EXSC 542 Liberty University A


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1. Continuous runs are one of the approaches to endurance training designed to improve an athlete’s VO2
max, tissue respiration capacity, and endurance base (Liberty
University Module 6, 2021). This slow distance training consists of
athletes running continuously between 60% and 70% of their VO2
max. Continuous training is generally the focus during the general
preparation phase, and the length ranges between 30 minutes to 2 hours
depending on the athlete’s competition event (Chandler & Brown,
2019). This training is also used during the special preparation,
pre-competition, and competition but with a different approach/goal,
like recovery or maintenance sessions. For an 800-meters runner, the
continuous runs should not be longer than 1 hour and should fall in Zone
1 or moderate intensity. Another way to determine how long a continuous
run should be for an 800-meters is by doubling or tripling the race
distance, in this case, it will be 1-mile to 1.5 miles.

For the training volume, it should be increased by no more than
5-10% per week to avoid overuse injuries (Liberty University Module 6,
2021). Also, if the intensity is increased, then the training volume
should be decreased. The athlete needs to build a solid fitness base,
which can be done with continuous training during the preparation phase,
before introducing them to a new type of training, like interval

Interval training allows athletes to train more time at race
pace and race heart rate improving their performance more efficiently
than continuous training. But, if athletes are introduced to this type
of training before they are physically prepared for it, they could
develop overuse or overtrained injuries. Based on Chandler and Brown
(2019), the duration, intensity, and rest periods of interval training
vary according to the sport’s requirements. Nevertheless, the rest
intervals should be much longer than work intervals when exercise
intensities are high.

For cross-country athletes, the duration of interval training
is determined by the training goals or the race’s distance (Liberty
University Module 6, 2021). The duration and recovery time of interval
training determines which energy system is utilized, allowing coaches to
target different physiological responses with the same type of
training, interval training. The recovery time should be driven by
exercise intensity unless the goal is to get the athlete used to train
under fatigue. After fatigue, the athlete should recover completely
before introduced to another session of intense training.

the number of interval repetitions or the total volume should be
between one or three times the competitive distance. Also, the volume
can be based on the intensity the repetitions are going to be performed,
at higher intensities lower number of repetitions.

Before performing any physical activity, it is important to warm
up properly and slowly introduce the body to more complex movements to
reduce the risk of injuries and to maximize performance. The
recommendation for the recreational runner will be to perform dynamic
stretching instead of static stretching for the first 10 minutes,
depending on the environment temperature. Also, she should include
whole-body movements up to 40% to 60% aerobic capacity and gradually
increasing intensity, making sure she uses the muscles and joints
utilized during the sport/physical event (Chandler & Brown, 2019).

Some of the warm-up exercises recommended for a runner are
leg swings, hip circles, eagles, lunges, inchworms, high knee walks,
high knee skips, stride-length runs, among others (Liberty University
Module 6, 2021). These exercises target movements and muscles utilized
during running allowing the runner to prepare the body for a more
stressful event.(


1. Continuous
training is generally performed at a specific intensity for an extended
period of time, typically lasting at least twenty minutes (Chandler
& Brown, 2019). The need for continuous training is dictated by the
length and intensity of the athlete’s competition. An athlete
participating in continuous running should run a distance one to three
times the competition distance at a certain pace. For 800-meter runners,
the coach could prescribe for them to run between 800-2400 meters at
constant pace between 60% and 70% of maximal oxygen capacity (Chandler
& Brown, 2019).

2. There
are different variables that can be manipulated when performing
interval training which include intensity, duration, recovery, and
number of reps (Chandler & Brown, 2019). The duration of the
exercise interval will typically be dictated by the goals of the
training session and sometimes by the distance to be covered in the
race. It can also be organized around the specific energy system to be
targeted. The length of recovery can affect how that specific energy
system is trained and how it adapts. Recovery times should also be based
on the exercise intensity. As intensity increases, recovery times
typically increase. When determining the number of reps during the
interval training session, several methods could be used. For one, the
workout volume could be based on the length of the athlete’s competitive
distance, with the workout’s volume equaling between one and three
times the competitive distance. Another method that could be used is
basing the volume on the intensity at which the intervals will be run.
As intensity increases, the total volume will need to decrease. A third
method is to determine volume by fatigue. Interval training can be very
effective to improve an athlete’s deficiencies. However, a fitness base
should always be achieved prior to starting an interval training program
due to its high fitness demand.

3. Any recreational or competitive runner should complete a proper warm-up
before starting their run. The warm-up could start with an 800-meter
jog to increase circulation and temperature in the leg muscles. After
the jog, the runner should go through various dynamic movements to
prepare the leg muscles for their run. Some movements include leg swings
from front to back and side to side. Hip circles, eagles, forward
lunges, backward lunges, and inchworms all aid in loosening up the hip
flexors and glutes. High knee walks, high knee skips, and stride-length
runs should end the dynamic warm-up. All these movements mentioned aid
in increasing circulation in the leg muscles and increasing range of
motion and muscle viscosity which will help reduce the risk of injury
during a long-distance run (Smith et al., 2015).

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