A substantive comment should be approximately 300 words or more for the response (A total of 3 response).
Read the initial comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.
Before writing your comments:
- Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.
- Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:
Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/edu/Strategies-for-Synthesis-Writing.html
NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources. (PLEASE PROVIDED REFERENCES)
Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.
Third post for each module discussion:
Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.
Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.
Comment on those provided by your cohorts.
Note: Some expressions may be politically sensitive. It is not the intent of this exercise to stir controversy.
DO NOT RESPOND
DO NOT RESPOND
Classmates and Professor,
The United States of America’s government can still sustain several relationships with assisting institutions and achieve total control over different disasters. Entering into close working relationships with assisting partners will help the government achieve complete control through the support provided by these institutions. Unlike the government, non-governmental organizations and other assisting bodies like FEMA have firsthand information and expertise to manage disasters. The assisting agencies play several essential roles in helping the government achieve full control. Occasionally, these institutions make assessments on several disasters, which help them develop an extensive understanding of these natural disasters. Collaborating with these agencies is effective in ensuring full sustainability.
The government’s different initiatives resulting from positive work relationships will help formulate better policies and have improved considerations when handling disasters. By maintaining law and order, providing crucial rescue services, and encouraging the significance of insurance, citizens across all states will have been prepared for unexpected disasters (Tang et al., 2021). FEMA’s prowess across several states in coordination with the Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy, the U.S Northern Command, and the National Guard has helped millions of people across the United States prepare and recover from disasters. Being at the centre of essential rescue services like choppers and ambulances, maintaining law and order, and encouraging other mitigation considerations still puts the United States government at a pivotal role in addressing natural disasters.
During disasters, governments must oversee several events in their jurisdiction. During natural disasters like floods and earthquakes, most residents of the affected areas have their security threatened. Some have their homes and property destroyed, leaving them unprotected. Governments need to maintain control during these tragic times by maintaining law and order. Deploying the army and other disciplined forces in these areas is very significant in helping governments control these situations.
Governments need to achieve control over disastrous events. Equipped with some of the most sophisticated and advanced rescue services and equipment, governments showcase their ability to control disasters. Therefore, they need to avail their rescue services, equipment, and ability to avoid the spread of these disasters. Moreover, these governing bodies should be significantly interested in achieving control over disasters to protect their citizens. According to Dzigbede et al. (2020).” disasters like coronavirus have claimed the lives of millions of people across the world, acting as a wake-up call for governments to seek control over these developments.”Governments need to address these concerns effectively to avoid fatalities. In my opinion, governments should seek control over disasters.
Dzigbede, K. D., Gehl, S. B., & Willoughby, K. (2020). Disaster resiliency of U.S. local governments: Insights to strengthen local response and recovery from the COVID‐19 pandemic. Public administration review, 80(4), 634-643.
Tang, P., Shao, S., Zhou, D., & Hu, H. (2021). Understanding the Collaborative Process and Its Effects on Perceived Outcomes during Emergency Response in China: From Perspectives of Local Government Sectors. Sustainability, 13(14), 7605.
(RESPONSE 1 BRETT)
I believe this discussion is framed incorrectly.
The first question and second question are interrelated, but not in the posted order. The second question tells you the answer to the first. Does the government need to control everything: no, not directly. It is in charge, but it doesn’t need to do everything itself. In fact doing everything itself is going to be inefficient and take more time and energy than if it would simply delegate to other agencies or private sector partners (Sarmad, 1991).
In an emergency the IC gets to delegate to the other executive branch agencies and non-governmental agencies the need to provide housing. How it is retains responsibility as the controlling agent for the government is that the Military or non-governmental charities need to conform to certain norms set out by the IC. There needs to be minimum housing requirements understood by all parties, and then the government can delegate to that unit full control for housing. Its best explained via an example
Scenario: 500 people come up for their transient housing needs in an emergency. Red Cross tells the government they can take 350 persons for the local area, the military says they have tents and cots able to also temporarily house up to 350 people. IC splits the 500 persons equally and says that both Red Cross and DoD now control 250 individuals that will be assigned to them. IC later sends someone to both sites for Red Cross and DoD to ensure that the minimum standards are being kept up and adhered to. Red Cross’s facilities seem appropriate and the numbers are tallied to make sure they have the 250 on site. When the IC’s representatives show up at the DoD tent site, they find the conditions do not conform to the standards necessary for transient housing. The military is used to cramped and stressful conditions and their standards for Soldiers’ housing is not the same as refugees (Van Dyke, 2021). The inspectors see that the DoD’s site really can only be certified for 150 persons. The IC then tells the DoD they are only certified for 150 persons and takes the remaining 100 persons that are now considered overflow by the DoD and assigns them to the Red Cross who has the capability to house them.
This approach can sometimes backfire when an agency attempts to gaslight the controlling agency when offering support, but the Red Cross and other NGOs have established a solid track record of success enabling them to be used in an emergency. Other governmental agencies can also establish guidleines long before an emergency and publish them for cross-talk and approval before they might be asked to be implemented. FEMA as a member of DHS probably already has conducted analysis of what DoD is likely to provide from National Guard units in their assigned regions and can help the DoD allocate resources in an emergency when its in charge.
Sarmad, K. (1991). Is the Private Sector more Productive than the Public Sector? The Pakistan Development Review, 30(4II), 721–729. https://doi.org/10.30541/v30i4iipp.721-729
Van Dyke, Z. (2020, March 20). Fort Bragg troops return to tent city; Fort Bliss conditions fuel complaints. The Fayetteville Observer. https://www.fayobserver.com/story/news/coronavirus/2020/03/20/fort-bragg-troops-return-to-tent-city-fort-bliss-conditions-fuel-complaints/112366094/.
(RESPONSE 2 APRIL)
Local governments’ emergency services are responsible for the first reaction to a catastrophe, with assistance from neighboring municipalities, the state, and volunteer organizations. Without knowledge of the local circumstances, it is impossible to evaluate survivors’ needs. The government must collaborate with people on the ground to ascertain the amount of damage and also to assess available resources. Simultaneously, it is critical to establish a central governing authority with sufficient authority to coordinate the different units.
The local government retains ownership of all assets utilized in response and recovery operations, regardless of their origin. With the assistance of the state and federal governments, with the assistance of the state and federal governments, must plan and prepare for this role (FEMA¹, n.d.).
The NIMS and NRF are complementary documents that aim to strengthen the Nation’s incident management and response capabilities. While the NIMS provides the framework for incident management regardless of size, breadth, or reason, the NRF establishes the structure and procedures for a national incident response policy.
The NIMS and the NRF work in tandem to integrate the resources and skills of multiple governmental municipalities, incident management and emergency response disciplines, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector into a cohesive, coordinated, and seamless national framework for domestic incident response (FEMA², n.d.)
When there is a coordinated effort, the possibility of effective emergency management arises. All stakeholders must be asked to participate in the process, and specific roles and duties must be established by and through the Federal Government (FEMA¹, n.d.)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (n.d.). Emergency Management Institute Lesson 2: Authority and Responsibility. Retrieved from https://emilms.fema.gov/is_0552/groups/251.html
Federal Emergency Management Agency² (n.d.). The Relationship between the NIMS and NRF. Retrieved from https://emilms.fema.gov/is_0552/groups/40.html
(RESPONSE 3 JASON)
Before discussing whether the Federal Government should maintain full control during a disaster, it is important to fully understand how they become involved. When a disaster occurs, the initial response is from the impacted location’s local and state governments. The local and state governments respond in their complete capacity until they have exhausted their response resources or when they become vastly overwhelmed. At this point, their state government can request Federal Government response assistance. “Response actions are organized under the National Response Framework” (Natural Disaster Response and Recovery).
Within Federal incident-level operations, the National Response Framework (NRF) outlines unified coordination where a designated Federal coordinating officer, State coordinating officer, and other senior officials partner with State officials, the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and the Joint Task Force (National Response Framework, p. 20, 2019). When Federal Government disaster response is requested, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assumes management of response and recovery operations. When local and state governments request Federal assistance, it is because they are unable to effectively manage operations, therefore it is necessary that the Federal Government maintain full control during the disaster.
During Federal Government response, they are not working independently from local and state government authorities – they work in coordination. Federal partnership under unified coordination indicates that they still utilize local and state response agencies. “… the federal role supplements that of the states and localities (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Maintaining “full control” does not mean that the Federal Government operates by themselves or makes decisions without state and local government coordination – it just means that they have the resources to fully manage the disaster and should do so in accordance with their organizational structure.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (n.d.). GOVINFO. https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/reports/Exec_Sum_FEMA.html
National Response Framework (Fourth Edition). (2019). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-04/NRF_FINALApproved_2011028.pdf
Natural disaster response and recovery. (n.d.). U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.doi.gov/recovery
Module 4 – Background
INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM; PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES PART II; DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
EOC organizations structures and staffing: Management and operations (2012, December). Mississippi Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from https://www.msema.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/0…
Ignore Discussion Questions after each section.
FEMA and federal partners continue to support areas affected by the aftermath of Sandy (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from https://www.govloop.com/community/blog/fema-and-fe… [Review the various federal agencies that are coordinated with FEMA.]
FEMA overview of federal efforts to prepare for and respond to Hurricane Maria (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/blog/overview-federal-efforts…
FEMA provides update on federal support to Hurricane Irma response (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/fema-pr…
How to address equity as part of COVID-19 incident command (2020, May 6). Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved from http://www.ihi.org/communities/blogs/how-to-addres…
National Preparedness Resource Library, FEMA http://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-resource…
Coronavirus Emergency Management Best Practices. FEMA. https://www.fema.gov/coronavirus/best-practices
Incident Command System Resources. FEMA. https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/icsresource/