Florida National University T


  1. Question 1

    0.25 Points____ are loosely associated with the phospholipid bilayer, whereas ____ are tightly bound to it.


  2. Question 2

    0.25 PointsWhat method does a human white blood cell employ to engulf a bacterial cell?


  3. Question 3

    0.25 PointsWhat happens during the cotransport of glucose and sodium ions?


  4. Question 4

    0.25 PointsThe role of ATP in the sodium-potassium pump is to:


  5. Question 5

    0.25 PointsWhat is required for facilitated diffusion to take place?


  6. Question 6

    0.25 PointsIn the accompanying figure, what is the form of cellular junction?


  7. Question 7

    0.25 PointsHow are integral proteins unique in cell membranes?


  8. Question 8

    0.25 PointsPlasmodesmata of plant cells are functionally equivalent to the ____ of animal cells.


  9. Question 9

    0.25 PointsProteins that are destined to become associated with the inner surface of the plasma membrane are:


  10. Question 10

    0.25 PointsWhat type of cellular junction cements cells together that use cadherins as a belt around each cell?


  11. Question 11

    0.25 PointsFigure 5-3
    In the accompanying figure, what is the role of the structures between the membranes?


  12. Question 12

    0.25 PointsThe term “fluid mosaic model” refers to the:


  13. Question 13

    0.25 PointsFigure 5-1

    Refer to the accompanying figure. Which best describes what is happening to the red blood cells in Figure A?


  14. Question 14

    0.25 PointsSince sodium-potassium pumps transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into a cell, what type of carrier proteins are they?


  15. Question 15

    0.25 PointsA patient who has had a severe hemorrhage accidentally receives a large transfusion of distilled water directly into a major blood vessel. What effect will this have on the patient?


  16. Question 16

    0.25 PointsIn cells that are constantly involved in secretion, an equivalent amount of membrane must be returned to the interior of the cell for each vesicle that fuses with the plasma membrane; if this does not occur, then what would happen?


  17. Question 17

    0.25 PointsDuring phagocytosis, what may fuse with the vacuole to further degrade the ingested material?


  18. Question 18

    0.25 PointsWhat process halts the net movement of water from a hypotonic solution into a plant’s cells and often provides the structural support to many plants?


  19. Question 19

    0.25 PointsAlthough glucose molecules constantly diffuse into a red blood cell along their concentration gradient, equilibrium is never reached and a steep concentration gradient is continually maintained. What causes this?


  20. Question 20

    0.25 PointsWhat facilitate the rapid transport of water through the plasma membrane?


  21. Question 21

    0.25 PointsWhat is the passive movement of water along a concentration gradient?


  22. Question 22

    0.25 PointsBiological membranes are one dimensional fluids.__________________


  23. Question 23

    0.25 PointsA wilted flower placed in a vase of water for several hours became stiff and stood erect. When it was placed in a salt solution, it wilted. From this information, we can say that the cells of the flower are:


  24. Question 24

    0.25 PointsFigure 5-2

    What cellular process is represented in the accompanying figure?


  25. Question 25

    0.25 PointsHow do gap junctions differ from desmosomes?


  26. Question 26

    0.25 PointsWhat have studies of glucose transport in liposomes revealed?


  27. Question 27

    0.25 PointsFigure 5-2

    Consider the cellular process illustrated in the accompanying figure. What substance would most likely be used to transport?


  28. Question 28

    0.25 PointsFigure 5-1

    Refer to the accompanying figure. Which best describes the red blood cells in Figure B?


  29. Question 29

    0.25 PointsIn the experiment in which Frye and Edidin fused the plasma membranes of a mouse and a human cell, what happened to the membrane proteins?


  30. Question 30

    0.25 PointsIf phospholipids form a spherical structure when placed in water, then which of the following is the most logical conclusion about those phospholipid molecules?


  31. Question 31

    0.25 PointsCompare and contrast simple diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.


  32. Question 32

    0.25 PointsPeripheral proteins are linked to either surface of the plasma membrane by:


  33. Question 33

    0.25 PointsWhat does an ABC transporter use to transport larger ions and molecules across the cell membrane?


  34. Question 34

    0.25 PointsOnce ligand molecules bind to receptors in coated pits of a plasma membrane, the next step of receptor-mediated endocytisis would be:


  35. Question 35

    0.25 PointsIf the concentration of solutes in a cell is less than the concentration of solutes in the surrounding fluid, then the extracellular fluid is said to be:


  36. Question 36

    0.25 PointsA transmembrane protein differs from other membrane proteins because it:


  37. Question 37

    0.25 PointsThe sodium–potassium pump is a carrier protein that maintains a(n) ____ gradient across the plasma membrane.


  38. Question 38

    0.25 PointsHow do the phospholipids in vegetable oil differ from those of animal fat?


  39. Question 39

    0.25 PointsIn a lipid bilayer, __________ fatty acid tails face each other within the bilayer and form a region that excludes water.


  40. Question 40

    0.25 PointsA person has a genetic disease that prevents the phospholipids in the plasma membrane of the white blood cells from freely fusing with the other membranes within the cell. How would this disease affect phagocytosis?

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You work in a public health agency. It is the agency’s policy that at least one public health nurse is available in the office every day. Today is your turn to remain in the office. From 1 PM to 5 PM, you will be the public health nurse at the scheduled immunization clinic; you hope to be able to spend some time finishing your end-of-month reports, which are due at 5 PM. The office stays open during lunch; you have a luncheon meeting with a Cancer Society group from noon to 1 PM today. The registered nurse in the office is to serve as a resource to the receptionist and handle patient phone calls and drop-ins. In addition to the receptionist, you may delegate appropriately to a clerical worker. However, the clerical worker also serves the other clinic nurses and is usually fairly busy. While you are in the office today trying to finish your reports, the following interruptions occur:

8:30 AM: Your supervisor, Anne, comes in and requests a count of the diabetic and hypertensive patients seen in the last month.

9:00 AM: An upset patient is waiting to see you about her daughter who just found out that she is pregnant.

9:00 AM: Three drop-in patients are waiting to be interviewed for possible referral to the chest clinic.

9:30 AM: The public health physician calls you and needs someone to contact a family about a child’s immunization.

9:30 AM: The dental department drops off 20 referrals and needs you to pull charts of these patients.

10:00 AM: A confused patient calls to find out what to do about the bills that he has received.

10:45 AM: Six families have been waiting since 8:30 AM to sign up for food vouchers.

11:45 AM: A patient calls about her drug use; she does not know what to do. She has heard about Narcotics Anonymous and wants more information now.

undefined

DQ: How would you handle each interruption? Justify your decisions. Do not forget lunch for yourself and the two office workers.

undefined

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I’m working on a english question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

The    Other    Side    of    the    Mirror    (A    Travel    Narrative    of    an    American    in    Syria)–    Brooke    Allen    [Excerpts]
p.    4    The    Destination
It    was    literally    impossible    for    us    to    walk    down    a    street    without    a    passersby    trying    to    strike    up    a    
conversation.        On    my    very    first    evening    in    Damascus,    wandering    half-­?stunned    and    jet-­?lagged    through    the    
ancient    spice    market    in    the    gathering    darkness,    I    was    ushered    by    one    young    vendor    into    the    little    room    
at    the    rear    of    his    stall.        Here    he    poured    me    some    tea    and    summoned    his    brother    to    translate.        The    two    of    
them    showed    metheir    photograph    album,    a    great    treasure.        There    was    a    picture    of    my    host    with    
President    Bashar    al-­?Asad,    which    he    pointed    outwith    some    pride,    but    he    was    even    more    eager    to    point    
outa    shot    of    himself    with    John    Kerry,    to    whom    he    had    had    the    privilege    of    serving    coffee    during    a    
diplomatic    visit    the    senator    had    made    to    Damascus.
Visitors    are    not    required    to    register    with    any    agency    (indeed    there    doesn’t    appear    to    be    such    an    agency)    
or    to    employ    a    guide    or    to    join    a    group.        You    can    travel    and    stay    wherever    you    like    without    ever    
encountering    officialdom    in    any    form.    Far    from    shying    away    from    being    seen    with    Americans,    the    locals    
sought    out    our    company.
Everyone,    it    seemed,    wanted    to    know    who    and    what    we    were.        “Are    you    English?    German?”    At    first    we    
were    a    little    nervous    about    admitting    to    being    Americans    –    after    all,    if    their    political    rhetoric    is    anything    
like    ours    they    must    hate    us,    right?        But    we    needn’t    have    worried:    once    we    admitted    our    nationality    
there    was    a    bit    of    surprise,    but    then    the    interest    became    even    more    intense:        “We    have    so    few    
Americans    coming    to    our    country.        How    are    you    enjoying    your    trip?    You    are    very    welcome.”    Almost    
without    exception,    they    spoke    of    their    admiration    for    Jimmy    Carter    and    his    peacekeeping    efforts.    Barack    
Obama    had    recently    been    sworn    into    office;    hopes    were    very    high.    
Occasionally    we    voiced    a    regret    that    our    countries    were    not    better    friends,    and    when    we    did    so    the    reply    
was    invariably    the    same:    “Everyone    knows    that’s    just    politics,    not    people.”    Well    –    do    they?    Not    on    our    
side    of    the    pond.        I    reflected,    and    tried    to    envision    the    kind    of    reception    a    family    of    Syrian    tourists    might    
find    in    New    York.        First,    an    endless    grilling    at    immigration    and    security,    where    they    would    be    approached    
as    potential    criminals    and    enemies    rather    than    as    guests,    which    is    how    Syrian    officialdom    treated    us.        
Then,    assuming    they    were    lucky    enough    to    get    in    the    country    at    all,    they    would    encounter    reactions    
ranging    from    indifference    to    outright    hostility.        It    would    be    most    unlikely    for    anyone    to    bid    them    
welcome,    much    less    invite    them    into    their    homes    for    tea,    coffee,    or    a    meal,    as    so    many    strangers    invited    
us    into    their    homes    in    Syria.        So    far    from    sensing    danger    in    the    air,    we    felt    far    safer    in    Damascus    than    we    
usually    do    in    New    York,    and    even    gave    up    locking    our    hotel    rooms    after    the    first    couple    of    days.        The    
many    European    tourists    we    encountered    (Syria    is    a    popular    destination    among    Europeans)    seemed    to    
have    no    particular    fears.
As    for    the    dreaded    red    tape    –    difficulties    changing    money    and    reserving    hotels,    passport    and    visa    hassles    
–    there    simply    wasn’t    any.        I    was    able    to    renew    my    visa    in    less    than    five    minutes,    literally,    at    Aleppo’s    
passport    office.        Hotel    managers    reserve    your    room    the    old-­?fashioned    way,    not    through    a    credit    card    
deposit    but    simply    by    writing    your    name    in    a    book,    then    erasing    it    again    if    you    cancel.        Changing    money    
can    be    done    at    any    bank    or    Bureau    de    Change    without    even    filling    out    forms    or    keeping    receipts,    though    

because    there    is    no    reciprocity    between    American    and    Syrian    bans    you    can’t    use    an    ATM    machine    or    
travelers’    checks    –    you    simply    have    to    bring    a    wad    of    American    cash    and    change    it    bit    by    bit.        This    might    
seem    to    be    a    problem,    for    everyone    is    nervous    about    carrying    large    sums    of    currency.        But    there    is    
practically    no    petty    crime    in    Syria    and    you    are    most    unlikely    to    have    your    pocket    picked.
Syria    is    classified    by    human    rights    organizations    as    a    police    state,    and    its    citizens    have    to    watch    what    
they    say    and    write.        In    1968    –    even    before    the    first    Asad’s    time    –    a    special    court,    the    Supreme    State    
Security    Court,    was    set    up    to    try    those    accused    of    dissent    or    offences    against    state    security.        Under    the    
control    of    the    executive    branch    of    the    government,    the    SSSC    still    exists,    and    Amnesty    International    has    
deemed    its    proceedings    “grossly    unfair.”    Syria’s    prisons    contain    quite    a    few    people    found    guilty    of    vague    
crimes    like    “spreading    false    news,”    “weakening    national    morale,”    and    “inciting    sectarian    sentiments.”
The    cult    of    the    Asad    family    is    immediately    noticeable,    with    posters    and    statues    of    the    current    president    
and    his    father    littering    the    urban    landscape.        It    is    very    unusual    to    hear    any    criticism    of    the    president    or    
his    regime:    the    general    belief    seems    to    be    that    the    walls    have    ears,    and    people    we    chatted    with    would    
frequently    throw    in    some    positive    comment    about    Bashar    al-­?Asad,    apparently    as    a    sort    of    propitiatory    
magic.        We    came    across    a    couple    of    openly    disaffected    people,    but    such    encounters    were    rare.        What    we    
were    most    surprised    by    was    the    fact    that    there    is    obviously    a    significant    measure    of    genuine    enthusiasm    
for    the    president    mixed    with    all    the    pro    forma    compliments.        The    attitude    of    Syrian    citizens    toward    the    
Asad    regime    turns    out    to    be    exceedingly    complex    and    there    is    a    real    appreciation    of    the    benefits    Asad    
and    his    father    have    brought    on    the    country    –    mixed,    of    course,    with    resentment    over    one-­?party    rule    and    
a    government-­?controlled    press.
The    general    principle    seems    to    be    that    if    you    want    to    be    a    left    alone,    don’t    get    involved    in    politics.        With    
the    exception    of    traffic    cops,    there    is    no    visible    police    presence,    and    no    armed    guards    in    front    of    hotels    
and    public    buildings    as    there    are    in    countries    like    Egypt.        Big    Brother    might    be    lurking,    but    his    presence    is    
not    immediately    obvious.        And    so    far    from    being    dangerous    for    foreigners,    as    the    State    Department    
would    have    had    us    believe,    Syria    (as    I    discovered    later)    has    been    deemed    the    third    safest    country    in    the    
world,    after    Malaysia    and    Singapore.        
Why    should    this    be    so?    The    police    presence    in    Syria    is    nothing    at    all    like    ultra-­?repressive    Singapore,    
where    theft    is    punished    with    lashes    of    a    cane    and    narcotics    offenses    will    get    you    the    death    penalty.        On    
the    contrary,    Syria    possesses    a    certain    Mediterranean    casualness,    and    its    citizens    openly    flout    laws    
pertaining    to    minor    offenses    like    littering    or    smoking.        Perhaps,    as    some    Syrians    suggested    to    us,    it’s    
because    the    country    has    a    “shame    culture”:    someone    caught    stealing    brings    great    shame    on    their    family.
I    struggled    to    make    sense    of    all    these    seeming    contradictions,    ultimately    deciding    that    a    fortnight    was    
not    nearly    long    enough.        I    started    to    plan    a    second,    more    leisurely    trip,    with    the    idea    of    writing    a    book    or    
article.        My    friend    Catherine,    a    Washington    lawyer    with    a    lifelong    interest    in    classical    history    and    culture,    
agreed    to    come    along    with    me;    another    friend,    Arthur    agreed    to    join    us    for    a    week    as    we    swung    through    
Crusader    country.        And    so    I    arrived    back    in    Syria    at    the    beginning    of    November.

p.    26    The    Destination
The    guard,    who    had    introduced    himself    as    Saeed,    rolled    his    eyes.    “Here    is    my    telephone    number,    “    he    
said,    pressing    a    piece    of    paper    into    my    hand.    “My    mother    and    I    would    be    happy    to    take    you    to    dinner    
before    you    leave    and    show    you    around    Damascus    at    night.”
When    the    evening    came    the    mother    couldn’t    join    us,    but    Saeed    took    me    to    his    favorite    restaurant    and    
all    around    the    Bag    Touma    district,    chattering    away    with    puppy-­?like    friendliness.        He    was    only    a    senior    in    
high    school,    as    it    turned    out,    and    was    working    at    the    Sham    Village    as    a    part-­?time    job.        His    father    had    left    
the    family    when    he    was    a    small    child,    his    mother    suffered    from    back    trouble,    and    he    and    his    brother    had    
to    contribute    to    the    family    budget.        Saed    longed    to    be    a    fashion    designer    –    he    had    every    episode    of    
Project    Runway    practically    memorized    –    but    he    figured    that    with    all    his    responsibilities,    training    for    a    
career    in    fashion    was    nothing    but    a    pipe    dream.        He    was    planning    instead    to    study    Japanese    at    the    
university    and    go    into    business.
“I    wish    I    could    have    got    dressed    before    meeting    you    so    I    could    show    you    my    style,”    he    said,    “but    I    had    to    
come    straight    from    work.”    Saeed    is    an    avid    consumer    of    international    pop    culture,    a    passionate    devotee    
of    Britney    Spears,    Beyonce,    and    50    Cent.        His    fifteen-­?year-­?old    brother    helps    support    the    family    by    doing    
web    design    and    Photoshop    after    school,    and    also    performs    and    records    techno-­?rap    with    his    girlfriend:    he    
aspires    to    be    the    Arab    Eminem.        Their    mother,    Saeed    said,    is    completely    addicted    to    Oprah    and    quotes    
Dr.    Phil    whenever    an    occasion    arises.
As    we    walked,    Saeed    reached    up    and    plucked    branches    of    jasmine    for    me,    crushing    the    blossoms    in    his    
fingers    so    I    could    get    a    richer    waft    of    their    fragrance.        He    spoke    without    bitterness    about    his    dreams    for    
a    career    and    how    unlikely    it    was    that    they    would    come    true.    “We    are    all    the    family    we    have,    so    we    must    
take    care    of    each    other,”    he    said.        “My    mother    has    done    everything    for    us.        We    must    care    for    her.”
These    encounters    led    me    to    some    profound    rethinking,    both    about    the    country    I    was    visiting    and    my    
own.        “What    went    wrong?”    historian    Bernard    Lewis    asked    about    the    Islamic    world,    in    his    recent    book    by    
that    title,    and    the    phrase    has    caught    on.        Some    things    have    gone    wrong    there,    unquestionably;    but    
others    seem,    at    least    to    my    foreign    eyes,    to    have    gone    right.        Whether    because    of    Islam’s    call    on    the    
faithful    to    practice    charity    and    hospitality    or    because    of    some    other    cultural    conditioning    in    that    
direction,    Syrians    seem    to    have    developed    a    far    more    civil    and    polite    public    arena    than    our    own.
One    might    profitably    transpose    Lewis’s    question    and    ask    what    went    wrong    with    us    –    with    America.        For    
my    trips    East    have    made    it    clearer    to    me    than    ever    before    that    something    has    gone    very    wrong:    a    
cultural    hardening    that    set    in,    I    have    come    to    believe,    in    the    Reagan    80s    when    greed    suddenly    became    
good.    In    the    intervening    quarter-­?century    our    country    succumbed    to    a    grim    Social    Darwinist    philosophy    
according    to    which    our    neighbor    is    defined    not    as    a    fellow-­?creature    but,    if    not    exactly    an    enemy,    then    at    
least    a    potential    competitor.        One    might    have    expected    the    resurgence    of    American    Christianity    over    the    
same    period    to    have    mitigated    this    dog-­?eat-­?dog    attitude,    but    too    many    of    our    Christian    churches    seem    
to    have    incorporated    the    philosophy    of    competition    directly    into    their    creeds.        

The    Syrian    system    seems    to    have    installed    some    respect    for    the    humanity    of    the    dispossessed,    while    our    
own    Social    Darwinism    seems    only    to    have    engendered    contempt    for    them    as    pathetic    losers.    I    was    
struck    by    the    Syrians’    shocked    reaction    to    the    healthcare    debate    going    on    back    at    home    at    the    time    of    
my    visit:    they    simply    could    not    conceive    of    a    system    that    let    poor    people    fall    through    the    cracks,    that    
allowed    someone    to    die    unnecessarily    if    they    couldn’t    pay    for    care.    The    whole    thing    made    me    think    it    
quite    probable    that    Islam    is    philosophically    incompatible    with    the    doctrinaire    capitalism    we    have    been    
trying    to    spread    around    the    world.    But    then    again,    so    is    Christianity    –    real    Christianity,    that    is-­?    as    I    see    it.        
American    media    coverage    of    the    Middle    East    for    the    last    forty    years    or    so    –    probably    since    the    1967    war    
–    has    engendered    a    knee-­?jerk    prejudice    that    will    be    almost    impossible    to    cure.        To    visit    Syria    is    to    
confront    the    unhappy    truth    about    our    media,    which    is    that    much    of    the    international    news    we    read    or    
see,    from    whatever    portion    of    the    political    spectrum,    serves    not    as    a    window    looking    out    at    the    world    
but    as    a    mirror:    a    mirror    that    reflects    our    own    fears    and    obsessions    and    shines    them    right    back    at    us.        
p.    30    Time
Aleppo    is    a    living    amalgam    of    historic    periods.        Trophy    girlfriends    strut    alongside    their    men    in    what    might    
here    be    considered    the    height    of    fashion:    clinging    little    scarlet    miniskirts    worn    with    tights,    along    with    
perilously    teetering    high    heels.        On    cobblestones    these    shoes    become    treacherous,    making    the    girls    cling    
tightly    to    their    companions’    arms    to    keep    from    falling    –    and    maybe    that    is    the    whole    point    of    the    
exercise,    after    all.        One    young    woman    wore    a    hijab    that    modestly    covered    her    body    but    happened    to    be    
gleaming    gold    and    coated    with    glitter.        Fashion    in    footwear    is    particularly    striking.        Aleppo’s    young    spivs    
tend    to    sport    leather    shoes,    unremarkable    perhaps,    of    curly-­?toed    Ottoman    slippers.        Women,    even    
those    completely    concealed    by    burqas,    favor    highly-­?polished    boots    of    a    rather    S    &    M    aspect,    sharply    
high-­?heeled    with    glittering    silver    panels    at    the    side    –    boots    not    made    for    walking.
p.    31    Time
The    Western    view    of    the    “Arab    world”    as    a    homogenous,    purely    Muslim    place    full    of    anonymous    black-­?
clad    crowds    is    blown    to    pieces    as    soon    as    you    arrive    in    this    complex    civilization.        On    the    level    of    sheer    
human    spectacle,    Syria’s    cities    are    astounding.        It    is    an    easy    cliché    to    call    the    country    of    crossroad    of    
civilization,    but    here,    in    the    streets    of    Aleppo    or    Damascus,    the    cliché    comes    true.        Where    the    
Mediterranean    meets    the    Arab    world,    the    desert    meets    the    metropolis.        Syria    was    for    many    centuries    a    
key    stop    on    the    Silk    Road,    its    markets    a    depot    for    the    goods    of    all    the    world.        The    result    is    that    the    
country    has    been    a    melting    pot    and    a    multi-­?cultural    society    for    a    very,    very    long    time.
Damascus    and    Aleppo    both    lay    claim    to    being    the    oldest    continually    inhabited    city    on    earth,    with    life-­?
spans    somewhere    in    the    neighborhood    of    eight    millennia.        No    scholar    has    been    able    to    determine    which    
is    older,    for    dense    habitation    on    both    sites    has    kept    archaeologists    from    being    able    to    dig    down    to    the
earliest    signs    of    civilized    life,    but    there    can    be    no    doubt    that    other    cities    are    very    ancient.        One    of    the    
most    extraordinary    aspects    of    the    country,    and    the    most    compelling    reason    to    make    the    trip    there,    is    the    
spectacle    it    offers    of    life    being    lived,    totally    unselfconsciously,    just    as    it    has    been    for    thousands    of    years.        
In    America    we    often    turn    what    is    left    of    our    old    architecture    into    Disneyfied    theme    parks:    think    of    what    
has    happened    to    Colonial    Williamsburg    –    or    even    old    Santa    Fe    or    Nantucket,    now    populated    not    by    

ranchers    and    whalers    but    by    CEOs.        The    well-­?preserved    centers    of    European    cities    like    Paris    or    
Amsterdam    have    essentially    become    open-­?air    museums.        This    is    not    at    all    the    case    in    Damascus    or    
Aleppo,    whose    souqs,    khans    (caravansarais),    and    houses    of    prayer    are    still    being    used    for    their    original    
purposes.        Here,    history    is    not    over;    it    lives    on.        In    the    1860s    Mark    Twain,    stunned    by    his    first    sight    of    
Damascus,    marveled    that    the    city    “measures    time    not    by    days    and    months    and    years,    but    by    the    empires    
she    has    seen    rise    and    prosper    and    crumble    to    ruin.    .    .    Damascus    has    seen    all    that    has    ever    occurred    on    
earth,    and    still    she    lives.        She    has    looked    upon    the    dry    bones    of    a    thousand    empires,    and    will    see    the    
tombs    of    a    thousand    more    before    she    dies.”    
p.    116    Faith
The    country    is    roughly    seventy-­?five    percent    Sunni    Muslim,    ten    percent    Shi’a    Muslim,    ten    percent    
Christian,    and    five    percent    other    minorities.    (Jews    now    comprise    only    a    tiny    handful.)        Religion    here    is    
supposed    to    be    a    private    matter,    and    so    is    one’s    style    of    dress;    whether    or    not    to    wear    the    headscarf,    for    
instance,    is    officially    considered    a    personal    decision,    though    of    course    most    people    conform    to    the    
expectations    of    their    families    and    communities,    as    people    do    everywhere.        Sharia    law    has    a    limited    role    
in    the    Syrian &nb

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