Grand Canyon University Commu

In this module, you will complete a full assessment of your community.  (You may build upon this assessment in Community Health II by planning, implementing, and evaluating a project within your community designed to address primary prevention of an identified health concern.)

Your community should be a specifically designated geographic location and can be on any population such as pediatric, adolescence, young adults, adult, elderly, or a combination.

Define the Community by completing a Community Assessment 

Be sure to provide details for the 9 questions (below) in your essay and complete a thorough assessment of the community using ALL of the bold headings below in RED in your paper.

Demographics of the Community – Part 1 of the Rubric – worth 20%

IMPORTANT PART: Connects community context and demographics with the Healthy People 2020 objectives and identifies health concerns – Healthy People 2020 website is below.

QUESTIONS – Incorporate these into your INTRO and DEMOGRAPHICS paragraphs as you write the assessment.  These questions are NOT addressed in a separate paragraph.

One must delineate the following dimensions before starting the process of community assessment:

  1. Describe the population that is being assessed? (demographics)
  2. What is/are the race(s) of this population within the community? (demographics)
  3. Are there boundaries of this group? If so, what are they? (demographics)
  4. Does this community exist within a certain city or county? (demographics)
  5. Are there general characteristics that separate this group from others? (demographics)
  6. Education levels, birth/death rates, age of deaths, insured/uninsured? (demographics)
  7. Where is this group located geographically…? Urban/rural? (demographics)
  8. Why is a community assessment being performed? What purpose will it serve? (intro paragraph)
  9. How will information for the community assessment be collected? (intro paragraph)

Data Gathering (collecting information that already exists)

  • The following resources provide a broad overview of the demographics of a city, county, or state:
  • Data Census – Find population, housing, and economic and geographic data for your city based on U.S. Census data:
  • State and County Quick Facts—Easy access to facts about people, business, and geography, based on U.S. Census data:
  • Obtain information about a specific city or county on these useful websites: and

Information from Government Agencies – Part 2 of the Rubric – worth 30%

Be sure to CITE at least 3 government websites in the essay (ends BELOW

  1. Healthy People 2020 or 2030 REQUIRED—this resource is published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It identifies health improvement goals and objectives for the country to be reached by the year 2020:    Be sure to connect community context and demographics with Healthy People 2020 objectives and identify health concerns in your population – THIS is part of the RUBRIC.
  2. National Center for Health Statistics—this agency is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; this website provides statistical information about the health of Americans:
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—The CDC website contains a large amount of information related to the health of the American population. The search engine within this website can be used to find relevant information:
  4. Federal agencies with statistical programs:
  5. Every state in the United States has its own specific health improvement plan and goals that are based on the Healthy People 2020 document. This information may be available on the state health department website.
  6. State and local health departments provide information related to vital statistics for the community.
  7. Other Data Sources – America’s Health Rankings—this website provides information about various health indicators for each state:

After data are collected from various sources, it is important to review the information and to identify assets and areas for improvement in the community by comparing local data (if available) versus state and national data. This will facilitate the organization of the information that has already been obtained and will provide direction for the next step of the process.

Data Generation: data that does not already exist – this is the data YOU collect!!!!!

You do NOT do ALL FIVE of the headings below.   MUST DO 3/5. Due to COVID-19 and social distancing, be creative.  Former students during this pandemic have interviewed coworkers and family via phone, created online surveys, and put them on Facebook or use Skype or FaceTime to conduct informant interviews or ask questions from their surveys.

  1. Windshield Surveys

With the use of public transportation or by driving a vehicle around the community, one can observe common characteristics of the community.

Examples of key observations to make when one is assessing the community through a windshield survey include the following:

  • Age of the homes in the community
  • Location of parks and other recreational areas
  • Amount of space between homes and businesses
  • Neighborhood hangouts
  • Transportation in the community
  • Quality and safety of streets and sidewalks
  • Stores and other businesses
  • People out in the community
  • Cleanliness of the community
  • Billboards or other media displays
  • Places of worship
  • Healthcare facilities
  1. Participant Observation

Spend time observing the population that is being assessed. Through observation of interactions among group members, much can be learned about the community, including the following:

  • Developmental level of the population
  • Effectiveness of peer-to-peer interactions
  • Respect for peers and others
  • Safety in the environment
  • Economic status
  1. Informant Interviews (Police officer, Firefighter, School Principle are just some examples)

Informants could be people who are familiar with and interact with the population regularly.

Examples of questions that may be asked of key informants include the following:

  • Strengths/assets of the community
  • Areas of improvement for the community
  • Concerns of community members
  • Access to health care
  • Emergency plans for natural or man-made disasters
  • Be sure to cite your interview responses per APA (see page 179-180 in APA manual)
  1. Focus Groups (can be co-workers, family members) Ask questions via phone, Skype, FaceTime.

Focus groups (usually small groups of 6-12 people) can be helpful when one is gathering information about specific areas of concern within the population. The use of a focus group involves open dialogue about the population, whereas an interview or survey yields only individual responses.

  • Focus groups may be effective in assessing the following:
  • Satisfaction with services provided
  • Community resources used
  • Transportation issues within the community
  • Safety within the community
  • General concerns of members of the population
  1. Surveys (online or use Facebook)

Surveys may be used to collect data from the community. Selecting a sample of the target population may prove helpful in the collection of data that is easier to analyze. It is important to ensure that the sample is representative of the target population.

A survey should be developed that takes into consideration the developmental level of the group that is being assessed. Questions should be written at the appropriate developmental level, so they are answered in a way that makes the data useful. Surveys might include closed-ended (yes/no), multiple choice (several responses to choose from), Likert scale (Strongly Agree/Agree/Neutral/Disagree/Strongly Disagree), or open-ended (“why”/ “how”) questions.

Topics that may be addressed in a survey include the following:

  • Demographic information
  • Status of employment
  • Safety within the community
  • Safety in the environment
  • Personal safety (seatbelts, helmets, etc.)
  • Stressors/stress management patterns
  • Risky behaviors
  • Support systems
  • Volunteer/community activities
  • Rest patterns
  • Nutrition
  • Dental hygiene
  • Health promotion activities

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Community leadership is both a popular concept and a central part of public health. As someone who represents and protects the community’s interests, the community leader plays an indispensable role in the community. Therefore, it means that there are important traits or qualities that help in the identification of a community leader.

First, a community leader should be intelligent. Intelligence helps the community leader to grasp all the salient features of public health and the community’s interests. Intelligence endows the leader with the competence needed for handling difficulties that accost him and the community. The leader should also be emotionally and socially intelligent. Both social and emotional intelligence gives the leader cultural competence. According to Knight (2014), A culturally competent leader can interact with variegated or pluralistic socio-cultural groups in a community or different communities.

The community leader should be empathetic enough to understand how the community perceives him as the leader. The leader should not only be acquainted with the community members’ feelings but also be able to comprehend the community’s various viewpoints. By this virtue, the community comes to view the leader as a caring and credible person.

Examples of types of community leaders in public health

There are many outstanding community leaders in public health. Patty Hayes and Marcus Plescia are two of them. Patty Hayes, RN, MN is the director of Public Health in Seattle-King County. Hayes was at the center of the COVID-19 outbreak in Seattle, bringing calm and urgency and representing the best of public health. She helped contain the spread of the Coronavirus and kept her jurisdiction updated on pertinent issues such as safety measures and death rates.

Marcus Plescia, MD, MPH has vast experience in public service. Dr. Plescia has discharged public health leadership roles at the federal, local, and state levels. For instance, he has served as the director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s national cancer control programs and the county director for public health in Charlotte, N.C. He ably discharged roles similar to Hayes’ at the height of the Coronavirus outbreak.

Characteristics of effective community leadership that are utilized at the practicum site

There are many characteristics that nursing practice borrows from effective community leadership. Bromley, et al. (2018) advise that some of these characteristics are self-awareness, relational management skills, and social awareness. A self-aware nurse, like a community leader, should understand his or her abilities and limits. Relational management skills help nurses to use interpersonal relationships to manage emergencies, conflicts, and projects. Nurses with a good sense of social awareness should be able to nurture and develop good social awareness skills such as active listening and the ability to read and respect people’s (patients’) emotions and needs. 


Bromley, E., et al. (2018). Community Partnering for Behavioral Health Equity: Public Agency and Community Leaders’ Views of its Promise and Challenge. Ethnicity & disease [Ethn Dis], 28(2), 397-406; 

Knight, E. K. (2014). Shifting public health practice to advance health equity: recommendations from experts and community leaders. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 20(2) 188-196 DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e31829959fb

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Review your problem or issue and the study materials to formulate a PICOT question for your capstone project change proposal. A PICOT question starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention used to address the problem must be a nursing practice intervention. Include a comparison of the nursing intervention to a patient population not currently receiving the nursing intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process.  Formulate a PICOT question using the PICOT format (provided in the assigned readings) that addresses the clinical nursing problem.

The PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project change proposal.

In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem and how it can result in a positive patient outcome.

Describe the problem in the PICOT question as it relates to the following:

  • Evidence-based solution
  • Nursing intervention
  • Patient care
  • Health care agency
  • Nursing practice




Topic: Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community   Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Note:  The teaching plan proposal developed in this assignment will be used to develop your Community Teaching Plan: Community Presentation due in Topic 5. You are strongly encouraged to begin working on your presentation once you have received and submitted this proposal.

Select one of the following as the focus for the teaching plan:

  • Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
  • Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
  • Bioterrorism/Disaster
  • Environmental Issues

Use the “Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal” resource to complete this assignment. This will help you organize your plan and create an outline for the written assignment.

  • After completing the teaching proposal, review the teaching plan proposal with a community health and public health provider in your local community.
  • Request feedback (strengths and opportunities for improvement) from the provider.
  • Complete the “Community Teaching Experience” form with the provider. You will submit this form in Topic 5.


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1) Do concepts such as “community-oriented policing” and “problem-oriented policing” represent real change in provision of law enforcement services, or are they merely old strategies dressed up as new programs? Explain your response.

**Use the GCU Library for sources (

***Worrall, J. L. (2015) Crime control in America: What works? (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN-13: 9780133495485.

The DQ response must be at least 200 words and should have at least one reference in APA format

2) Write a 100-word response to each student in first person as if you were writing it to the students. Talk about how you agree with their ideas and add your own thoughts. Make sure it’s respectful.

I think that concepts such as community-oriented policing and problem-policing are old strategies dressed up as new programs. However, with how far technology has advanced I do think that with some of these policies it has represented real change in provision law enforcement services. For example, there have been many different types of problem-oriented policing such as Nixon’s war on drugs. With that policy it was a huge presence of law enforcement in high drug or crime areas, but it also presented many problems with people getting racially profiled or having their rights not taken into consideration. Problem-oriented policing is defined as “an approach to law enforcement that emphasizes identifying and solving specific problems (e.g., speeding, panhandling, drug sales, etc.)” (Worrall, 2015). As I stated back in the day Nixon tried a form of problem-oriented policing which now has a different name, if we think about it these new types of policing that are generated by old ones can be more efficient due to the technology we have. “problem solving is about identifying areas, times of days, specific crimes, individuals” (Worrall, 2015). Using technology such as a crime mapping or identifying repeat offenders, being able to look up people’s crime history is all due to our technology. In short yes, such policies are old strategies dressed up as new programs but because of our technological advances these are real changes in provision of law enforcement.


Worrall, J. L. (2015) Crime control in America: What works? (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN-13: 9780133495485.

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There are two options, only select one:

Option #1: Selecting the Best Channel 

Utilizing the table below, determine the best communication channels for the following messages, and then create these five messages as they would look based on the channel you chose for each. Assume that all channels shown are available. Support your reasoning with examples and research.

Ten Levels of Richness in Today’s Workplace Communication Channels – Richest to Leanest

Richest ChannelsLeanest Channels1. Face-to-Face Conversation. Richest medium, best for persuasive, bad news, and personal messages.6. Letter. For external messages that require formality, sensitivity, or written record.2. Telephone. Best choice when two people cannot meet in person.7. Memo. To distribute interoffice information, especially when e-mail is unavailable.3. Video Chat. Best for group interaction and consensus building when members are dispersed.8. Blog. To share ideas with a wide Internet audience and encourage responses.4. E-mail. Best for routine messages that do not require immediate feedback.9. Report. To deliver considerable data internally or externally.5. IM. Best for short online messages that need a quick response.10. Wiki. To provide a repository for digital information that can be easily changed.

(Guffey, M. Loewy, D., 2018, Figure 4.5)


  1. A manager needs to know whether Crystal in Reprographics can produce a rush job for her in two days.
  2. As part of a task force to investigate cell phone marketing, a manager needs to establish a central location where each team member can see general information about the task as well as add comments for others to see. Task force members are located throughout the country.
  3. A manager wants to know what team members are available immediately for a quick teleconference meeting. They are all workaholics and glued to their computers.
  4. A human resources manager during company reorganization must tell six employees they will lose their jobs.
  5. A prospective client in Japan wants the price quotes for a number of a company’s products as soon as possible.

Include an introductory paragraph that outlines the importance of selecting appropriate communication channels. Please respond to each of the questions and include a conclusion that is a synthesis of your work.


Guffey, M. Loewy, D. (2018). Business communication: Process and product (9th ed.). Cengage.

Option #2: Managing Change 

The Chief Operations Officer (COO) of a Fortune 500 company is preparing to implement a major change in Standard Operating Procedures in the next six months. This is an initiative that she has personally spearheaded over the past year and one which she knows—while extremely valuable to the company and its employees in the long-term future—will almost certainly elicit a lot of initial unhappiness, anxiety, uncertainty, and push-back from both customers and employees—especially if the key components of the change initiative are communicated carelessly.

What are some of potential communications problems the COO faces right now, over the next six months, and for up to a year after the change is implemented? What will she have to do to ensure that the message is well-received and clearly understood by both external and internal customers (employees)? What media should she use to communicate over the next several months? Explain why this is the most effective way to communicate.

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