patient communication is necessary. “In a rural and small hospital, does a specialized telephonic intervention delivered by trained nurses to the discharged patients help to reduce the incidence of 30-day readmission compared to when no discharge calls are delivered?”

Assessment of the Variables:

For the hypothetical research scenario, the suitable independent variable is the efficacy of the specialized telephonic intervention. The conceptualized dependent variables include Discharge Calls, Availability of Trained Personnel, and Barriers to Post-discharge Communication.

Hypothesis Formulation and Type

The study hypothesizes that small and rural hospitals can reduce the rate of unplanned readmission by providing continuous post-discharge calls to their clients. The formulated hypothesis is a model of a null hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis reads that small and rural hospitals cannot reduce the unplanned readmission rate.

Research Study Design

A quantitative method with survey research design is the preferred methodology because it facilitates a critical rationalist perspective to the subject matter. According to Flick (2015), a quantitative method facilitates a linear logic process to undertake the empirical study. A quantitative design uses a step-by-step procedure characterized by starting with a theory and concludes with validating it (Flick, 2015). The ability to control the external variables s by using homogenous samples is a core advantage of a quantitative design. However, Flick (2015) outlines a notable limitation of the model that is related to the lack of generalizability of the study found. A researcher can generalize the findings of the study based on the specific sample selected.

Sampling and Strategy:

In a quantitative design, the use of a random sampling approach is effective because it helps to reduce the risk of biases. The four common probability sampling strategies include simple random, stratified random, cluster-random, and systematic random sampling (Flick, 2015). Each of the four approaches entails pertinent pros and cons. For this study, a simple random sampling of the rural and small hospitals is ideal because it guarantees each of the participating facilities an equal opportunity to be considered during the study. A total of 15 hospitals located in the rural and peri-urban region and those with less than 100 hospital beds will be considered across Los Angeles County.

Reference:

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project, second edition, Sage Publication

post 2

Hello everyone,

For this week’s discussion post, I chose to talk about pancreatic cancer as this is the fourth leading cause of cancer in the United States and is increasing towards becoming the second leading cause of cancer by the year 2030 (Li et al., 2021). The estimated reasons behind the number of deaths are related to “late diagnosis, rapid metastatic progression, and resistance to conventional therapies” (Li et al., 2021). Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PCD), is the most common type of pancreatic cancer that develops through the exocrine cells that takes into account more than 95% of pancreatic cancers as it involves the lining of pancreatic ducts (John Hopkins Medicine, 2020). A research question concerning this topic is How does early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and treatment compliance affect the ability for patients to cope in the later stages of the disease? An independent variable can be patients who have been asymptomatic and given a later diagnosis after choosing to follow through with an imaging modality, ultrasound/CT scan, while a dependent variable includes patients who have undergone biopsies through an endoscopic ultrasound or who were able to have surgery done prior to diagnosis of later stage (Ronda-Schoone et al., 2017). The hypothesis would be that patients who have early treatment done through imaging and a consult with doctor on management of symptoms can help in being prepared for later stage of disease. The type of hypothesis would be an experimental one due to the manipulation of the independent variable and since it would not just be a random basis on chance. The type of research design would be an experimental research design because of the relationship of the variables and the changes that would occur based on patients who would try early treatment, imaging as opposed to delaying it and having surgery. The type of sampling would be random sampling to reduce bias through simple random sampling data collection. This would pertain to both men and women of the population, mainly those with preexisting conditions or who already have had advancement of the disease.

References

John Hopkins Medicine. (2020, June). Pancreatic Cancer Types. John Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved September, 2021, from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/pancreatic-cancer/pancreatic-cancer-types (Links to an external site.)

Li, E., Huang, X., Zhang, G., & Liang, T. (2021). Combinational blockade of MET and PD-L1 Improves Pancreatic Cancer Immunotherapeutic Efficacy. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research (17569966), 40(1), 1–20. https://doi-org.westcoastuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s13046-021-02055-w (Links to an external site.)

Ronda-Schoone, L. J.M., Pek, C. J., Swijenburg, R. J., & Pieterse, A. H. (2017, September 18). What questions are most important to pancreatic cancer patients soon after diagnosis? A multicenter survey. BioMed Central. Retrieved September, 2021, from https://appliedcr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41241-017-0038-4 (Links to an external site.)

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