Post University Qualitative R

Griselda V

RE: Unit 1.1 DB: Qualitative Research

Professor and classmates,

Qualitative research designs are not based upon on any one unified theoretical approach or method, but are actually based upon a variety of theoretical approaches and methods. There is however, one common underlying objective which is the understanding of an event, circumstance or phenomenon. Typically this requires the observance of individuals with difficulties or issues. Furthermore, Qualitative research is much different than quantitative methods and involves exploratory, interpretive and critical designs. Another option is to involve both methods as a combined research design. The advantage is that the research study will be more broad based and cover more aspects of any issue (McNabb, 2015).

Qualitative research includes: Focus groups, in-depths interviews, reviews of documents, non-statistical tests. In qualitative studies, research methods are set up which suggest the type of methods of observation which may be used and the type of data which may be collected. Analysis begins as soon as data begin to be collected. Analysis and data collection proceed in a cyclical fashion, where preliminary analysis informs subsequent data collection and so forth (Keegan, 2009).

An example of qualitative research design in the US Army is the ASVAB test which is a method of observation in collecting data to measure an applicant’s strengths, weaknesses, military occupations, and potential for future success. What the Army would like to see is for all individuals to score a 50 or above.

References

McNabb, D. E. (2015). Research Methods in Public Administration and Nonprofit Management. London: Routledge.

Keegan, S. (2009). Qualitative Research: Good Decision Making Through Understanding People, Cultures and Markets. Kogan Page.
Amy H


According to Fossey, Harvey, McDermott and Davidson (2016), qualitative research looks to address the concerns of developing and understanding the meaning and experiences of human life and society. Determining if it is good is based on whether the participants’ meanings, actions and social contexts are understood and displayed (Fossey, et al., 2016). In this writer’s current position, the research that she does is based on the clients in which she is assigned. Upon receiving the client information, she is to contact that client and discuss what type of services they are looking for. My organization provides referrals, support groups and workshops as well as short term counseling and advocacy. The first step in a short term counseling session is to go over the confidentiality agreement, consent to counsel, as well as a grievance policy. We go over these forms and make sure the client has understood each one of them before having them sign it. When going over informed consent, it is crucial for the client to be competent enough to understand what they are signing (Sheperis, Young and Daniels, 2017). Evaluating client needs and how their culture and society play a part in successfully treating them is part of the research in which this writer does. Examining the lack of services allows this writer to pass the information on to the Legistlature as well as other state and local organizations that can help provide those missing services, such as shelters for teens and mandatory trainings for caregivers.

The benefits that the clients see is an expansion of services that will help them be successful in their treatment. When clients are suffering through trauma from Sexual Assault, it can create other mental health disorders, adding to the already traumatizing events. Some of our clients need emergency shelters or temporary housing that can not be provided due to the lack of resources. We also service clients with more complex disorders that we are not trained to handle, so having the additional resources for them can be impartive to their success. The benefits for the organization is that the Advocates feel a sense of pride and joy from being able to help their clients in a way that helps everyone around them.

Fossey, E., Harvey, C., McDermott, F., and Davidson, L., (2016). Understanding and evaluating qualitative research. Pennsylvania State University

Sheperis, C.J., Young, J.S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Sheila H

RE: Unit 1.2 DB: Quantitative Research

Quantitative research reduces data collected into numbers and statistics, such as percentages and averages, so that the data can be analyzed and interpreted (Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2019). Quantitative research depends on random, large sample sizes, a hypotheses, and an objective stance in the data collection—all of these have positive and negative implications and limitations (Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2019). Samples of quantitative research can be found in use in commercials for products, news’ stories, and even social media.

In thinking about quantitative research used in commercials, I immediately thought of the Colgate ad that claims, “80% of dentists recommend Colgate.” That sounds like good, hard data to listen to, but quantitative research can be misleading, too. If you read that 50% of marriages end in divorce, it doesn’t mean that if you don’t file for divorce that your spouse will (Fallow, 2021). In the case of Colgate, the statistic was based on a survey that allowed dentists to select more than one brand of toothpaste, so that percentage just meant that 80% of the surveyed ticked off Colgate as one of the brands they would recommend (Fallow, 2021)—not so impressive.

Quantitative research is used frequently in news stories. A quick search of CNN produced a news story on the Delta variant of Covid-19 and provided statistics to back up their claims (Holcombe, 2021). Using reliable information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Holcombe reported that 46.1% of the American population has been vaccinated against Covid-19 (2021). The states that are most in trouble with this new variant are that states where only 35% of the population has been vaccinated (Holcombe, 2021). This article goes on to name many statistics that may become somewhat meaningless for readers trying to navigate an article full of a sea of percentage signs. While numbers can be helpful to understand risk, perhaps they can become overdone in some news stories and thus lose their impact.

Social media is often used for quantitative research for marketers; an easy way to learn about customers and what they want to purchase is to perform polls through social media, like Instagram (Razo, 2020). Customer feedback is free and provides a wealth of information for businesses; marketers can use Instagram Stories poll stickers to receive yes or no answers to questions and analyze the numerical data that is received (Razo, 2020). Swipe up links and quiz stickers can also mine data into statistical data that can be easily analyzed by businesses (Razo, 2020). This collected information may not even be thought of as intrusive to many consumers because they are so used to clicking and swiping that they are not even realizing they are giving away free information to companies; for businesses, they are able to have direct feedback from customers that is easily gathered and analyzed by computers for their convenience.

References

Fallow, M. (2021). But it says here . . . Stuff. https://www.stuff.co.nz/southland-times/news/features/125415927/but-it-says-here—

Holcombe, M. (2021). The Delta variant will cause ‘very dense outbreaks’ in these five states, expert says. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2021/06/28/health/us-coronavir…

Pyrczak, F. & Tcherni-Buzzeo, M. (2019). Evaluating research in academic journals: A practical guide to realistic evaluation (7th ed.). Pyrczak Publishing.

Razo, V. (2020). How to use Instagram stories for market research: 5 ideas for marketers. Social Media Examiner. https://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/how-to-use-ins…

Griselda V

Professor and classmates,

Quantitative research design differ from qualitative research design in the sense that with quantitative research design you will get more of a generalizable answer to the research you are conducting because it is mostly based on data that can be measured, this type of research is based on using numbers, scientific methods and doing statistical tests to provide data while qualitative research design is less generalizable, this type of research design is usually based on the opinions for example of those subjects you are interviewing or the research material you are using to do your research, it is mostly subjective to the described problem or opinions of those you are interviewing for your research.

Quantitative research includes: Doing observations about the subjects you are researching, reviewing records, conducting surveys, this type of research is number-based, statistical tests; this type of research depends on using measurement devices and instruments. In quantitative studies, the research methods are set before observation begins and specify the methods of observation which may be used and the type of data which may be collected. Observations are collected before analysis begins. After the analysis is complete, no more observations are taken. Quantitative risk analysis is a further analysis of the highest priority with a numerical value as a rating scheme. This is necessary in order to develop a probabilistic analysis of a project. For example, there is numerous software-centric systems that can import data from a qualitative charts and use it to create solution for existing risk (Belinda, 2011).

QUALITATIVE

QUANTITATIVE

Risk-level

Project-level

Subjective evaluation of probability and impact

Probabilistic estimates of time and cost

Quick and easy to perform

Time consuming

No special software or tools required

May require specialized tools

An example of quantitative research design in the US Army is determined by conducting an Army Physical Fitness test that determines which soldiers are physically fit and mentally strong and in those instances the soldiers will scores 280 points or above (Army Field Manual 5-19, 2016).

References

Army Field Manual 5-19 (2016). Risk Assessment and Management. Retrieved from:https://ia.signal.army.mil/iaf/iasolesson8.asp

Belinda, F. (2011). Qualitative Risk Analysis vs Quantitative Risk Analysis. Retrieved from:https://www.passionatepm.com/blog/qualitative-risk-analysis-vs-quantitative-risk-analysis-pmp-concept-1

Rebecca G

RE: Unit 1.3 DB: Literature Review

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current information, allowing one to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the present research (Center, 2021). Writing a literature review involves finding pertinent publications such as books and journal articles, critically analyzing them, and explaining what is found. According to Bolderston, 2008 there are five key steps, search for relevant literature, evaluate sources, identify themes, debates, and gaps, outline the structure, and writing the literature review. A good literature review does not just summarize sources it analyzes, integrates, and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the status of information on the subject (Bolderston, 2008).

This writer would write her literature review on methods to help opioid cravings and how to assist addicts to overcome them. First, this writer would seek clarification by identify what sources to use and how to gather data, such as using surveys or current available data on the same topic to gain a better understanding of how to organize her own review. Next, this writer would narrow down the topic and research what the actual ways are to reduce cravings for opioid user. This writer would like to contribute to other drug and alcohol clinicians by providing a literature review on how to stop craving, therefore improving how clinicians can assist each other by sharing information learned.

References

Bolderston, A. (2008). Writing an Effective Literature Review. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, 86-92.

Center, T. W. (2021). Literature Reviews University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from https://writingcenter.unc.edu: https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/liter…

Griselda V

Good afternoon Professor and classmates,

A literature review is a part of research that encapsulates pertinent information. Finding literature, more recent and relevant literature in particular, is essential in that it helps one analyze and understand the context of previous research on a certain topic, detect any patterns, as well as help map different approaches to one’s hypothesis. As Heraclitus once stated, “things are in a constant state of change, nothing remains the same”, quoting, “you never step into the same river twice”. Policies, standards, codes of ethics, principles, and research are essential guides to counseling professionals (Prinstein, 2003). In addition, counseling professionals have a social responsibility as they are expected and entrusted that they remain up to date with any changes regarding policies, standards, research, and essentially, codes of ethics. They hold the responsibility of monitoring and evaluating their practice and ensure that services that they provide remain effective (Goerzen, 2006). Research is important in that it guides counseling professionals in the implementation of theoretical approaches and in setting efficient goals that fit the needs of clients (Vera, 2020).

According to Sheperis, Young, and Daniels (2017), there are five important aspects in relation to a research project that helps ensure a well-organized, time-efficient, and thorough investigation of the literature. Those five aspects include a) defining the perimeters of counseling, b) determining the practicality, significance, and cultural understanding of the research question, c) determining tools of methodology such as sampling, d) avoiding the unintentional replication of previous studies and, e) placing researchers in a position to interpret the significance of their own results (Sheperis et. Al., 2017). Additionally, there are five steps that shape the framework of a literature review: 1) Identification of a topic for investigation, 2) locating relevant literature on the topic chosen, 3) critical evaluation of existing literature, 4) organizing the quality and relevancy of information, and 5) presenting the information (Sheperis et. Al., 2017).

In restating the importance of research in the counseling and human services field, the British Association for Counseling and Psychotherapy report that research benefits both clients and practitioners (Promoting Research, 2021). In essence, research helps identify range of therapies that may be beneficial for clients and it helps counselors monitor their client’s progress and outcomes.

References

Goerzen, Monique. (2006). The Development of Outcome Measurement Resources and Tools for Community Counselling Standards for the Northwest Territories. Retrieved from http://dtpr.lib.athabascau.ca/action/download.php?filename=caap/moniquegoerzenProject.pdf

Prinstein, M. J. (2003). The portable mentor: Expert guide to a successful career in psychology. New York: Kluwer Academic. Springer Science & Business Media.

Promoting Research. (2021). Why Research is Important to the Counseling Professions. Retrieved from https://www.bacp.co.uk/about-us/advancing-the-profession/research/

Sheperis, C.J., Young, J.S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Vera, Griselda. (2020). Family Systems Theory Course. Post University

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