Post University Principles an

Mackenzie B

RE: Unit 2: Discussion Questions

Pan (2013) provided multiple different principles and techniques that are important when it comes to writing a first draft. The first important guideline that Pan (2013) discussed was to include notes and unique aspects when labeling pieces of literature. This writer believes that it is extremely important to have a topic outline that includes brief notes because it keeps the writer on track and allows them to piece together their writing in a manner that it makes it easy to read, and one in which allows the writing to flow. In addition, this writer believes that it is useful to identify which reference will be used for each topic prior to writing because it prevents the writer from having to search for references when they are already in the middle of the writing the draft. This writer believes that this guideline will be useful when writing her own Action Research Case Project because it will allow her to organize her thoughts and help her find useful references for each topic within her project.

Another important principle when writing a first draft is to avoid using direct quotations, and if needed, only use them sparingly (Pan, 2013). This writer feels as though this is something she has struggled with, yet is actively trying to improve. A lot of the time this writer feels as though the authors of literature she is reading say important points in the best way possible, and therefore, this writer fears that she may misconstrue the author’s words or findings if she puts it in her own words. However, being able to paraphrase prevents writing from becoming choppy and allows the writing to flow better (Pan, 2013). Instead of quoting a whole sentence, Pan (2013) explained how it may be more effective to only quote the essential words in the sentence so that they do not lose their meaning, while still paraphrasing the rest of the sentence. Avoiding direct quotations in her writing will help this writer with her Action Research Case Project because she will be able to tailor facts and important findings to her project and be able to use those findings to explain how they directly connect to her case study.

Lastly, Pan (2013) discussed how it is important to point out when there is consistent findings within research. For example, this writer’s case study focuses on a broken family system, with parents who went through a messy divorce. Therefore, if this writer finds a great amount of literature that discusses how a parent’s divorce has a negative impact on their children’s mental health, it would be important that this writer identifies that this finding was evident across multiple different studies and sources. Doing so allows the reader to see that multiple different researchers have come to the same conclusion, in which emphasizes the importance of the point being made, as well as boosts its credibility. Overall, the basic principles and techniques this writer discussed above are only a select few that Pan (2013) discussed, however, the points this writer made are one’s in which she feels are most important, and most useful, for her.

The “Audience and Purpose” section of our Action Research Case Projects is extremely important because it allows readers and writers to understand, and connect with, their audience, as well as describe the purpose of the study. When it comes to writing the “Audience and Purpose” section of our Action Research Case Projects, this writer believes there are essential key points that must be included. First and foremost, it is important to decide who is going to benefit from the study (Stringer & Aragon, 2020). Stringer and Aragon (2020) discussed how from the beginning, researchers should continuously take notes about who will benefit from the project, as well as how they will benefit. These individuals will be the ones who are directly affected by the problem at hand, as well as those whom are directly involved in the study. These individuals would be an essential aspect of the “Audience and Purpose” section, as they are being directly impacted by the project and will be reading the report. Discussing the purpose of the study is also essential to this section, as doing so will allow the audience to understand why they are reading the report and why the study has taken place. This writer believes that defining the purpose of the study is one of the most important aspects because it allows readers to understand why the study is important and why it is worth their time to read and examine. Moreover, the purpose of the study allows the audience to understand how the project connects to them and how they could potentially benefit from the study. Without describing the purpose of the study, readers may not understand the importance of the project or the reason in which they are reading it.

Lastly, the “Literature Review” section of our Action Research Case Projects must include several key points that are essential to this part of the paper. According to Pan (2013), the purpose of a literature review is to analyze and summarize findings and studies about a certain topic. Doing so allows the writer to combine multiple different findings and ideas to create a new project that shows a great amount of knowledge and understanding of the topic at hand, in which allows readers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the study (Pan, 2013). With that being said, there are several important things that must be included in a literature review. First, in order to have a literature review you need sources and references that you are able to summarize and analyze. Therefore, it is important to finding multiple different scholarly articles that are relevant to the topic of your project, that will provide important findings and ideas that directly correlate to what is being studied. Moreover, the literature review should provide information about why this specific topic is worthy of having an action research project, as well as credible information in regards to treatment plans or diagnoses. Overall, the literature review should explain what the research says about the topic being discussed, as well as discuss the importance and relevance of this research. For example, this writer’s case study discusses parental divorce, parental substance abuse, and teenager mental illness. Therefore, within this writer’s literature review it may be useful to discuss what the research says about the impact of divorce on teenagers, or the impact of parental substance abuse on the mental well-being of their children. All in all, the literature provides an explanation of the research and why it is relevant to the study and project being discussed.


Pan, M. L. (2013). Preparing Literature Reviews: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (4th Ed.). Pyrczak Publishing.

Stringer, E. T., & Aragon, A. O. (2020). Action research (5th ed.). Sage Publication.

Ivette H

RE: Unit 2: Discussion Questions

Preparation is an important factor when creating a case study. When creating a case study, identifying the key issue can be considered the baseline of the study. Discuss why this specific case is being written and how it relates to addressing the problem. With that information incorporate relevant issues and facts and conduct extensive research on the problem. This is the point where it’s needed to demonstrate how well the problem is researched (Stringer, 2013). Lastly, provide a realistic solution, explain the rationale for choosing the solution. This should explain why this solution is proved to be best option and support it with evidence. However, case studies take time and effort to put together.

When creating the audience section, it is important to consider the audience’s needs in the research; the content; the background information that is provided; tone, style, and wording; and the frequency with which you define terminology. Analyzing the audience will help make the necessary decisions about what is written. Writers always have a specific reason for writing, and purpose includes what the author intends to accomplish in the writing and how the author wants the reader to use the information (Stringer, 2013). Purpose bridges the gap between audience and content, linking them inextricably to the writer.

The literature review should compose of an overview of the issue, along with the objectives. It should also have an explanation of how each work is like and how it varies from the others (Pan, 2013). When putting the pieces together it is important to consider in the argument what are the convincing opinions and what makes the greatest contribution to understanding the development of the area of research.


Pan, M. L. (2013). Preparing literature reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (4th Ed.). Pyrczak Publishing.

Stringer, E. T. (2013). Action research (4th ed.). Sage Publication.

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