Florida Gulf Coast University

Response 1

1) After reviewing the pamphlet, made me cringe a little. Honestly, I was lost all the way up until they started mentioning the mental health parts. This pamphlet was condescending and honestly made fun of people who have disabilities. Basically saying if they are disabled then they do not know how to take care of children. So they take both the person that has the disability and the children. Also, It states it helps prevent the child from getting it too.
2) I do not believe the intent of this pamphlet was to be rude like we are reading it now. I think it was to show that they were marketing this facility in a way that was a force but in a polite way. I think the goal of it was to gain more people that had issues to clear the “diseased people”.
3) In my opinion, this pamphlet is uncalled for and not necessary. It is offense and extremely insensitive to people that have disabilities like mental health. Any facility in this generation acted like that they would get sued and or get shut down. I agree with this because that is crossing the line. Just because someone has mental health issues does not compare them to an idiot or someone that can not function having their own children. This being a law in North Carolina is bad enough. Personally, I am glad that we live in a generation like today where that would not last because that is borderline to what Hitler did to the Jewish people.
word count: 260

Response 2

1. The messages imposed in the pamphlet explain and give examples of how we understanding that someone is incapable of succeeding or doing something correctly due to mental problems and yet expecting them to perform any better over the much more challenging task like parenthood. Apparently, the feebleminded reproduce and are left to care for a newborn when they are a threat to themselves personally and lack intelligence. Per the pamphlet, there are much more responsibilities to parenthood such as “a normal home” or “Intelligent care” (Winston, 1950).
2. The goal of the Betterment League was to facilitate a system in which feebleminded people would not have to undergo parenthood. Due to the substantial responsibility of caring for a child and not mentally able to, The betterment League brought about the sterilization of the Mentally defected. Sparing them the authority of parenthood while protecting children from being born to a feeble parent, what they would call saving and supporting through funds at states expense.
3. My first opinion and observation is the way they worded “improve the human race”. I don’t believe that even the best Doctor in the world could ever “Improve” the human race in some sort or biologically. Most people are born with different deficiencies even having the most healthiest ancestry background. I understand that it may sound or look wrong to allow feeble people to reproduce given their mental state and that their newborns have a high risk of contracting their defects, but it’s wrong to take any natural human right away like the reproduction of humans. We’re humans and are given that skill to reproduce. I believe that even if a feebleminded person brings a newborn to life, they’re given a sense of opportunity or hope at life. Of course, a case by case situation.

Response 3

Subject: Greenhouse gases by 50% by 2030.

Source: https://www.cnn.com/2021/10/30/asia/new-zealand-cl…

Links to an external site.

Synopsis: New Zealand promises to bring down its greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2030. The original goal to cut down greenhouse gases was only 30 percent. With the celsius at 1.5 above usual levels. This is quite alarming so New Zealand decided to change its goal along with other wealthier countries. New Zealand is making changes like lowering emissions to cut down the gas emissions by enhancing new policies. Also, by 2025 New Zealand plans on making their environment carbon-neutral and zero emissions by traveling by buses to cut back on gas emissions.

In my opinion, more countries should start implementing these factors into their policies in order to maintain our plant. New Zealand is going to try to cut down the emissions which is a great start to reduce global warming. It is starting to become alarming how rapidly global warming is occurring. Everyone should start finding methods that work in their everyday life to help save our planet from being unlivable. I believe after setting this goal for the countries or for yourself can help reduce the emissions from heating up the planet. These are necessary precautions to take in order for this planet to maintain at normal levels and to not raise any more than they have. Also, It would be a good idea if these countries shared their ideas that way we can all implement them and we all can become a part of saving our planet.

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Response 1:

In this documentary scene, Powell’s tone, body language, tone, and diction conveyed that the sit-in movement, let alone the civil rights movement wasn’t a joke. Even at the beginning of the documentary, a woman gave a story about this woman being so nervous and uncomfortable in her workspace when they were doing the sit-in that she dropped numerous dishes. Even when that happened, it was sarcastically funny, but they didn’t laugh. Powell’s body language, tone, and diction showed that he was confident in what he was doing. The Civil Rights movement was severe and wasn’t taken lightly, while the amount of violence and people’s anger towards people participating in the sit-ins. In response to the student sit-ins in Nashville, mayor Ben West’s paradigm shift helped pave the way for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 because he spoke up on how segregation was wrong and gave moral examples and rights that helped African Americans. After he spoke up, more African Americans were being served. The activist meant that it wasn’t because they wanted to do it when getting whooped by their parent. It’s that needed to be for discipline, and it hurts to see it happen, but it’s required. For Peewee, he had no choice because either he had to beat up the activist for not giving up his mattress or have the guards beat him for not punishing the activist. Peewee didn’t want to do it, resulting in him crying.

Response 2:

1. U.S. Representative and civil rights leader Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., responded to a reporter who asked him, “I take it, then, that you are advocating Negroes in New York to stay out of these national chain stores?” with “Oh no, that’s not true. I’m advocating that American citizen interested in democracy to stay out of chain stores.” What the Powell’s body language, tone, and diction in this scene of the documentary convey about the Civil Rights Movement does is body language is used in everyday life and his body language was hope and pride for his community, his African American community. That is what the Powell’s body language, tone, and diction in this scene of the documentary convey about the Civil Rights Movement does.

2. Mayor Ben West’s paradigm shift in response to the student sit-ins in Nashville help pave the way for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and ultimately, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 because he did not like this. He thought the protest was not the right thing to do. The Nashville sits in started becoming more to deal with because musical treats. That is why Mayor Ben West’s paradigm shift in response to the student sit-ins in Nashville help pave the way for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and ultimately, the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

3. When talking about spending time in jail for demonstrating, one of the activists explains how the prison guards ordered a black inmate named Peewee to beat him, saying, “Do you remember when your parents used to whip you and say, “It’s gonna hurt me more than it hurts you?’ It hurt Peewee more than it hurt me.” The activist meant he did not want to punish the freedom rider. Peewee did not want to do that beating.

Response 3:

Subject: 5 dead, more than 40 injured after SUV slams into Wisconsin Christmas Parade

Source: NBC News https://www.nbcnews.com/news/crime-courts/20-injur…

(Links to an external site.)

Synopsis: A parade in Wisconsin turned deadly after an SUV plowed into the crowd resulting in multiple serious injuries and left 5 people dead. The police are currently still investigating the situation but have a person of interest that is currently being investigated and in police custody. The motives and what exactly was the reasoning behind this accident have not come to light yet but are being worked on by police. They have suspicions that the person who committed this crime was fleeing a knife fight that had taken place earlier which is why they were driving through the crowd. There was multiple videos of the incident happening which shows a red SUV plowing through the crowd while an officer attempted to stop the vehicle by shooting at it.

Opinion: It is crazy that someone would just willingly drive through a huge crowd of people especially if they knew that they were going to injure and kill people in the process. Since they said that it could have been someone fleeing another crime, it is strange that they would now risk themselves being charged with the amount of crimes that are involved with driving through this parade, such as murder and other things. I really hope they have enough evidence to find the person who did this and arrest them.

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Response 1:

The Supreme Court invoked “right to privacy” as the main tenet to legalize abortion because it was in the 14th Amendment. In the Roe vs Wade case it says “We feel that is founded in the 14th Amendment concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon state action” Personal liberty means the freedom of an individual to do as they please with free will except for those restraints imposed by law. Abortion falls under personal liberty which is the right to privacy of public health.

Many people disagree with the SCOTUS because it invades the right to have privacy. Whether someone should want to get an abortion for whatever reason is nobody’s business nor concern. Why keep an eye on a woman that is pregnant and invade her privacy if she wants to keep the child or not? If she does then great if she doesn’t then that is her choice.

Roe v Wade shows that women should be used as sexual objects by men. The core idea of Americans having the right to live the pursuit of happiness is that some prefer human life. If abortion was not allowed then women would have no right to their own bodies after conception. Roe vs Wade is an agree to disagree discussion only because some people feel as if human life begins at conception whereas others believe that life begins at 23 weeks in the womb. Roe vs Wade shows a lot about women rights as well as American rights to live a life freely

Response 2:

1. The supreme court invoke “right to privacy” as the main tenet to legalize abortion in Roe V. Wade because it was found in the 14th amendment. The 14th amendment is about privileges of being a United States citizen. I believe it is a basic right for the women to have. The supreme court invoke the right to privacy especially when it comes down to involving children and procreation. That is why I think the supreme court invoke right to privacy as the main tenet to legalize abortion in Roe V. Wade

2. The controversial Roe v. Wade decision has incited bitter debates and even violence over the past fifty years. One major reason why Roe v. Wade was and remains tendentious is because the decision required SCOTUS to determine when personhood begins, which has major legal, medical, moral, and philosophical ramifications. SCOTUS determined that viability begins at twenty- three weeks in the womb. So many Americans disagree with this because in the text above it says ” “Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use” illegal.” Meaning there where only three legal methods for birth control. That is why I think so many Americans disagree with this.

3. The Roe v. Wade reveal about the intersection between the history of the women’s rights movement and the core idea that all Americans have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness because Americans divided their right for women to be able to have an abortion. They have the right to do what they to their own body such as terminating their own pregnancy.

Response 3:

Subject: Kings fire Coach Luke Walton

Source: USA Today

Synopsis: Kings fire Coach Luke Walton on Sunday after another disappointing start of his 3rd season. Walton was informed of the decision after the king’s home loss 123-105 to the Utah Jazz, dropping their record to 6-11.

Opinion: This is an excellent move to a new beginning for the Kings. This team has a solid young core that will be lethal down the stretch, but they need a better coach to piece them together. Luke Walton had an excellent reputation for coaching the warriors at the beginning of their 73-9 season, but since then, his coaching has been downhill. He got an opportunity to coach this young king’s team for three seasons, and nothing bright came out of it, but De’Aaron Fox had a nice season. Hopefully, they can get a new coach soon that can improve the team’s play.

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Discussion Post You might remember the most recent major American oil spill, the Deepwater Horizon (Links to an external site.), which cost 11 lives and leaked 210 million gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. There have been dozens of smaller oil spills since then; oil spills are so common they don’t always make the news. The oil companies involved in Deepwater Horizon still have not paid for the damages, and, like the Exxon Valdez spill, the oil is still washing ashore in some places. In many cases, including Deepwater Horizon, the majority of the cleanup is being paid for by you, the taxpayer. (Links to an external site.)

In this week’s discussion, I’d like you to make an initial post of a paragraph or more about pollution control and responsibility. Address one or more of the following questions: When oil spills like this happen, who is responsible for the pollution? Who should pay for the cleanup? How much should they pay? How might this be enforced? How should the spill be cleaned up?

Everyone should address this question at the end of their post: Should we continue to explore and expand offshore drilling operations? Why or why not?

Assignment This week, you will be doing some Citizen Science. Citizen Science is when the general public is invited to be involved in general public in scientific research projects. Conservation Biologists will use citizen scientists when they need a lot of eyes and ears looking out for species. For example, there just aren’t enough scientists out there to count all of the birds, so we have the Christmas Bird Counts (Links to an external site.), where anyone can go out and count the birds in their backyards on Christmas and enter the results into a big database. The more data, the more we can all learn where different species live and which birds are becoming threatened.

We track species in lots of different ways. One way to track land animals is to set up a bunch of motion activated cameras which take pictures when something moves near it. Researchers in Singita Grumeti Game Reserve (Links to an external site.) in Tanzania are using motion-activated trail cameras to track the wildebeast migration. Hundreds of thousands of photos captured by these trail cameras are now available on Snapshot Grumeti, an online citizen science platform that allows the public to identify the animals in these photos. The data recorded will be used directly by scientists to help with their conservation efforts. That’s where you come in! You’ll be looking at some of these pictures and recording for the scientists what you see.

Step 1: Learn about the research project here: https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/meredithspalme…

Step 2: Go to the website here https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/meredithspalmer/snapshot-grumeti (Links to an external site.). Under “Getting Started” click on “Snapshot Grumeti.

Note: Some students have found themselves on the “Empty or Not” page. It will ask you if there’s an animal in the picture instead of guiding you to identify it. I’m not sure why the website directs some people there, but you want to backtrack by clicking on Snapshot Grumeti in the top right and clicking on Snapshot Grumeti.

Step 3: Make your observations. Look at 15 photos with animals and identify the species using the guide on the website. If there are no animals in the picture, record that on the website, but it won’t count towards your 15. There are little icons that will help you classify the species based on shape, coat pattern, horn shape, etc. Use the Field Guide tab on the right side to help you identify the animals. Record your observations on the website. Congratulations, you’re a citizen scientist!

Step 4: In addition to marking your observations on the website, record your observations in a word file and upload it to turn in

This is what you turn in:

Make a list of at least 15 photos that you looked at WITH ANIMALS (skip ones without). For each photo, identify the species in the photo and what they are doing. Also, describe the habitat shown in the photo to the best of your abilities: is it desert? Are there a lot of plants? Does it look lush or barren? Are humans in the picture? What are they doing?

For example, in the picture you might write:

Picture 1: Two adult waterbucks. One is grazing, the other, a large male, is lying down. Surrounding habitat is a lush grassland, with 3 trees in the distance. Partly cloudy skies.

I’ll be looking for a list of 15 photos, each with the species and activities in view, habitat, and any other environmental observations. You don’t have to copy the pictures themselves.

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Forwarded from the GEnie Religion & Ethics RT

Below is a link to an English translation of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses (originally written in Latin). 
Please read only theses #5, #20-2Please read only theses #5, #20-28, #79-82, #86, #90 and answer the following discussion questions in no less than 200 words.
Source: Martin Luther, Ninety-Five Theses, 1517, Internet History Sourcebook
Discussion Questions:
1.  Based on the assigned excerpts, what are Martin Luther's arguments against the sale of indulgences?
2.  In what ways does Martin Luther criticize clergy, especially preachers of indulgences?
3.  In what ways does Martin Luther challenge papal authority and power?
Here are the 95 Theses Martin Luther nailed on the church door at Wittenburg.
This was posted a while back by David Becker in one of the Lutheran topics.
1.  When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, "Repent" (Mt 4:17), he willed
 the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
2.  This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance,
 that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
3.  Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is
 worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
4.  The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true
 inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5.  The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those
 imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.
6.  The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it
 has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases
 to his judgment.  If his right to grant remission in these cases were
 disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7.  God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all
 things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.
8.  The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to
 the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
9.  Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the
 pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of
10.  Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying,
 reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.
11.  Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory
 were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).
12.  In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before
 absolution, as tests of true contrition.
13.  The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far
 as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
14.  Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily
 brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
15.  This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other
 things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the
 horror of despair.
16.  Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and
 assurance of salvation.
17.  It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily
 decrease and love increase.
18.  Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture,
 that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to
 grow in love.
19.  Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of
 them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves
 be entirely certain of it.
20.  Therefore the pope, when he uses the words "plenary remission of all
 penalties," does not actually mean "all penalties," but only those imposed by
21.  Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is
 absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
22.  As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty
 which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
23.  If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at
 all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very
24.  For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that
 indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
25.  That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to
 the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own
 diocese and parish.
26.  The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory,
 not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of
 intercession for them.
27.  They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks
 into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
28.  It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and
 avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in
 hands of God alone.
29.  Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we
 have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.
30.  No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of
 having received plenary remission.
31.  The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really
 penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
32.  Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because
 they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their
33.  Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's
 pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34.  For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of
 sacramental satisfaction established by man.
35.  They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who
 intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach
 unchristian doctrine.
36.  Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty
 and guilt, even without indulgence letters.
37.  Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the
 blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even
 without indulgence letters.
38.  Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be
 disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the
 divine remission.
39.  It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and
 the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need
 of true contrition.
40.  A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for
 his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes
 to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
41.  Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously
 think that they are preferable to other good works of love.
42.  Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying
 of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
43.  Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the
 needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
44.  Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better.  Man
 does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed
 from penalties.
45.  Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him
 by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but
 God's wrath.
46.  Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need,
 they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it
47.  Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter
 of free choice, not commanded.
48.  Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs
 and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49.  Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if
 they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear
 of God because of them.
50.  Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the
 indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were
 burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
51.  Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give
 of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to
 many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
52.  It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the
 indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
53.  They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the
 preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may
 preached in others.
54.  Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or
 larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
55.  It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a
 very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and
 one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be
 preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
56.  The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes
 indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of
57.  That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many
 indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
58.  Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the
 pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death,
 and hell for the outer man.
59.  St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the
 church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
60.  Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given
 by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.
61.  For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the
 remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.
62.  The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and
 grace of God.
63.  But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be
 last (Mt. 20:16).
64.  On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most
 acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65.  Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly
 fished for men of wealth.
66.  The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the
 wealth of men.
67.  The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are
 actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.
68.  They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when
 compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
69.  Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal
 indulgences with all reverence.
70.  But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men
 preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.
71.  Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be
 anathema and accursed.
72.  But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence
 preachers be blessed.
73.  Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever
 contrive harm to the sale of indulgences.
74.  Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as
 a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.
75.  To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even
 if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.
76.  We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very
 least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.
77.  To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater
 graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope.
78.  We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope
 whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel,
 powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written, 1 Co 12[:28].
79.  To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up
 by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is
80.  The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread
 among the people will have to answer for this.
81.  This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for
 learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or
 the shrewd questions of the laity.
82.  Such as: "Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love
 and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite
 of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church?  The
 former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.
83.  Again, "Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and
 why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for
 them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"
84.  Again, "What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a
 consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to
 out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, because
 of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake?"
85.  Again, "Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in
 actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences
 as though they were still alive and in force?"
86.  Again, "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the
 wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his
 own money rather than with the money of poor believers?"
87.  Again, "What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect
 contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?"
88.  Again, "What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope
 were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred
 times a day, as he now does but once?"
89.  "Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his
 indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously
 granted  when they have equal efficacy?"
90.  To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and
 not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope
 the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.
91.  If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and
 intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed,
 they would not exist.
92.  Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ,
 "Peace, peace," and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14)
93.  Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross,
 cross," and there is no cross!
94.  Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their
 Head, through penalties, death and hell.
95.  And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations
 rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).
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Discussion Post

Superfund” sites are places that have been polluted for decades and have been designated by the federal government as needing a substantial amount of cleanup. The “super fund” was a pot of money that industries were supposed to pay into to clean up industrial waste sites. It didn’t go well. Industries sued the government and got away with not paying their share. The fund dried up. Now all toxic waste sites are cleaned up with whatever small amount of money Congress decides to throw at the problem each year. There are 1344 Toxic Waste sites (Links to an external site.) in the United States in various states of restoration.

The Lower Duwamish River in Seattle has been listed as a Superfund site since 2001. Industrial plants have lined the river for over a century, including a large Boeing plant. Sediments in the river contain mercury, arsenic, pthalates, PCBs, and dioxins among other contaminants. People live and fish along the river. According to a recent study (Links to an external site.), residents that live near the river have a life expectancy that’s 8 years shorter than other Seattle residents.

For this week’s discussion, I want you to watch the following video and read the following article that details some of the issues surrounding the cleanup. The video is kind of old, but it’s a good introduction to the Duwamish as a toxic waste site:

Video: PCBs, Activism,Duwamish River (Links to an external site.)PCBs, Activism,Duwamish River

Article: https://crosscut.com/2015/10/can-we-really-restore-seattles-industrial-river (Links to an external site.)

For your Initial post, I want you to talk about what you think the goals of the Duwamish restoration project should be. Knowing that an urban river can never be fully “restored” (or can it?) what should the priorities be? Who should be responsible for the project? Your post should be 1-2 paragraphs long.


Part 1: Your Draft Presentation (10 pts)

This is where you will upload your presentation. This presentation might be:

  • a poster. Please use ppt or pdf format
  • a video. Make sure it will work on anyone’s computer.
  • a visually interesting report. I suggest pdf for this.
  • a prezi or powerpoint presentation with recorded audio.
  • a LINK to a website containing any of these. For example, if you do a video, you could upload it to Youtube and post the link here.

Remember that your presentation must include the following components:

  1. A thorough explanation of the environmental issue. The audience needs to fully understand the importance of this issue.
  2. A thorough explanation of one or more potential solutions. Don’t just list them. Explain how each addresses the problem.
  3. A description of how your topic relates to 1 or more of the Sustainable Development Goals
  4. Four or more images (videos count). These images should bring clarity to a concept in your presentation and not just act as decoration.
  5. A list of 5 or more references using APA style. This includes both intext citations (or footnotes) and a reference list at the end. For information on how to use APA format, I’ve included the library’s reference material here: APA 7 Guide to Plagiarism & Citing Sources

Your presentation will then be sent to other students for peer review. You’ll be getting feedback from those reviews back (and feedback from me) so that you can make your presentation AWESOMER. Then you will be submitting your very awesome presentation at the end of the quarter.

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Ethics Exercise

For each of the scenarios below, write a response of at least 150 (each) discussing how you would respond.  Then respond to at least one solution offered by two different students.

1. Marcy McBain is writing a brochure for Hills and Lakes Center, an expensive summer camp for children ages 10 to 16.  The director tells Marcy to be sure to describe the camp counselors as “highly experienced.”  Marcy knows that only the head counselor is highly experienced.  The other counselors usually are new to the job each year. If you were Marcy, what would you do?

2. Brad Stalsky, the Director of Communications at the Cedars Wellness Center, needs information about good eating habits for the clients at the Center.  He goes to the library and finds three articles that fit his needs.  After copying the articles at the library, Brad tells his assistant to make multiple copies and put them in the packets of nutrition information the Center sells for $2.00 each.  If you were the assistant, what would you do?

3. You are running a small business and recently have been successful enough to hire one full time assistant.  You post the job listing and begin interviews.  You interview all the applicants on a Wednesday and Thursday; then you decide to hire John who was by far the best candidate.  You call John on Friday morning and offer him the job; he accepts, and you both agree he will start a week later on Monday.  A few hours later your good friend calls and says she has found the perfect assistant for you.  You tell her you have already hired someone, but she insists and says that you should at least meet Mindy as a backup or to keep her mind for the future.  You meet Mindy and your friend was correct.  She is perfect and far more qualified than John.  She is ready to start immediately.  You can only hire one person. 

4. Jake Farrell needs to prepare a report on landfill management for his boss.  He is behind in his work and needs the report tomorrow.  He searches the Internet and finds an up-to-date report on the Web site of the Association of Landfill Management.  He also finds four relevant maps on the Web site of the U.S. Department of the Interior.  Jake downloads the report and the maps and then pastes them into the company report format under his name without citing any sources. If you are Jake’s co-worker, what would you do?  If you were his boss, what would you do?

5. Britany Curtiz needs a research paper on the fishing industry in Peru.  She searches the Internet and finds a four-page report on the Web site of the Center for South American Studies at the University of Santa Clara.  Brittany downloads the report and writes a new opening paragraph.  She adds one citation for information on page 2 of the report.  If you are Britany’s co-worker, what would you do?  If you were her boss, what would you do?

questions for each exercise:

1. What are the legal implications?

2. How do I feel about this?

3. What if I don’t agree to do this or just don’t want to do it?

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Discussion reply:

1) Personally, the newsboy’s story should change, and that the industries should pay them more. After the industries saw that rapid decline in sales and realized that they needed the newsboys. Unfortunately, it brought too much attention to the point where the governor decided that they should not even be in the labor force since they were children. The law did not get passed yet so the newsboys did receive better pay. This would be a short-lived triumph only due to the laws changing in 1938. Otherwise, the newsboys got their victory.

2) I believe the government took so long on this law because it did not raise that big of a concern. Considering the amount of money that the companies were making the President at the time did not take notice. When the newsboys were going on strike only the governor of New York (Roosevelt) noticed. Then when that same governor got elected for president that is when the change got made. I believe that the politicians at the time were more concerned with the economy rising than the rising issues that the industries were putting these children through. A lot of these issues still occur even in this generation many countries still use children in the labor force. Thankfully in 1938, that’s when President Roosevelt stepped into office and made this change finally happen. President Roosevelt finally took these necessary measures to protect the children of America. Personally, if he did not get elected this issue would have gone on longer.

-Discussion reply 2:

1. Do you think the newsboys’ story is one of triumph or loss? Why or why not?

I believe the newsboy’s story to be a triumph, although they didn’t get the exceptional increase in pay that they were hoping for they stood up for what was right. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer were well aware that they were taking full advantage of these young boys, they were making a large sum of money off of the newspapers and giving the newsies the bare minimum in return. As a result, they never would’ve predicted that these boys had the ability nor the willpower to retaliate, however, they were wrong! All in all, the newsies walked away with a win that day, they had proven that they wouldn’t be taken advantage of by two of the wealthiest men in America. The newsboy’s set the mood for bringing child labor to an end.

2. Why do you think the federal government took so long to reform child labor?

In the nineteenth century, child labor was extremely common, in fact, it was the cheapest and most effective way for owners of large corporations to get away with making tons of money and paying workers next to nothing. Children under the age of fifteen were set off to work long strenuous hours in factories and textile mills, making less than adults doing the same work or even more. These working conditions were treacherous, but children had smaller hands and the ability to get into nooks and crannies that an adult could never get into. The federal government had probably seen all of this as an amazing way to keep production steadfast and the economy booming, of course, they wouldn’t want to jeopardize that by allowing reform for child labor, they wanted to milk it as long as they could.
discussion reply 3:

Subject: “Baldwin was ‘practicing’ with gun when it went off, warrant says.”

Source: nbcnews.com https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/baldwin-was-practicing-gun-when-it-went-warrant-says-n1282254Links to an external site.

Synopsis: Alec Baldwin was practicing with a prop gun when he accidentally shot and killed one of his coworkers on the set of “Rust”. He also severally injured another person on set while this misfire went on. There is an investigation currently in progress to determine how this horrible incident happened. Many are saying that this prop gun had previously misfired and others were unsure if it had been safety checked before being given to Baldwin to practice shooting. Also it is said that they are very confused as to why a gun with real ammunition was given to Alec in the first place because many of the prop guns on set are supposed to have nonlethal ammunition. While they are in the middle of this investigation they plan to stop shooting/production until the investigation is over. There was also a tip from an insider on the set that said that this assistant director never provides a safe work environment with little to no safety meetings and not clear established fire lanes.

Opinion: In my opinion this whole situation is heartbreaking especially for this women’s family and even for Alec Baldwin. If what is being said is true and he really thought that he was using a nonlethal prop gun with intentions of just practicing for the upcoming scene that they were shooting then I feel as though he is not at fault in this situation. I also believe that it must be hard for him because he has to live with the trauma that he accidentally ended his coworkers life. I hope that they hold the assistant director at fault for this because he should not be allowing guns with real ammunition on set and there should be safer working conditions while on set. I hope that the women’s family is doing ok and that nothing like this happens in the future.

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Module 11 Discussion: Birth Control and the Right to Privacy

By primarily invoking the 4th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark decision in 1973 in Roe v. Wade, ruling that American women have the right to have an abortion. Roe v. Wade represented the culmination of several federal cases and laws regarding women, sexuality, and reproductive rights, beginning with the Comstock Act of 1873, which made circulating “Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use” illegal. Congress unequivocally targeted the use of contraceptives in this law, which classified information about contraception as “obscene literature.” Further, Congress empowered the U.S. Postal Service to confiscate and report on any information about contraceptives and/or birth control devices sent by U.S. mail. Despite protests from reproductive rights activistsincluding the vociferous birth control advocate Margaret Sangerto overturn the Comstock Law, over fifty years passed before Judge Grover Moscowitz of the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, overturned the law, ruling in 1938 that the prescription and importing of contraceptives by physicians for the health and well-being of their patients is legal. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed Judge Moscowitz’s decision.

The Supreme Court did not begin to fully overturn the Comstock Law until nearly one century after its passage, when the Court ruled in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) that the U.S. Constitution protects the use of birth control. This landmark Supreme Court decision officially legalized the use of contraceptives by married couples to control reproduction by classifying the use of birth control as a right to privacy issue protected by the U.S. Constitution. (Per the Fourth Amendment, a bedroom is a private place that in theory requires a warrant for intrusion.) Seven years later, SCOTUS recognized the reproductive rights of all Americans in Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), which legalized the purchase and use of contraceptives by unmarried Americans.

Harry A. Blackmun to Warren E. Burger, 16 Jan. 1973. Manuscript Div., Lib. of Cong.


1. Read the above excerpt from the draft of the opinion for Roe v. Wade (1973) composed by Associate Justice Harry Blackmun. (Chief Justice Warren Burger penned the handwritten comments in the opinion.) Why did the Supreme Court invoke “right to privacy” as the main tenet to legalize abortion in Roe V. Wade?

2. The controversial Roe v. Wade decision has incited bitter debates and even violence over the past fifty years. One major reason why Roe v. Wadewas and remains tendentious is because the decision required SCOTUS to determine when personhood begins, which has major legal, medical, moral, and philosophical ramifications. SCOTUS determined that viability begins at twenty- three weeks in the womb. Why did so many Americans disagree with this?

3. What does Roe v. Wade reveal about the intersection between the history of the women’s rights movement and the core idea that all Americans have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?

To read the entire Roe v. Wade decision, which traces the history of abortion law and provides insight into the Supreme Court’s decision-making process for this landmark case, see Roe v. Wade (1973), (Links to an external site.)provided by Cornell University Law School’s Legal Information Institute.

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Biomes are large regions of the world with similar plants and animals. Biomes are further subdivided into ecoregions, which are even more specific areas that have similar vegetation, elevation, and climate. Plants and animals in a particular biome have adaptations (Links to an external site.) that help them survive in their particular environment. For example, the arctic foxes that live in the polar biome have thick white fur. The white fur is an adaptation or trait that helps them survive in their biome. This white fur allows them to blend in with the snow so that predators don’t notice them. Adaptations can be physical traits or behavioral traits.

For this week’s discussion, I’d like everyone to talk about a place that they’ve lived, visited or would like to visit. This place doesn’t need to be exotic or amazing, just a place that you’ve been or you’d like to go. Anywhere more than 100 miles from your current residence qualifies.

When describing this place in your post, include the following information:

1. Location: (place name, country, city/state if applicable)

2. The location’s biome. Once you find out the biome or ecoregion, you may have to do a little more internet research about it to find lists of animals and plants that are native to that biome.

For help, you can use your textbook or refer to the following links:

Finding your biome outside the US:

Finding your biome in the US:

Finding your biome in a large urban environment:

3. The general climate of this destination. Be sure to talk about seasonal temperatures and precipitation. Is there a cold season/warm season? A dry season? Does elevation play a factor?

4. List 2 animals that are unique to this biome. For each species, tell me one adaptation that animal has and explain how that structure or behavior helps them survive. These should be animals you would find at this destination but not at home. Think about the physical or behavioral characteristics (adaptations) these animals and plants have that allow them to thrive in this biome and not in other places on earth. Describe how that structure or behavior allows that animal to survive in that environment.

5. One plant and one of its adaptations. Again, it should be a plant you would find at this destination but not at home. Tell me 1 adaptation that this plant has that helps it live there. Describe how that structure allows that plant to specifically survive in that environment.

Don’t write “This plant likes dry soil” or something similar. No plant likes dry soil. “Liking” is not an adaptation. Rather, you might say “This plant has deep roots that allow it to gather water in dry soil”. The deep roots are an adaptation. Name the actual structure the plant has that helps it survive.

If you can figure out how, include pictures (they don’t have to be your own). If you have a little mountain icon in your toolbar, you can click on that to insert an image. If its huge, resize it so it doesn’t take up everyone’s full screen.

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Module 3 Discussion: Child Labor, or All Work & No Play

Although children have formed a part of the workforce in all nations’ histories since time immemorial, the demand for child labor increased exponentially during the late nineteenth century in America. According to the course textbook, children under the age of fifteen comprised approximately 20% of the total workforce in the U.S. by the turn of the twentieth century (1900). Children worked long hours, earned less than adults for the same work, rarely went to school, and developed health problems. Children as young as five years old worked in a variety of industries, from coal-mining, factory work, and farming to newspaper delivery. 

Most newspaper boys, called newsies, were orphans and runaways between the ages of six and fifteen. When newspaper owners William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, two of the richest and most powerful men in the U.S., raised the price of their papers at the expense of the newsies in 1898, the newsies retaliated. Thousands of newspaper boys banded together, formed a union, and decided to strike. They stopped selling papers for two weeks in 1899, and demanded shorter hours and better pay. Hearst and Pulitzer initially laughed off the strike. However, they stopped laughing when their newspaper sales quickly decreased by two-thirds during the strike. Hearst and Pulitzer offered the newsies an accepted compromise: the ability to return unsold papers at the end of the day and get their money back. New York Governor and future U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt, who eventually championed child labor reform, took notice, along with concerned reformers. However, Congress did not pass federal legislation to stop child labor abuses until 1938.


1. Do you think the newsboys’ story is one of triumph or loss? Why or why not? 

2. Why do you think the federal government took so long to reform child labor?

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1. The lyrics of the song Fort Minor by Kenji convey the negative effects of internment on the psyche of Japanese by completely telling a story that showed what his family had went through during this time. In the song he described the time when the man and his whole family had to pack up their things in just two trash bags which made their children worry. They all began to wonder if they would be safe or if they would be able to get out of this crowded internment camp. They also talked about how it was very crowded and how they were not to look at the soldiers to long because if they did then they could possibly be killed, “Stop it, don’t look at the gunmen. You don’t wanna get the soldiers wondering if you’re gonna run or not ‘Cause if you run, then you might get shot” You can tell that they did not have a great mindset during this time period because of the war and the horrible conditions of the internment camps.

2. I would not say that the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II was justified because as you can tell from the song many of these people were just normal business owners or workers in America just living there lives and had nothing to do with World War II. I Know the Japanese during the time were attacking and the government was worried about internal spies which made many people believe that the Japanese people were the enemy but that does not mean that all of the Japanese were involved. The Japanese Americans were not causing harm before they were just working regular Americans they should not have been forced to evacuate their homes.

response 2

1. The lyrics from the song show that the Japanese people during this time were very worried and thought the worst thoughts while in the internment camps. In the song the man that it is focused on, you can tell that he is trying to keep his family informed but not worry them too much, he talks about how they are keeping hope that they will get out of this camp soon and that it is only temporary. In the song it states, “Try not to worry ’bout it being so crowded ‘Cause someday, we’ll get out Someday, someday” This shows that they were miserable while at the camps because of the amount of people but where trying to stay positive so that they did not have to ruin there mindset.

2. I do not think that the internment was justified, however I do understand that the president was just trying to protect our country. During this time things were very different which made it easy for the president to just decide to declare executive order to force the relocation of all Japanese since the attack on Pearl Harbor. He was just trying to protect the people of America during World War II, but he should have done something differently so that they would not have to put innocent people in these harsh internment camps. In the song you can see the hardships that this innocent family had to overcome at the expense of World War II, and in the end they never made it out alive which is sad.

response 3

Title: “US accuses Russia of ‘dangerous’ behavior after anti-satellite weapons test”

Source: Gabbatt, Adam. “US accuses Russia of ‘dangerous’ behavior after anti-satellite weapons test”. Support The Guardian. 15 November 2021. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/nov/15/us…

Synapsis: Russia did a anti weapons test in space, the result caused many pieces of the satellite that they blew up to fly free. This caused the astronauts at the US space station to prepare for emergency evacuation. It has been said that this is not the first time Russia has done dangerous space acts. “The US military is increasingly dependent on satellites to determine what it does on the ground, guiding munitions with space-based lasers and satellites as well as using such assets to monitor for missile launches and track its forces.” (Gabbatt). The anti-satellite weapons also raise questions for building things in space in the future, will they be tampered with or destroyed?

Opinion: I believe that any sort of warfare practice in or out of space should raise some concern. The fact that Russia has been doing this for years and not only in space means they are preparing for anything. In addition space is marked as a place where there is no warfare but Russia is preparing for anything. I feel that the US is being a little hypocritical because we have done the exact same thing, the only difference is we were safe about it.

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The Amazon rainforest is being destroyed at an alarming rate. I thought you might want to learn more about how the value of the rainforest, and how conservationists attempt to convey that value to others.

For this assignment, first read this 8 page Case study on Understanding ecosystems and their value: Week 3 Reading.pdf

Then answer the following questions (also found as a .doc file here: Week 3 Homework Assignment B.docx


Week 3 Homework Assignment: Amazon Deforestation

Please read the 8 page pdf above before answering these questions.

At the frontier of primary Amazonian rainforest, a five–hectare plot is under consideration for deforestation by a local peasant farmer who wants to practice slash–and–burn agriculture and by a logger who wants to remove valuable timber species.

  1. Based on the reading, the 5 hectare plot has intrinsic value because of the ecosystem services it provides. A conservation organization wants to protect the land from being farmed or logged. Based on the chart of ecosystem services in the reading, write a paragraph arguing why preserving the land might be more valuable than using it for other purposes.
  2. Given that the population along the Amazon is growing, do you think there room for peaceful coexistence of farming, logging and conservation? Why/why not?
  3. Do you feel that species have intrinsic rights to exist? Can such existence values be incorporated into environmental policy?
  4. Do you believe that citizens of tropical countries have the right to deforest the most biologically diverse communities on Earth? (Keeping in mind that the European settlers deforested a large chunk of North America for agriculture)
  5. John Terborgh, tropical ecologist at Duke University, asserts that in order to save tropical forests, citizens of industrial nations are going to have to pay developing countries. Do you agree? What are some ways that this might be done?
  6. Right now, rapid rainforest deforestation is happening in Brazil due to political factors. What is being lost in this deforesation?

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The grey wolf is considered a “success story” of the Endangered Species Act. It has been successfully reintroduced into areas where we had pushed/hunted it out. But will the wolf populations continue to be successful without federal protection? If their habitat is not protected and ranchers are allowed to kill wolves on their property, will the wolf survive?

This week, we’re going to be holding a debate on this topic! For this debate, you will be taking on the role of a stakeholder, which is an individual or group with a vested interest in the outcome of an action. While pretending that you are a member of one of the groups of stakeholders, you will be debating whether or not to delist wolves from the Endangered Species List.

Here’s what you need to do:

Step 1: Read this article to learn about our scenario: For wolves, a Recovery May Not be the Blessing it Seems

Step 2: Watch this video on wolves in Idaho: U.S.: Open Season on Idaho Wolves | The New York Times (Links to an external site.)U.S.: Open Season on Idaho Wolves | The New York Times

Step 3: Pick any one of the following stakeholders. It might be fun to pick one that you completely disagree with. In this exercise, we will not assume that the position you take is your own personal opinion.

Here are the stakeholders to choose from:

Stakeholder 1: You are the Director of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. You think wolves should remain on the Endangered Species list in the northern Rockies because delisting them will not prevent the species from becoming endangered again.

Stakeholder 2: You are the Director of the State of Wyoming Game and Fish Department. You think wolves should be delisted in the northern Rocky Mountains because the state governments will ensure that wolves continue to thrive in controlled populations. You don’t think the federal government should tell your state what to do.

Stakeholder 3: You’re a rancher who is upset that wolves are killing your livestock. You think wolves should not be protected by any federal mandates at all.

Stakeholder 4: You are an environmentalist and member of the group Defenders of Wildlife, an environmental non-profit organization. You believe that wolves are an integral part of our nation’s wildlife and should be protected at all costs.

Step 4: Introduce yourself to the class and write 1-2 paragraphs stating your initial position argument. Remember that you are pretending to be one of the stakeholders listed above, you aren’t stating your own opinion. Based on what you read in the NY Times article, what arguments do you think your stakeholder would make? What is important to your stakeholder? What actions would your stakeholder like to see the government make? This initial position argument is due on the due date.

Step 5: By Wednesday, write at least one rebuttal to a person who made the case against yours. So if you argued to keep the wolf on the Endangered Species List, you would have to find someone who wanted to delist the wolf. Again, think about how your stakeholder would approach this argument. Remember to challenge their ideas, not their personality. If a person already has 2 replies under their post, find someone else to debate.

Feel free to keep debating after the rebuttal, however please remember to be respectful of others. Even though we are playacting, it’s still possible to offend someone.

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One big problem I find with discussions around sustainable energy is the focus on individual actions. I like to encourage my students to think bigger. By all means, buy a new Tesla if you wish, but individual actions like this are not going to make much of a difference if you have no say in the source of electricity powering that car. Individual actions like taking the bus and walking can be near impossible if the surrounding infrastructure doesn’t support it.

We need big change to solve the climate crisis. But you only have a week to do this assignment, so I won’t ask you to upend the global economy. Let’s just focus on your neighborhood.

For this assignment, think about what your hometown/city government could do to reduce its carbon emissions. Think of the two pathways: Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation. Think about the major activities of a government: Subsidizing good things, taxing bad things, building stuff, tearing down stuff, and regulations (outlawing or mandating certain things). Now, put these two things together: What can your city do to reduce the amount of fossil fuels it uses.

In your initial discussion post, describe your hometown/city. This can be where you are currently living or where you grew up. What is the population? How are the neighborhoods designed? Is it urban/suburban/rural? Is it walkable or car oriented? Where does its energy come from? Can you easily take transit around town or into a downtown area?

Name 3 things that your current town could do to reduce energy use.

seattle climate goals are not being met


There are SO many environmental problems, and it seems as if many of them are getting worse, not better. Because we focus on the science and less on social/political aspects, it can seem as if no one is doing anything to help!

But there are people out there helping! There are a LOT of people doing great work out there. There are a lot of people who are making a difference. These people are the Hummingbirds: People doing the Best. They. Can.

For this week’s discussion assignment, I want you to find an example of a hummingbird: A person who is making a real difference for the environment. In your initial post, I want you to tell us about that person’s work:

What environmental problem are they tackling?

How are they tackling those environmental problems?

Who do they work with?

What are the results are so far?

Remember that hummingbirds* don’t work by themselves: Many of them are leaders within organizations. Many of them have identified environmental problems and brought together other people interested in the same issue. So make sure to give a shout out to the people the hummingbird works with: no one is successful on their own.

The hummingbird you choose should be currently alive.

You might have come across a hummingbird during the course that you’d want to write about. For inspiration, you might want to peruse through an environmental magazine like Grist or (Links to an external site.)Treehugger (Links to an external site.). There might be hummingbirds in your own community that you could tell us about. One student wrote about her dad, who worked for the Department of Ecology. One rule though: You can’t write about a hummingbird that someone else has already posted. If you do, you won’t get credit for the assignment. Submissions are time stamped, so I can see who didn’t read through all the current posts.

Your post should be at least 1 paragraph long, but aim for 2. *Ruby Throated hummingbirds are solitary so the metaphor breaks down here.

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One of the alternative energy sources that you learned about this week was Hydropower. We’ve been damming rivers for a long while now and there aren’t a lot of fast moving rivers still out there that haven’t been dammed. So it’s not exactly the energy source of the future (though other forms of hydropower: tidal, wave power, etc, do have potential).

Here  in Washington State, dams on rivers emptying into the ocean prevent salmon and other migrating fish from moving upstream. That’s why the state is taking a close look at existing dams and reevaluating their usefulness.  One dam that didn’t make the cut is the Elwha River dam. The state undertook a huge dam removal and restoration project in this area. This is the subject of this week’s assignment.

The assignment:

Go here  (Links to an external site.)to read the interactive Seattle Times article on the Elwha River dam. (If you’ve used up your article views for the month, just use a different browser or your friend’s computer). The article allows you to click on different animals to see their effects.

http://projects.seattletimes.com/2016/elwha/ (Links to an external site.)

Answer the following Questions:

  1. Where is the Elwha River Dam? Have you ever been there or driven by it?
  2. Dams are a reliable source of renewable energy. So why are we starting to remove some of them?
  3. How much does the dam removal project cost? Why do you think it costs so much?
  4. What’s the deal with logs? Why did we move some of them and why are they so important to the river?
  5. Some environmentalists would say that even though hydropower is an alternative energy source, it isn’t exactly a sustainable energy source. What are some reasons it might not be considered sustainable by some people?
  6. List 4 animals that are benefiting from the dam removal and describe how they are affected.
  7. In your opinion, should we be spending money on tearing down dams, building more dams, or neither? Why?


Throughout this class, we talked about ways that you can lower your ecological footprint through the everyday choices that you make. But sometimes things are not so clear. Should I pick paper bags or plastic bags when the grocery clerk asks me? Should I buy disposal diapers for my baby or use (and wash) reusable diapers? 

Even when you try hard to make the best choice, you often learn new information later on that you suggests should’ve done something different. And sometimes the best choice depends on where you live or what you do with the product when you’re done with it!

Getting to the real answer to these dilemmas depends on doing a complete life cycle analysis. This means looking at ALL impacts of your choices: from where and how the materials were mined, to the human health consequences of manufacturing, to the transportation needed to get all the materials from the mine to the factory to the consumer to the “grave”: the landfill or recycling plant where the product ends up.

Performing a complete life cycle analysis is difficult and often requires a lot of research. A friend of mine taught an entire course focused solely on the choice between disposable and cloth diapers! The purpose of this week’s discussion is to think about what kinds of questions go into that research. What did that class have to figure out in order to solve that dilemma? 

For this week’s assignment post pick one of these “choices”and outline at least ten of the potential impacts of each step of the life cycle of those products. Tell me what things you would have to research and find out to be able to make a decision on which choice was “greener”. You’ll also have to consider what “greener” means: is saving energy more important than saving water? If a choice uses less energy but pollutes rivers in developing nations, is it really more sustainable?

When you come up with your outline, think about all the materials that are used to make that product, where they come from, and how that product gets to you and what you do with it when you’re done. You might want to frame your ten impacts in the form of research questions, or just a bulleted list of considerations. Remember, the goal is not to attach numbers to each impact or attempt to figure out which one is better. Impacts might be related to energy and transportation consumption, environmental damage, human health hazards, or social costs like the working conditions of the people involved in the creation or transportation of the item. 

For inspiration, watch this video  (Links to an external site.)about the life cycle of a simple t-shirt.

Here are some examples of choices to use for this assignment, but feel free to come up with one on your own.

Is it better to:

  • Use cloth or disposable diapers?
  • Buy an e-reader or stick to paper books?
  • Buy a new Prius or keep my old car?
  • Ask for Paper or Plastic Bags?
  • Eat organic tomatoes or locally grown tomatoes?
  • Cook chicken or fish for dinner tonight?
  • Buy new windows for your home or reinsulate?
  • Serve drinks in paper cups or plastic cups?
  • Install bamboo or hardwood floors?
  • Wear clothing made of bamboo or organic cotton?
  • Put up a real Christmas tree or an artificial tree?

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Florida Gulf Coast University

Response 1; 

1. After reviewing the memes, you can tell that they are very different approaches to the second amendment right, the first meme is trying to preserve the second amendment right and the second meme is very against the second amendment. The right to bare arms has been apart of the bill of rights ever since it was written and the first meme is insinuating that people are wanting to alter the second amendment because when it was put into place all of the different types of weapons and guns were not created nor considered during this time period. This is challenging because obviously the world is changing constantly and there are new inventions coming out and that can alter things but the second amendment does not provoke unsafely practices of weapons. The second meme is making the second amendment seem like it is causing deaths and is a form of “domestic terrorism” because they believe that the second amendment right should not be in effect. 

2. I believe that someone who is conservative/republican or someone that wanted to preserve the second amendment right created the first meme and someone who is liberal/democratic or someone who is against the second amendment right created the second meme.

3. The memes reveal that the controversy regarding the second amendment rights have to do with safety, in both memes you can tell that they are concerned about their safety and protection with the second amendment rights. The first meme is wanting the right to bare arms to be able to protect themselves, just like back in the past they were looking for the same. The second meme believes that evoking the second amendment gives an unsafe country leading to deaths and unsafe gun practices. 

Response 2

1. The memes convey that the second amendment is used as a purpose of protection within private ownerships and can be used by the military. They incorporate the NRA to support their opinion on the fact that they are supplying these domestic terrorists and they themselves are a domestic terrorist organization. 

2. The person who created these memes must have two different opinions on the second amendment rights. One is believing that the second amendment should be altered because many things have changed since the second amendment was written, ARs and other guns were not invented during this time so they were not considering these advanced weapons. The other meme is questioning the NRA and people that want to preserve the second amendment. This person probably wants to completely outlaw the ability to use firearms and own guns and they back this up by involving the fact that weapons are easily accessible to children. 

3. The memes tell you that the debate on the second amendment has to deal with the fact that the United States has evolved with the amount of weapons there are and the less wars and the increase in safety. For example, back then it was a necessity to have weapons because of the lack of laws and the fact that there were no police or things of that nature to protect you from the horrible things that can happen. Now there is less need for guns and many believe that children can easily access these weapons that the second amendment allows for you to have.

response 3

Subject: Vaccine mandate in L.A

Source: https://ktla.com/news/local-news/proof-of-vaccinat…

Links to an external site.

Synopsis: Vaccine documentation required to enter places

Opinion: Personally I think it is not fair to deny people entry or entering a building just because they are not vaccinated. Some stores will not let you in if you do not have any shoes or shirt which makes sense. Some states like New York require citizens to obtain the vaccine or else they will be terminated from their job. Some people are second guessing the thought of taking the vaccine due to medical reasons or lack of research. I just think it is not fair at all, regardless if you are vaccinated or not people are still at risk of catching Covid-19. They would still have to take precautions and be safe. Everyone should be allowed to enter with a mask regardless of their vaccination status. Also, some companies are paying employees a one time bonus to report their vaccination status. That seems fishy to me, why include an incentive in that scenario? Some people will take it and go beyond the drastic measures just because of the incentives that are offered. 

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Florida Gulf Coast University


  1. Examine the image and watch the video below—what do these two primary sources convey about American society’s views of obscenity over time?The video “7 dirty words” by George Carlin conveys American words that are used in society and how they can be used in multiple different ways. It would be impossible to have a list of dirty words that cannot be used because some “dirty” words in different context mean different things for example the word “cock” cock is an animal or it could be used in an obscenity way. Over time words change and so do their meanings. As more generations grow up they develop their own list of dirty words that may offend some or may not offend others. The imagine above represents a women who is a wife and a mother and she carries everything on her back. This imagine is pro women rights as it shows what all a women does to attend to her family. Others would say it is prof on why women should not vote, they have too much to carry already. Over time those thoughts have also changed.
  2. Pretend you are a Supreme Court of the United States Justice who must make a ruling on a case involving obscenity. How would you define obscenity in order to proceed? I view obscenity as a subject hard to cover. The topic is so broad and not consistent nor detained represented that it is hard to rule. The great thing about America is the freedom that so many have migrated over for. It is too late now to make up any new laws about obscenity because the list of “dirty words” has grown too much. The English language repeats its self and many words mean multiple meanings. Also some people of many different cultures or ethnic backgrounds have different views and because all these differences are welcomed in America it would be hard to. make a law about freedom of speech that everyone could agree upon. I would rule obscenity as something unmanageable under a few circumstances.
  3. Continuing in your role as a SCOTUS Justice who must rule on an obscenity case, how would you balance impediments, such as censorship, to U.S. citizens’ right to free speech, while upholding the principles of a free, democratic republic? I would take the whole case into consideration with mediations. I would not over look any detains between the offender or the impediments and censorships agains them. the Right of Free Speech is in the constitution for a reason. You can not erase history you can only learn from it. Our ancestors knew freedom of speech was important. As long as no one was bodily harmed including sexual activity then the case would be thrown away

    Response 2;

    1. We can see that overtime American society’s view on obscenity has changed dramatically. In the image from 1872 the wife is carrying the burden of all her children along with her alcoholic husband on her back through life. Even with all of the weight and extra work the wife would rather take the hardest road rather than go down the road of obscenity and Mrs. Satan. Nowadays people dont care as much about what they say. Younger people are prohibited from saying any obscene words but once you hit 18, once you are a grown up, its free game. Saying words that are obscene is in everyones vocabulary in the modern day.

2. I as a supreme court judge would define obscenity as the use of offensive, disgusting, and immoral language or photography and videography. It would depend on the case, if it is a case involving a verbal assault I would take into account that everyone nowadays uses obscene language everyday without even caring. If it were a case involving photography or film it would be more serious.

3. It is true that Americans have the right to free speech and I would uphold that as a supreme court justice. When things such a censorship come into play especially with photos, films, and videos, what the subject of them are will determine the stand and severity of the obscenity. If it is something such as child porn, which is illegal, there is no way around the fact that it is obscene and needs to be censored.


No Way Out’: A Sudden life and death struggle at a Houston concert’.



(Links to an external site.)


On Friday night, Travis Scott held his second festival for ‘Astroworld’ in Houston, Texas, this concert had 50,000 people in attendance. This concert dramatically escalated when numerous people began pushing and shoving their way to the front, some gasped for air, and others fell unconscious. This resulted in 8 deaths and hundreds of injuries that were treated at a local hospital. Houston officials are having a hard time explaining what truly happened and how a music festival went so horrifically wring so quickly. Nick Johnson one of the concert attendees said, “Everybody was just in the back, trying to rush to the front.” The concert continued for another 30 minutes after the injuries and deaths had taken place.


When I had heard what had happened at the Travis Scott concert I was in shock, I couldn’t believe that that many people were in attendance, especially given the current circumstances with covid. I hope after this tragedy they will significantly reduce the number of ticket sales available and take the necessary precautions in the future to prevent this from happening again.

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