Case Scenario 1:
James, age 14, is afflicted with a cleft lip and palate and needs a common operation that promises to improve both his appearance and his speech significantly. Due to his appearance, James has had tremendous difficulty finding acceptance among his peers and has few friends. The boy’s father, a believer in mental healing, refuses to permit the operation or even discuss it with the physician. The physician explains the operation to James, who expresses a desire to try harder to close the cleft palate “through natural forces.”
Question 1: What ethical principles related to autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, or nonmaleficence lend support to James’s refusal of surgery? What ethical principles override James’s refusal of surgery? Is James competent to consent for or refuse treatment?
Question 2: Based on your above analysis, must the physician respect their refusal of the surgery? If not, what ethically appropriate options are available to the physician?
The response to each of the questions following the case scenario must be in the form of a 250-word well-constructed paragraph, with well-developed sentences, correct spelling, and proper grammar. You may research the medical condition, ethical principles, or legal precedents in order to enhance the quality of your analyses, but you may not add any details regarding ulterior motives or extenuating circumstances to your response. It is important to review the lesson objectives and be sure to demonstrate your achievement of those objectives in your response. Therefore, please include data, facts, key terminology, specific examples, and direct quotations from the textbook and other resources to support your main point. For assistance with writing, please visit the Online Writing Lab
Cite all sources of information, including your textbook, using the author’s last name, the year of publication, and page numbers in parentheses in the text; for example: (Author’s last name, year, p. ###). Provide a reference list at the conclusion of the assignment formatted as in this example for a book: Author’s last name, first initial. (year). Title (edition in parentheses). Location of publisher: Publisher name. For more information, or for examples of the formats required for other resource types,