MHE 511 Trident University In

Module 1 – Case

INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY OPERATIONS; TYPES OF EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS

Case Assignment

You have been assigned by the City Manager to develop an Emergency Management Plan for the city. Although you have experience in emergency response, this is the first time that you are involved in the planning process. You read that effective emergency planning begins with:

  • Defining an emergency in terms relevant to the organization doing the planning.
  • Establishing an organization with specific tasks to function immediately before, during, and after an emergency.
  • Establishing a method for utilizing resources and for obtaining additional resources during the emergency.
  • Providing a recognizable means of moving from normal operations into and out of the emergency mode of operation.

Although the above steps to develop an effective emergency plan appear to be reasonable and necessary, you have doubts about which item is most important in the initial planning stages. You agree that defining an emergency in terms relevant to the city is important; however, you believe that the city already has an organization with specific tasks to perform immediately before, during, and after an emergency. That organization is the city’s police department.

Question 1: Do you concur with the opinion that the city’s police department should be the lead organization for disaster management in a typical city in the United States? State your position and justify it in terms of authority, responsibility, and the organizational position the police department must assume in order to be effective.

Question 2: Which of the above-stated steps to develop an effective emergency plan do you believe would be well outside of the scope of duties assigned to the police department? Justify your response.

Regardless of the type of crisis, there are a series of common requirements that must be taken into account for an organization to be successful when a critical incident occurs. These include:

  • Deciding policy
  • Assessing threat
  • Identifying resources
  • Selecting crisis team personnel
  • Locating the crisis management center
  • Equipping the crisis center
  • Training crisis team personnel
  • Testing contingency plans and emergency procedures

The city’s police chief recently appeared before city council and presented a strong recommendation that a specific organization with a well-defined line of authority for planning, mitigating, and responding to emergencies and disasters be established. The police chief justified this position with the above-stated common requirements that must be considered for an organization to be successful when an emergency occurs.

Question 3: Which of the above-stated requirements should involve participation and approval well beyond the authority usually granted to a department head such as the police chief? Justify your response.

Question 4: Which of the above-stated requirements do you consider to be critical to the effective development and implementation of a disaster/emergency planning and coordination program/unit in the city? Which of the above-stated requirements do you consider to be rather unimportant or insignificant, if any, to the success and effectiveness of the city’s Emergency Management Plan? Justify your response to both questions.

Assignment Expectations

Length: This Case Assignment should be at least 4-6 pages not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 1 – Background

INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY OPERATIONS; TYPES OF EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS

Required Reading

Eshghi K, and Larson, E. (2008). Disasters: Lessons from the past 105 years, Disaster Prevention and Management. 17(1), 62. Available in the Trident Online Library.

Puget Sound regional catastrophic disaster coordination plan (2013). Retrieved from https://mil.wa.gov/asset/5ba4211b3ec88 [sample coordination plan].

State of Maryland response operations plan (2015). [Sample of a state’s operations plan].

Required Websites

Disaster Information Management Research Center. https://disasterinfo.nlm.nih.gov/

Emergency Response Plan, Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/business/implementation/emergency

Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System: http://www.gdacs.org/

Homeland Security Presidential Directives: http://www2.epa.gov/emergency-response/homeland-security-presidential-directives

National Response Framework (NRF). Department of Homeland Security. https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/117791

Optional Reading

2009 Global ass-essment report on disaster risk reduction (2009). United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/report/index.php?id=1130&pid:34&pif:3

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MHE 511 Trident University In

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART I; MITIGATION AND RISK REDUCTION

In the Module 2 SLP you identified specific emergencies and disasters which could impact your community. You also conducted a Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis for the greatest threat to your selected community or organization. For Module 3 SLP, you will identify the following:

  1. Who will be responsible for the direction and control of the disaster operations?
  2. What are the criteria you would establish for determining the lead position during an emergency?
  3. What methods of communication would you recommend maintaining control during an emergency?
  4. What type of personnel would you allow to make independent decisions in the field?
  5. Is it sensible to allow for input into the disaster management process during an emergency?

Be sure that your response is related to or applies to the types of disasters identified in the Module 1 SLP.
Note to the student: It is impractical to require that you prepare an entire Emergency Management Plan for your community as an SLP for this course. Therefore, you should respond to the above questions in a general manner. For instance, under direction and control of the operations you should indicate who is in charge of the overall disaster and how you anticipate controlling the response to the disaster. What are your plans for life safety related to the ability of your community to respond to various levels of a disaster? The planned response is always a function of the severity of the disaster. If you need help with any aspect of this SLP, send the instructor an e-mail and you will receive a response as soon as possible. The main point is not to panic over the assignment, but to “calmly” think through its basic issues. Think of this as “performing under stress” as you may need to do under emergency conditions.

SLP Assignment Expectations

Length: This SLP should be at least 3-5 pages not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

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MHE 511 Trident University In

Discussion Requirements

A substantive comment should be approximately 300 words or more for the response (A total of 3 response).

Read the initial comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Before writing your comments:

  • Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.
  • Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:

Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.html

NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources. (PLEASE PROVIDED REFERENCES)

Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.

Third post for each module discussion:

Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.

Comment on those provided by your cohorts.

Note: Some expressions may be politically sensitive. It is not the intent of this exercise to stir controversy.

MY POST

DO NOT RESPOND

DO NOT RESPOND

Classmates and Professor,

The United States of America’s government can still sustain several relationships with assisting institutions and achieve total control over different disasters. Entering into close working relationships with assisting partners will help the government achieve complete control through the support provided by these institutions. Unlike the government, non-governmental organizations and other assisting bodies like FEMA have firsthand information and expertise to manage disasters. The assisting agencies play several essential roles in helping the government achieve full control. Occasionally, these institutions make assessments on several disasters, which help them develop an extensive understanding of these natural disasters. Collaborating with these agencies is effective in ensuring full sustainability.

The government’s different initiatives resulting from positive work relationships will help formulate better policies and have improved considerations when handling disasters. By maintaining law and order, providing crucial rescue services, and encouraging the significance of insurance, citizens across all states will have been prepared for unexpected disasters (Tang et al., 2021). FEMA’s prowess across several states in coordination with the Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy, the U.S Northern Command, and the National Guard has helped millions of people across the United States prepare and recover from disasters. Being at the centre of essential rescue services like choppers and ambulances, maintaining law and order, and encouraging other mitigation considerations still puts the United States government at a pivotal role in addressing natural disasters.

During disasters, governments must oversee several events in their jurisdiction. During natural disasters like floods and earthquakes, most residents of the affected areas have their security threatened. Some have their homes and property destroyed, leaving them unprotected. Governments need to maintain control during these tragic times by maintaining law and order. Deploying the army and other disciplined forces in these areas is very significant in helping governments control these situations.

Governments need to achieve control over disastrous events. Equipped with some of the most sophisticated and advanced rescue services and equipment, governments showcase their ability to control disasters. Therefore, they need to avail their rescue services, equipment, and ability to avoid the spread of these disasters. Moreover, these governing bodies should be significantly interested in achieving control over disasters to protect their citizens. According to Dzigbede et al. (2020).” disasters like coronavirus have claimed the lives of millions of people across the world, acting as a wake-up call for governments to seek control over these developments.”Governments need to address these concerns effectively to avoid fatalities. In my opinion, governments should seek control over disasters.

Pedro

References

Dzigbede, K. D., Gehl, S. B., & Willoughby, K. (2020). Disaster resiliency of U.S. local governments: Insights to strengthen local response and recovery from the COVID‐19 pandemic. Public administration review, 80(4), 634-643.

Tang, P., Shao, S., Zhou, D., & Hu, H. (2021). Understanding the Collaborative Process and Its Effects on Perceived Outcomes during Emergency Response in China: From Perspectives of Local Government Sectors. Sustainability, 13(14), 7605.

(RESPONSE 1 BRETT)

Classmates,

I believe this discussion is framed incorrectly.

The first question and second question are interrelated, but not in the posted order. The second question tells you the answer to the first. Does the government need to control everything: no, not directly. It is in charge, but it doesn’t need to do everything itself. In fact doing everything itself is going to be inefficient and take more time and energy than if it would simply delegate to other agencies or private sector partners (Sarmad, 1991).

In an emergency the IC gets to delegate to the other executive branch agencies and non-governmental agencies the need to provide housing. How it is retains responsibility as the controlling agent for the government is that the Military or non-governmental charities need to conform to certain norms set out by the IC. There needs to be minimum housing requirements understood by all parties, and then the government can delegate to that unit full control for housing. Its best explained via an example

Scenario: 500 people come up for their transient housing needs in an emergency. Red Cross tells the government they can take 350 persons for the local area, the military says they have tents and cots able to also temporarily house up to 350 people. IC splits the 500 persons equally and says that both Red Cross and DoD now control 250 individuals that will be assigned to them. IC later sends someone to both sites for Red Cross and DoD to ensure that the minimum standards are being kept up and adhered to. Red Cross’s facilities seem appropriate and the numbers are tallied to make sure they have the 250 on site. When the IC’s representatives show up at the DoD tent site, they find the conditions do not conform to the standards necessary for transient housing. The military is used to cramped and stressful conditions and their standards for Soldiers’ housing is not the same as refugees (Van Dyke, 2021). The inspectors see that the DoD’s site really can only be certified for 150 persons. The IC then tells the DoD they are only certified for 150 persons and takes the remaining 100 persons that are now considered overflow by the DoD and assigns them to the Red Cross who has the capability to house them.

This approach can sometimes backfire when an agency attempts to gaslight the controlling agency when offering support, but the Red Cross and other NGOs have established a solid track record of success enabling them to be used in an emergency. Other governmental agencies can also establish guidleines long before an emergency and publish them for cross-talk and approval before they might be asked to be implemented. FEMA as a member of DHS probably already has conducted analysis of what DoD is likely to provide from National Guard units in their assigned regions and can help the DoD allocate resources in an emergency when its in charge.

Brett

References:

Sarmad, K. (1991). Is the Private Sector more Productive than the Public Sector? The Pakistan Development Review, 30(4II), 721–729. https://doi.org/10.30541/v30i4iipp.721-729

Van Dyke, Z. (2020, March 20). Fort Bragg troops return to tent city; Fort Bliss conditions fuel complaints. The Fayetteville Observer. https://www.fayobserver.com/story/news/coronavirus/2020/03/20/fort-bragg-troops-return-to-tent-city-fort-bliss-conditions-fuel-complaints/112366094/.

(RESPONSE 2 APRIL)

Hi all,

Local governments’ emergency services are responsible for the first reaction to a catastrophe, with assistance from neighboring municipalities, the state, and volunteer organizations. Without knowledge of the local circumstances, it is impossible to evaluate survivors’ needs. The government must collaborate with people on the ground to ascertain the amount of damage and also to assess available resources. Simultaneously, it is critical to establish a central governing authority with sufficient authority to coordinate the different units.

The local government retains ownership of all assets utilized in response and recovery operations, regardless of their origin. With the assistance of the state and federal governments, with the assistance of the state and federal governments, must plan and prepare for this role (FEMA¹, n.d.).

The NIMS and NRF are complementary documents that aim to strengthen the Nation’s incident management and response capabilities. While the NIMS provides the framework for incident management regardless of size, breadth, or reason, the NRF establishes the structure and procedures for a national incident response policy.

The NIMS and the NRF work in tandem to integrate the resources and skills of multiple governmental municipalities, incident management and emergency response disciplines, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector into a cohesive, coordinated, and seamless national framework for domestic incident response (FEMA², n.d.)

When there is a coordinated effort, the possibility of effective emergency management arises. All stakeholders must be asked to participate in the process, and specific roles and duties must be established by and through the Federal Government (FEMA¹, n.d.)

April

Reference

Federal Emergency Management Agency (n.d.). Emergency Management Institute Lesson 2: Authority and Responsibility. Retrieved from https://emilms.fema.gov/is_0552/groups/251.html

Federal Emergency Management Agency² (n.d.). The Relationship between the NIMS and NRF. Retrieved from https://emilms.fema.gov/is_0552/groups/40.html

(RESPONSE 3 JASON)

Classmates,

Before discussing whether the Federal Government should maintain full control during a disaster, it is important to fully understand how they become involved. When a disaster occurs, the initial response is from the impacted location’s local and state governments. The local and state governments respond in their complete capacity until they have exhausted their response resources or when they become vastly overwhelmed. At this point, their state government can request Federal Government response assistance. “Response actions are organized under the National Response Framework” (Natural Disaster Response and Recovery).

Within Federal incident-level operations, the National Response Framework (NRF) outlines unified coordination where a designated Federal coordinating officer, State coordinating officer, and other senior officials partner with State officials, the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and the Joint Task Force (National Response Framework, p. 20, 2019). When Federal Government disaster response is requested, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assumes management of response and recovery operations. When local and state governments request Federal assistance, it is because they are unable to effectively manage operations, therefore it is necessary that the Federal Government maintain full control during the disaster.

During Federal Government response, they are not working independently from local and state government authorities – they work in coordination. Federal partnership under unified coordination indicates that they still utilize local and state response agencies. “… the federal role supplements that of the states and localities (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Maintaining “full control” does not mean that the Federal Government operates by themselves or makes decisions without state and local government coordination – it just means that they have the resources to fully manage the disaster and should do so in accordance with their organizational structure.

Jason

References

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (n.d.). GOVINFO. https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/reports/Exec_Sum_FEMA.html

National Response Framework (Fourth Edition). (2019). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-04/NRF_FINALApproved_2011028.pdf

Natural disaster response and recovery. (n.d.). U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.doi.gov/recovery

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 4 – Background

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART II; DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

Required Reading

EOC organizations structures and staffing: Management and operations (2012, December). Mississippi Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from https://www.msema.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/0…
Ignore Discussion Questions after each section.

FEMA and federal partners continue to support areas affected by the aftermath of Sandy (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from https://www.govloop.com/community/blog/fema-and-fe… [Review the various federal agencies that are coordinated with FEMA.]

FEMA overview of federal efforts to prepare for and respond to Hurricane Maria (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/blog/overview-federal-efforts…

FEMA provides update on federal support to Hurricane Irma response (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/fema-pr…

How to address equity as part of COVID-19 incident command (2020, May 6). Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved from http://www.ihi.org/communities/blogs/how-to-addres…

National Preparedness Resource Library, FEMA http://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-resource…

Required Website

Coronavirus Emergency Management Best Practices. FEMA. https://www.fema.gov/coronavirus/best-practices

FEMA. https://www.fema.gov/

Incident Command System Resources. FEMA. https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/icsresource/

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MHE 511 Trident University In

Case

PLANNING FOR EMERGENCIES: NIMS; HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

CASE ASSIGNMENT

The results of the Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis prepared by your staff found that your community is equally at risk for at least four different types of disasters. You believe that you have to plan for all four potential disasters. However, your City Manager with the support of the city council is urging you to develop a general EMP that can be utilized for all disasters. You have been requested to prepare a report to the City Manager supporting your position as to why a general plan will not best serve the interests of the community in case of a disaster.

  1. List and describe your arguments in support of a disaster-specific plan. Briefly, justify your response.
  2. List and describe your arguments in support of a general EMP. Briefly, justify your response.
  3. Do you believe that NIMS (ICS) will work effectively regardless of which type of plan is ultimately developed? Support your answer.

Papers should be at least four pages long.

ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS

Length: This Case Assignment should be at least 4-6 pages not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 2 – Background

PLANNING FOR EMERGENCIES: NIMS; HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

Required Reading

Essential components of emergency management plans at community health centers: Crosswalk of plan elements (2009). National Association of Community Health Centers. Retrieved from https://www.aachc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/EssentialComponentsofCHCEMPlan.pdf

Foundation for the Standardized Emergency Management System SEMS California Emergency Management Agency (2010). State of California. Retrieved from https://www.caloes.ca.gov/PlanningPreparednessSite/Documents/SEMS%20Foundation.pdf. Read “Four Components of SEMS” and “Organizational/Response Levels and Activation Requirements,” pp. 40 – 43

Harper, T. (2018, July 6). How social media disinformation is complicating emergency response. Federal News Network. Retrieved from https://federalnewsnetwork.com/commentary/2018/07/how-social-media-disinformation-is-complicating-emergency-response/

Lester, W. and Krejci, D. (2007). Business “not” as usual: The National Incident Management System, federalism, and leadership. Public Administration Review 67, 84. Available in the Trident Online Library.

Required Websites

Hazard Identification Vulnerability Analysis (HIVA):http://www.countyofkingwa.us/safety/prepare/EmergencyManagementProfessionals/Plans/~/media/safety/prepare/documents/HIVA/Intro.ashx

Map: Social Media Monitoring by Police Departments, Cities, and Counties. https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/map-social-media-monitoring-police-departments-cities-and-counties

National Incident Management System (NIMS). Department of Homeland Security Resource Center. http://www.fema.gov/national-incident-management-system

Topic collection: Social media in emergency response. Retrieved from https://asprtracie.hhs.gov/technical-resources/73/social-media-in-emncy-response/77

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MHE 511 Trident University In

Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.html

NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources.

Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.

Third post for each module discussion:

Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.

MY POST

DO NOT RESPOND

DO NOT RESPOND

Classmates and Professor,

Bio-Terrorist

In any terrorist event, the actions taken by the emergency response team in the initial minutes of the emergency are crucial. Whether it is a warning to the people near the affected area to evacuate, stay indoors, or seek shelter, it can save many lives (Eshghi & Larson, 2008). According to Ready.gov (2021), before sending an emergency response team to the affected area, it is vital to have complete and accurate knowledge of the type of emergency, to ensure the right team of emergency responders is called to action with the right equipment (Ready.gov, 2021). For this reason, it is essential to have an emergency response plan that seeks to understand the extent or gravity of the situation before dispatching the response team.

In the case of a bio-terrorist, it is crucial to understand the extent of the threat first before sending the team. Ensuring that the right team has been dispatched to the affected area is vital in ensuring that the threat is contained and the affected victims are taken care of appropriately (Ready.gov, 2021). For this reason, disaster management agencies at both the local, state and federal levels must develop plans for bio-terrorist emergencies. Since the local response team will be the first to arrive at the scene, the agency must have a well-trained response team in managing various bio-terrorist emergencies. According to the US National Research Council (2003), one way to prepare for bioterrorism is to model techniques, bio-forensics, and rapid vaccine fielding, among others, to ensure they are ready.

The state disaster management agencies should major their response plans on managing the emergency and contain the effects of the bio-terrorist attack. This can involve treatment, decontamination, effective disposal, and decontamination protocols for animal and plant exposure. Due to the potential of a spread, the state and the federal government should have response plans to ensure that the bio-hazard component does not spread to other cities or states. “For those exposed, protocols for treatment and decontamination must be available” (National Research Council, 2003). The state and federal governments should strive to limit transmissions and work to contain the situation. The state and federal governments should also plan on vaccination, treatment, and quarantine of affected individuals and ensure recovery of the victims.

Pedro

References

Eshghi, K., & Larson, R. C. (2008). Disasters: lessons from the past 105 years. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.

National Research Council. (2003). Countering Bioterrorism: The Role of Science and Technology.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

RESPONSE 1 (APRIL)

Classmates and Professor,

Whether a terrorist threat or natural calamity, a joint effort is essential when reacting to the same; and as noted by the National Response Framework, it outlines and amalgamates responsibilities for government entities as well as the private sectors in shaping, countering, and recovering from incidents (ASTHO, n.d.). 

BrainMass stated that each emergency response unit should place emphasis on strategies that would apply the knowledge and skills gained and utilized from day to day. “To this end, the focus of the plans, while each addressing bioterrorist emergencies, would be uniquely focused based on the individual agency’s skill sets.” (BrainMass, n.d.)

Further, the Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication conveys changes in government entities roles and responsibilities as well as the type of threats to the way in which those threats are perceived, received and managed. Finally,  

Most federal agencies will not be able to deploy assets during the first 48 hours following the onset of an event. ­ Local, state, and territorial emergency communication managers will be first to respond to an emergency incident until federal assistance can be coordinated and deployed. This happens because they are close to the scene. ­ The true “first” responders will be members of the community itself: friends, family, and neighbors (CERC, 2014)

April

Reference 

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO (n.d.)). Emergency Authority and Immunity Toolkit. Federal Emergency Preparedness Directives and Systems. Retrieved from https://astho.org/Programs/Preparedness/Public-Hea…

BrainMass (n.d.). Bioterrorism: Local, State, Federal Emergency Plans. Retrieved from https://brainmass.com/health-sciences/disease-outb…

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC (Manual)): Updated 2014 – Understanding the Roles of Partners. Retrieved from   https://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/ppt/CERC_Understanding %20the%20Roles%20of%20Partners.pdf

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

RESPONSE 2 (Brett)

I believe that the response plan should be wired tight and regimented, but with time horizons of steps that are mandated. Since the incubation period of various diseases are different, and the time it takes to identify the agent might be longer in some cases than other, there is no way to make a one-size-fits-all biological attack plan.  We can’t say that on day 1 we test and on day 10 we release survivors to live their life when the incubation period of an attacking biological agent might be 2 weeks. 

So we base the plan on modules to switch out the times based off the needs of the agent. Step one is test to identify the agent, then step 2 is predicated on Step 1 being complete. And step 2 would tailor the response to the agent itself. 

Using fake numbers to make my point: Step 1 for antrax would take 2 days, Step 1 for smallpox a single day. Step 2 of the plan would take 2 days over the incubation period for both diseases, which would be 5 days for smallpox and 14 days for anthrax. Step 3 would have different numbers and so on and so on. But the same actions and needs for public health would remain the same. So an anthrax attack’s plan would have the same steps, but take 49 days longer than the smallpox one because of the biological differences in the agent and how we would need to respond to it.

In a manner of speaking, we could make the plan and standardize it for each possible likely agent: Bioattack Plan 1 is for Anthrax, Bioattack Plan 2 would be Smallpox, Bioattack Plan 3 would be Tularemia,  Bioattack Plan 4 Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. So on and so forth. We could use the list of likely biological agents that might be used by the CDC (Department of Health and Human Services, 2018)  US Army’s assessment for potential enemy biological agent use (FM 3-11.9, US Army 2005) or the reported compounds that the Russian Federation started creating an offensive biological weapons program when defectors told the US intelligence community what they had been creating for the Russian government (Alibek, & Handelman, 2000). 

Brett

References:

(Department of Health and Human Services) 2018, April 4. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist-category.asp. 

US Army. (2005, January). Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds . FM 3-11.9 Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds . http://www.militaryfieldmanuals.net/manuals/potential_military_chemical_biological_agents_and_compounds1. 

Alibek, K., & Handelman, S. (2000). Biohazard: the chilling true story of the largest covert biological weapons program in the world, told from the inside by the man who ran it. Dell Pub. 

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 1 – Background

INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY OPERATIONS; TYPES OF EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS

Required Reading

Eshghi K, and Larson, E. (2008). Disasters: Lessons from the past 105 years, Disaster Prevention and Management. 17(1), 62. Available in the Trident Online Library.

Puget Sound regional catastrophic disaster coordination plan (2013). Retrieved from https://mil.wa.gov/asset/5ba4211b3ec88 [sample coordination plan]. 

State of Maryland response operations plan (2015). [Sample of a state’s operations plan].

Required Websites

Disaster Information Management Research Center. https://disasterinfo.nlm.nih.gov/

Emergency Response Plan, Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/business/implementation/emer…

Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System: http://www.gdacs.org/

Homeland Security Presidential Directives: http://www2.epa.gov/emergency-response/homeland-security-presidential-directives

National Response Framework (NRF). Department of Homeland Security. https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/document…

Optional Reading

2009 Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction (2009). United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/rep…

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MHE 511 Trident University In

(RESPONSE 1 BRETT)

Classmates and Professor,

I found the assigned study interesting, especially the way the Philippine community adapted their lifestyle to the threat of flooding by becoming stronger in a communal sense and increasing networks. I believe this is due to the frequent nature of the flooding they have to encounter, and therefore they see the perceived threat as real and one to be taken seriously.

What I also found interesting is the English response to the same type of flooding, and the Netherlands. Both of these countries had negative reactions to the same threat. And I wanted to add something the study doesn’t take into account: risk compensation or as it is sometimes called risk homeostasis. By introducing a potential solution for a risk, it sometimes introduces a facet of risk-taking behavior not previously seen. The popular example is that if you have much better brakes on your car now, you will subconsciously drive in more reckless manner, because you know that the brakes will save you (Husted & Nickerson, 2019). You have subconsciously accepted a certain amount of risk in doing an activity, so if it is displayed as now safer, you may ‘allow’ yourself to do something you wouldn’t previously to somehow even out the risk in your head.

For Emergency Managers, we need to keep vigilant that our prevention solutions do not mitigate the risk completely in a community’s mind. Because no solution we have is going to mitigate it completely, and we need the community to pull together in the emergency, not rely on the ‘golden parachute’ that we told them will potentially fix things.

Brett

References:

Husted, T., & Nickerson, D. (2019). Disaster Risk, Moral Hazard, and Public Policy. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.195

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 3 – Background

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART I; MITIGATION AND RISK REDUCTION

Required Reading

Flood response plan: City of Fort Worth, TX (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fortworthtexas.gov/files/assets/public…

Introduction to incident command system, ICS-100.b, FEMA Interactive Web-based Course (2010). Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS100b.asp (Do not take the course; just review the material).

Seyedin, H., Samadipour, E., & Salman, I. (2019, March 14). Intervention strategies for improvement of disasters risk perception: Family-centered approach. Journal of Education and Health Promotion 8(63). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC64422…

Required Websites

Promoting mitigation in Louisiana—Performance analysis of mitigation projects—A case study, FEMA. www.fema.gov/pdf/casestudys/performance.pdf

Standardized Emergency Management System. http://www.caloes.ca.gov/cal-oes-divisions/plannin…

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MHE 511 Trident University In

PLANNING FOR EMERGENCIES: NIMS; HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

Case Assignment

The results of the Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis prepared by your staff found that your community is equally at risk for at least four different types of disasters. You believe that you have to plan for all four potential disasters. However, your City Manager with the support of the city council is urging you to develop a general EMP that can be utilized for all disasters. You have been requested to prepare a report to the City Manager supporting your position as to why a general plan will not best serve the interests of the community in case of a disaster.

  1. List and describe your arguments in support of a disaster-specific plan. Briefly, justify your response.
  2. List and describe your arguments in support of a general EMP. Briefly, justify your response.
  3. Do you believe that NIMS (ICS) will work effectively regardless of which type of plan is ultimately developed? Support your answer.

Papers should be at least three pages long.

Assignment Expectations

Length: This Case Assignment should be at least 3-5 pages not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

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Discussion Requirements

A substantive comment should be approximately 300 words or more for the response (A total of 1 response).

Read the initial comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Before writing your comments:

  • Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.
  • Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:

Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.html

NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources. (PLEASE PROVIDED REFERENCES)

Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.

Third post for each module discussion:

Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.

Comment on those provided by your cohorts.

Note: Some expressions may be politically sensitive. It is not the intent of this exercise to stir controversy.

MY POST

DO NOT RESPOND

DO NOT RESPOND

Classmates and Professor,

The article by Seyedin, Samadipour & Salman (2020) discusses how the role of people can be improved in crisis management plans and the factors that affect risk perception. One of the factors that stood out is psychological factors. According to Seyedin et al., psychological factors comprise emotions, mental images, internal and external control. For instance, the authors explain that worries, anxiety, and concern are particularly effective for ensuring risk perceptions and protective measures. Also, the authors state that a community that a disaster has previously hit will psychologically prepare for catastrophes and undertake various protective measures. This psychological factor stood out for me because I believe the mind plays a crucial role in determining our actions in different situations. Psychological factors also decide whether or not we become worried or take something for granted. When a community takes warnings for granted, they are more likely to be caught off-guard. If we become concerned about disasters, we are likely to take participate in prevention measures. Therefore, our mental perspectives significantly affect perceptions and the actions we take.

The study concludes that the various factors affecting perception were presented to various institutions, including educational, managerial, and cultural. The study revealed that a collaborative plan would effectively play a role in changing the communities’ perceptions. The authors also argue that using a family-centered approach will significantly improve the community member’s perceptions regarding risk. Notably, the authors argue that educational and participatory can have a significant impact on people’s perspectives. I believe that the study concludes well and sheds light on how people’s attitudes can be transformed through a family-centered approach. I think that the family-centered approach will aid in communicating the need for risk recognition and planning. Family members tend to trust each other more and are also likely to convince other family members on getting on-board with disaster planning measures. By tapping into families, negative perceptions such as doubt and ignorance can be rectified and evoke a more positive perspective regarding disaster planning. According to Flood response plan: City of Fort Worth (2019) flash floods can occur anywhere, and residents required to be informed on flooding response plans. Members of the community are more likely to take action or participate in disaster planning to protect their families from the effects of disasters.

Pedro

References

Flood response plan: City of Fort Worth, TX (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fortworthtexas.gov/files/assets/public/tpw/documents/b9eeb289-8dfd-423f-9623-aa216e7155fc.pdf

Seyedin, H., Samadipour, E., and Salman, I. (2019, March 14). Intervention strategies for improvement of disasters risk perception: Family-centered approach. Journal of Education and Health Promotion 8(63). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442268/

(RESPONSE 1 ISMAEL)


Professor and class,

According to Diane Rahm and Christopher G. Reddick of Texas State University, a study was conducted by Wildavsky and Dake (1990) which examines risk perception theories. The first theory is knowledge. Knowledge offers the perception that city managers know that disasters could be dangerous. This is found through experience, education, and the surrounding in which they live. Because knowledge is imperfect, uncertainty creates problems when planning for a disaster. Personality theory depicts managers as being too opposed to the risk or risk-neutral. Some managers may accept the risk or avoid risks altogether. This intern influences which way vulnerabilities are accessed.
Economic theory suggests managers will take risks when vulnerabilities are marginal versus the cost of mitigating.

The political theory puts competition into play. Elections, party outcomes, or those who may hold power within the community structure. Culture theory is more dynamic with more moving parts. Ideologies and how the public views city managers. Private entities may take more risks than city managers. When public funds are used, city managers may put off spending and take a chance that a disaster will not strike. A city manager may want to over exaggerate or under exaggerate based on self-preservation (Rahn & Reddick, 2011).

Based on these theories, city managers may perceive lower risks based on economic theory. Choosing the top four risks and spending taxpayer dollars to mitigate these or even go as far as having a basic all-hazards approach to reduce spending may offer the perception lower than what actually exists. Perhaps this is why local communities rely on the private sector in strategic planning. In my community, earthquakes are downplayed due to the low risk of devastation even though we have 20-30 quakes a year. Building codes are not stringent like you see in California. The costs of private construction cause strife with local policymakers. In order to have proper mitigation plans in place, managers must have buy-in from the local council.

ISMAEL

Reference

Rahn, D, Reddick, G. (2011) US City Managers’ Perceptions of Disaster Risks: Consequences for Urban Emergency Management. Retrieved from Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. Vol 19 Number 3 3 September 2011. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 3 – Background

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART I; MITIGATION AND RISK REDUCTION

Required Reading

Flood response plan: City of Fort Worth, TX (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fortworthtexas.gov/files/assets/public…

Introduction to incident command system, ICS-100.b, FEMA Interactive Web-based Course (2010). Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS100b.asp (Do not take the course; just review the material).

Seyedin, H., Samadipour, E., & Salman, I. (2019, March 14). Intervention strategies for improvement of disasters risk perception: Family-centered approach. Journal of Education and Health Promotion 8(63). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC64422…

Required Websites

Promoting mitigation in Louisiana—Performance analysis of mitigation projects—A case study, FEMA. www.fema.gov/pdf/casestudys/performance.pdf

Standardized Emergency Management System. http://www.caloes.ca.gov/cal-oes-divisions/plannin…

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Module 3 – Case

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART I; MITIGATION AND RISK REDUCTION

Case Assignment

You live in Charleston, South Carolina, and your city has just experienced a widespread disaster caused by Hurricane Maxine. You have recently been designated by the city council and the city manager to determine if the city’s emergency response plan was effective in reducing property loss.

  1. Prepare a short plan to investigate the disaster and assess the flood damage in the city. Identify specific persons you will meet with during your investigation.
  2. You found that over 65% of properties in the low-lying areas were damaged and that there were no significant improvements in damage control since the last flood, which occurred seven years ago due to a failure of the levee system. List four reasons that may explain the apparent failure to implement an effective mitigation program. Adequately support your reasons for this apparent failure.
  3. Develop a recommendation that you would make concerning improvements in the city’s mitigation plan based on the latest disaster experience.
  4. State and discuss the general principle in this case concerning the necessity and implementation of mitigation measures.

Assignment Expectations

Length: This Case Assignment should be at least 4-6 pages not counting the title page and references.

References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format).

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Module 3 – Background

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART I; MITIGATION AND RISK REDUCTION

Required Reading

Flood response plan: City of Fort Worth, TX (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fortworthtexas.gov/files/assets/public/tpw/documents/b9eeb289-8dfd-423f-9623-aa216e7155fc.pdf

Introduction to incident command system, ICS-100.b, FEMA Interactive Web-based Course (2010). Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS100b.asp (Do not take the course; just review the material).

Seyedin, H., Samadipour, E., & Salman, I. (2019, March 14). Intervention strategies for improvement of disasters risk perception: Family-centered approach. Journal of Education and Health Promotion 8(63). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442268/

Required Websites

Promoting mitigation in Louisiana—Performance analysis of mitigation projects—A case study, FEMA. www.fema.gov/pdf/casestudys/performance.pdf

Standardized Emergency Management System. http://www.caloes.ca.gov/cal-oes-divisions/planning-preparedness/standardized-emergency-management-system

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