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Directions: After reading all assigned chapters and stories, pick one story and then pick one question to answer for your Discussion Board post.

For clarification, do not answer all the questions for one story. Do not answer all of the questions for all of the stories. Just pick one question to answer for one of the assigned stories (“How to Talk to Girls at Parties,” “A&P,” or “Miss Brill”).

Each answer will have this 5-part formula. Each part is 1-2 sentences. This is the response format for all discussion board posts. (10 pts.):

Chapter number – topic, “Title of Short Story,” Question #

Q: Write the question you are answering.

A: Construct your answer as a paragraph using this formula below.

a. Answer the question fully (2 pts.)

b. Explain the context of what is happening. (2 pts.)

c. Integrate a supporting quote by stating who says the quote with an action verb and provide a parenthetical citation to show where it came from. 

Ex: Character says, “Quote” (pg. #, paragraph #). <– Note that the period is not after the quote but after the parenthetical citation. (2 pts.)

d. Provide analysis explaining how the quote supports or demonstrates your answer. (2 pts.)

Read this Example to help guide your construction:

Chapter 7 – Plot, “How to Talk to Girls at Parties,” Question #9

Q: What is an example of foreshadowing for Vic’s climactic encounter?

A: In the exposition, the beginning of the story, Vic is shown to be a young man who does not care about society’s morals as demonstrated by his disregard for the law. Enn describes this memory. Enn says, “I had been there when Vic had slipped one of those magazine beneath his sweater, but the owner caught him on the pavement outside and made him give it back” (pg. 132, para. 12). This instance shows that Vic does not care about consequences. If he wants something, he will take it, and the pornographic magazine symbolizes his general attitude in how he perceives women as objects to be taken. 

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Part 1: This week we learned about social cognition – or how we think about, evaluate, or make guess about people or social situations. Pull out 2 things you found super interesting from this weeks reading on this topic and additionally, answer ONE of the following to answer (Saylor Foundation, n.d., page 20).

1. Describe a time when you learned new information or new behaviors through operant, associational, or observational learning.

2. Think about a time when you made a snap judgment about another person. Did your expectations about people influence your judgment of this person? Was the judgment fair or unfair?

3. Consider some of your beliefs about the people you know. Were these beliefs formed through assimilation, accommodation, or a combination of both? Do you think that your expectations now influence how you respond to these people?

4. Describe a time when you might have unfairly used an expectation about another person. Did the expectation serve as an energy saver?

Part 2: This week’s reading not only covered what and how we think in the context of a social situation, it also covered how we feel about it all. Social affect refers broadly to our feelings about ourselves and others. Pull out two facts about social affect you found interesting from the reading on this topic and, additionally, answer ONE of the following (Saylor Foundation, n.d., Chapter 3) :

1. Describe a time when a particular secondary emotion had an important influence on your life.

2. Consider a time when your behaviors or judgments were based more on affect than on cognition. Were the outcomes positive or negative?

3. Visit the website of Paul Ekman, who has extensively studied the facial expressions of emotion ( Explain the outcomes of some of his important research.

4. Have you ever misattributed an emotion? If so, what was the impact of doing so?

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Select an author or authors from any of the poems that we have read this semester and write a literary analysis of one or two of their poems. Focus on one to three literary elements (language, tone, point of view, form, imagery, figures of speech…) and explain how these elements connect to a larger theme of the poem.

Below are some possible suggestions for thesis topics. In options #1-4, there are questions to help guide your thinking. You

to the question is your thesis. Select an author or authors from any of the poems that we have read this semester and write a literary analysis of one or two of their poems.

  1. What is the theme of the poem? State the theme and identify one element that expresses the theme and give three examples. (Example – What is the theme of “Evolution”? How does Sherman Alexie’s use of word choice help readers understand the theme of “Evolution?”)
  2. Examine the imagery of a poem, explaining how the images convey the poem’s theme. (Example – How does the imagery in Langston Hughes’ “Negro” contribute to the poem’s theme that exploitation of Africans and African descendants has occurred throughout history?)
  3. Analyze the speaker of a poem, discussing how the speaker’s persona contributes to the theme(s) of the poem. (Example: How does the speaker’s persona in Percy Shelley’s “Ozymandias” affect the poem itself?)
  4. Compare one author’s poems: “Author X uses poetic devices A, B, and C, in ‘Poem 1’ and ‘Poem 2’ to express the theme of ________”.
  5. Compare two authors’ poems: “Author X’s poem A and Author Y’s poem B use poetic devices A, B, and C to express the theme of ________”.
  6. What is the theme of the poem? Identify three elements used to express a theme. State the theme and give an example for each element. (Example: Countee Cullen’s “Incident” employs rhyme, imagery, and word choice to express the theme that a racist incident can deeply affect a person.) 3-5 pages. All essays must provide textual evidence from the poem in the form of direct quotes, which must be properly cited according to MLA style (refer to your textbook Chapter 2 and 3 for example essays and Chapter 2 for MLA documentation).
  7. STRUCTURE & ORGANIZATION REQUIREMENTS: Following the Literary Analysis Outline structure, an introductory paragraph leads to a thesis statement, at least three body paragraphs prove/support the thesis, a conclusion paragraph finishes the paper, and a Works Cited list with the poem(s) and research is on a separate page. Each body paragraph must have a topic sentence, context, quote, analysis, and conclusion.RESEARCH REQUIREMENT: You must find ONE SOURCE from the PGCC LIBRARY DATABASE to support one of your points. The Gale Literature Database is the most helpful for literary analysis.

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Please provide an aside or constructive feedback to the following two Topics. Do you agree with the analysis presented? Why? Do you have some additional thoughts on the topic? Share them. When providing your feedback present the logic behind it.

Topic 1

Albert Ellis’ work in developing clinical theories to support persons dealing with personal crisis resulted in Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). REBT is a therapy that guides patients to identify irrational or negative thought patterns that produce maladaptive emotions and/or behaviors. Along with pinpointing irrational thoughts, REBT also uses and A-B-C model as a guide for the therapy to be effective. A represents “activating experiences” or a trigger which refers to an event of ongoing experience that is the root of an issue. B represents the beliefs that a person hold that are responses to the activating experience. Finally, C represents the ”consequences” which typically are the feelings that stem from A and B. In REBT a therapist would use the A-B-C model to identify each aspect and then work to dispute the beliefs, thus reversing the consequence.

One of the irrational beliefs laid out by Ellis, amongst his list of common irrational beliefs, that I can relate to my own beliefs is the notion that “if something is or may be dangerous or fearsome we should be terribly upset and endlessly obsess about it – instead of the idea that one would better frankly face it and render it non-dangerous and, when that is not possible, accept the inevitable” (Boeree, p. 6). This irrational thought could be used in various scenarios for persons managing anxiety disorders due to the immense amount of fear and obsession that comes with having the disorder. To analyze a particular scenario based on the stated irrational thought I will use the A-B-C model to analyze it.

  1. A person experienced being hit by a car at age 7. Person broke their leg and ankle.
  2. The person feels that cars are unsafe and refuses to get into cars. Because of this they are limited to riding public transportation and securing rides making them believe they are a burden and unable to be self-sufficient.
  3. The consequence to the belief and the activating experience in this scenario could be depression, anxiety, and sadness or a combination of all.

In addition to the reading on Ellis’ theory, the readings this week proved to be very interesting and informative. Chapter 14 discussed B.F. Skinners theory on behavior and how people learn behaviors through observation, punishment, modeling, and reinforcement. After the previous readings on other behaviorists and personality theorists, Skinner is one of the only theorist that put an emphasis on the consequences of behavior which can be either punishment or reinforcement. The nature of the consequences, according to Skinner, are monumental in determining the likelihood of a behavior increasing, decreasing, or occurring again in the future, thus shaping behaviors (Allen, 2016).

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Therories.

Allen, B.P. (2016). Personality theories: development, growth, and diversity (5th ed.). Psychology Press.

Topic 2

Post a brief analysis of what you have learned from this week’s readings and activities. Clearly identify each segment of the required response in order to facilitate discussion development.

Chapter 14: I learned about B.F. Skinner, how he had a behaviorist approach, and his theory about reinforcement and operant conditioning. He believed we were controlled by our environment and focused on studying three things when it came to human behavior: 1) The occasion in which the event occurs, 2) the response, 3) the consequences of the action ((“It’s all a Matter of Consequences: B.F. Skinner,” 2016, pp. 331-337).

Chapter 15: I learned about Henry Murray, and his concept of need, which is a driving force in the way the mind works, and how there are two different types of needs:

1 – Psychogenic needs, which are secondary to biological needs, and falls into two categories:

Adience: Positive-need-promoting, which propel us towards objects or people. Examples are achievement, affiliation, exhibition, and even dominance.

Abience: Negative-need-promoting, which pushes us away from objects or people. Examples are autonomy and contrariance.

2 – Vicerogenic needs, which involve basic biological drives.

Adience: An approach orientation to objects, like food, water, and physical contact.

Abience: An avoidant orientation o objects, like urination, defecation, and several types of physical and environmental avoidance.

(“Human Needs and Environmental Press: Henry A. Murray,” 2016, pp. 363-364)

Chapter 16: I learned about Cattell and Eysenck and their trait approach to personality. It is like a pyramid, with common traits being at the top. Common traits are ones that can be measure for all people by the same types of tests. Next, is the second order traits, which are the super factors that subsume other traits, meaning that most of the other traits fall under second order traits. Two examples of this are the exvia-invia traits and anxiety. Then come source traits, which is a factor-dimension, and is broken up into three categories:

1 – Ability traits

2 – Temperament traits

3 – Dynamic traits

Finally, there are surface traits, which are characteristics that are influenced by external sources

(“The Trait Approach to Personality: Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck,” 2016, pp. 384-387).

Ideas: Review Ellis’ model (Boeree, 2006). Select one “irrational idea” discussed that you believe relates to your own beliefs. Using the A-B-C Model, select a behavioral scenario and explain how this belief causes you (or might cause you) emotional distress. (Distress here can mean being upset, sad, angry, depressed, etc.) Explain each A, B & C element within your example scenario.

The only peer reviewed article on Ellis that I found by Dr. George Boeree talked about rational emotive behavioral therapy, which starts with ABC, or

Activating Experiences – The things that we see that we note as the sources of our unhappiness

Beliefs – The irrational beliefs regarding the activating experiences are the actual sources of our unhappiness

Consequences – The neuroses and negative emotions that come from our beliefs


I will pick an example event:

Activating event: A patient and her spouse welcome an adult child of the spouse to come live with them. This comes with its own troubles, because the patient is used to a certain way of life, and along comes this new family member with their own thoughts, beliefs, and actions. This will most certainly cause conflicts between the patient and the new family member, and the spouse will feel the need to take sides, causing conflict between the patient and the spouse.

Beliefs: The patient will feel isolated in thier their own home, and outnumbered by the spouse and their family member 2 to 1. They will feel as though even if the child is the cause of the problem, they will always be seen as the problem because they are the outsider in this situation. To them, it isn’t a blended family, it is the spouse and their kid, with the patient being the third wheel. Any say that the patient has had in that household has gone out the window now that the spouse is spending time with the child. Whether it is a family food budget, a cleaning regime, or even a say in what show to watch on the shared television, the patient will feel as though they are being ignored.

Consequences: The patient will feel isolated, angry and dejected. They will be more likely to lash out over trivial things and be resentful towards both the child and the spouse. This causes pain and exhaustion, both emotionally and physically (as stress can cause real life pain).


Boeree, G. (2006). Albert Ellis.

Human Needs and Environmental Press: Henry A. Murray. (2016). In Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity (pp. 363–364). Routeledge.…

It’s all a Matter of Consequences: B.F. Skinner. (2016). In Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity (pp. 331–337). Routeledge.…

The Trait Approach to Personality: Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. (2016). In Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity (pp. 384–387). Routeledge.…

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Write about three literary devices or essay writing techniques you learned about  this semester and how you might use them after this couurse.MLA format, 2-4 pages

1st topic

Grammar writing and reading

Ch. 4: Understanding Fiction (pg. 66-80)

Ch. 7: Plot (pg. 123-155) — “How to Talk to Girls at Parties” pg. 132-142

Ch. 8: Character (pg. 156-194) — “A&P” pg. 160-166, “Miss Brill” pg. 166-172

2 topic

Ch. 12: Symbol, Allegory, and Myth (pg. 328-380) — “Everyday Use” pg. 344-352

Ch. 13: Theme (pg. 381-424) — “The Rocking-Horse Winner” pg. 409-424

Pick a story and argue a literary theme (author’s message) using three elements.

3 topic

2. Read all the chapters and poems listed below.

Ch. 15: Understanding Poetry (pg. 486-499)

Ch. 16: Voice (pg. 499-533) “Negro” p. 502, “Ozymandias” pg. 522-523, “Evolution” pg. 523-524, “Ballad of Birmingham” pg. 529-530

Ch. 17: Word Choice/Order (pg. 534-559) – “Bilingual/Bilingue” pg. 537-538, “in Just” pg. 540-541, “’Mexican’ Is Not a Noun” pg. 542-543, “The English Canon” pg. 548-549, “We Real Cool” pg. 551-55


Ch. 18: Imagery (pg. 560-574) – “Cloud Painter” p. 560-561, “Red Wheelbarrow” p. 563, “In a Station of the Metro” p. 564, “The Great Figure” pg. 565-566, “An Apology” p. 567, “Nothing Gold Can Stay” pg. 569-570

Ch. 19: Figures of Speech (pg. 575-608) — “Harlem” p. 577, “Rooming Houses Are Old Women” p. 579, “Metaphors” p. 582, “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” p. 583, “The Secretary Chant” pg. 584-585, “Incident” pg. 597-598

Ch. 20: Sound (pg. 609-631) — “Sadie and Maud” pg. 609-611, “A Little Tooth” pg. 618-619, “Delight in Disorder” p. 622, “The Road Not Taken” pg. 624-625, “Where the Sidewalk Ends” pg. 626-627, “Evolution of My Block” pg. 627-628 Pick a poem and argue a literary theme (author’s message) using three literary elements from the poetry unit.

Topic 5

Ch. 25: Understanding Drama (pg. 802-829)

Ch. 27: Plot (pg. 850-854)

Read, Watch – Trifles (pg. 867-881)

Ch. 28: Character (pg. 943-955)

Read, Watch Fences, Act 1 – (pg. 1270-1306)

Read, Watch Fence, Act 2 – (pg. 1306-1331)TOPIC 6

– Choose a common thematic message between two different works (story, poem, play, song, or movie). Compare and contrast how both works express that message. What three literary elements do each author used to express thematic messages

These are the semester course outline you ask me to send you 

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Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is for you to show your understanding of peer-reviewed empirical articles through: 1) reviewing original research; 2) evaluating claims, methods, and conclusions; and 3) communicating your analysis in a way that translates scientific information into common terms for a general audience. In writing an article review, you gain skills in summarizing key points and findings, interpreting results, evaluating the validity of the methods used and results reported, and communicating information to an audience in ways they understand.

Step 1: Read the article starting with the Title and Abstract, which will give you a quick preview of the purpose and results of the article.

Step 2: Read the Introduction. Highlight the purpose of the article and the author’s hypothesis (e.g., what was studied, what the authors predicted, and why they found the topic worthy of study). Pay attention to the context provided for the research (i.e., what research has been done previously in the field? what issue or problem is this study trying to address?)

Step 3: Read the Methods section. Note the description of the participants and any tests, surveys, questionnaires, apparatus, or other materials that were used. Pay particular attention to the details involved in the experimental procedure. How were the variables manipulated or measured? Recall that the Independent Variable (IV) is the variable that is manipulated by the research (i.e., whether the room is hot or cold (if that is the variable of interest) or whether participants are given a placebo, shown any type of media or other stimuli, given talk therapy, or instructed to take medication (if that is the variable of interest). Remember that the Independent Variable is what was different about the experiences of the different groups. Recall also that the Dependent Variable (DV) is that variable that is measured, or, the outcome of the study (i.e., test performance or lessening of depressive symptoms).

Step 4: Read the Results. Try not to get intimidated by complex statistical analysis. Instead of focusing on the numbers, focus on the short descriptions that accompany the findings explaining what the researchers found (i.e., Did the researchers find evidence that supports their hypothesis?)

Step 5: Read the Discussion. Pay special attention here to what the authors say about the importance of their findings or the lack of findings. Think about other things you could do to look at this issue.

Step 6: Prepare a 2 to 5 page summary of the article in your own words.  Be sure to address the following questions in your summary:

  • What is the purpose of the research? (Address specifics regarding the overall purpose of the research in question.)
  • What hypothesis is tested? (Provide a clear statement of the researchers’ prediction.)
  • How did the researchers investigate their research question? (Provide details regarding the study methodology.)
  • What are the pertinent results of the manipulation? (What were the findings and conclusions drawn?)
  • What is your personal opinion of the study conducted? Should it be repeated?  What could be improved?
  • What is your overall impression of the work? What are the implications of the study for the practice of counseling psychology?

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I’m working on a nursing case study and need an explanation to help me study.

1.J.P. is a 50-year-old man who presents to the gastroenterologist with cramping and diarrhea.

Subjective Data

Pain level is a 6/10 location = right and left lower abdomen

Works as a union construction worker, has missed 1 day of work

States he has been going to the bathroom about 8 to 10 times a day for past 2 days

Appetite is decreased

PMH: Crohn disease, depression, anxiety

Objective Data

Vital signs: T 37 P 80 R 14 BP 120/68

Bowel sounds hyperactive in all four quadrants

Medications: Infliximab (Remicade) infusions every 6 weeks, fluoxetine (Prozac) 25 mg per day

Weight = 145, last visit weight = 152


1.What other assessments should be included for this patient?

2.What questions should the nurse ask with regard to the abdominal pain?

3.From the readings, subjective data, and objective data, what is the most probable cause of the abdominal pain?

4.Develop a problems list from the subjective and objective findings.

5.What should be included in the plan of care?

6.What interventions should be included in the plan of care for this patient?

2.S.P. is a 3-year-old female toddler who presents to the pediatrician’s office for a yearly well visit. The child complains that her leg hurts.

Subjective Data

PMH of otitis media

Immunizations: Up to date

No medications

No allergies

Pain: 3/5 on pain scale

Attends preschool

Unable to recall injuring leg

Objective Data

Vital signs: T 37 P 92 R 18 BP 100/70

Lungs: clear in all fields

Heart rate and rhythm regular

Moving all extremities

+ Range of motion (ROM) legs and arms

Strength 5/5 in all extremities


1.What other questions should the nurse ask?

2.What techniques are helpful to incorporate in assessing a patient in this age group?

3.What other assessments should the nurse make for this clinical presentation?

4.What are a few of the major differences in the musculoskeletal assessment of a child?

5.What should be included in the plan of care?

6.Based on the readings, what is the most likely cause of leg pain for this patient?

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I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

  1. Please provide an aside to the below discussion
  2. An important part of research is separating the good from the bad. Research shows that even the best and brightest students may hold some beliefs in pseudoscience. It also shows that if discussions about pseudoscience are not handled correctly, there can be a backfire effect where the example of pseudoscience is remembered but not that the claim is actually false (Impey, Buxner, & Antonellis, 2012; Lewandowsky et al., 2012). Describe pseudoscience and give a detailed example (PLEASE DO NOT USE ASTROLOGY AS AN EXAMPLE). Explain how you would teach about your example so that it is clear that it is pseudoscience.

Pseudoscience is known as “activities and beliefs that are claimed to be scientific by their proponents—and may appear to be scientific at first glance—but are not” (Saylor). Years ago, it was first believed that “the traditional understanding of the scientific method was to look at the world with a scientific eye is to observe with no preconceived notions”. (Crash Course 2016). Karl Popper believed that everyone has preconceived notions of some kind. It starts out with what we believe to be true, a set truth based off what we have observed. We often care about certain situations then determine a belief based off that observation. With pseudoscience is the method that serves as a bases of confirmed beliefs for an individual, it can be used to prove anything. The main concern will have to be that if someone believes in a certain thing, they can use Freud’s system to try and justify anything. If I believed in the Easter bunny and I try to find proof/ evidence that it exists I will be able to. The stores and internet is full of items such as stories, bunnies, eggs, jellybeans and movies pertaining to the Easter bunny existence. Science can prove there is no easter bunny, pseudoscience proves there is.

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I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Please provide a comment/aside to the below post:

  1. An important part of research is separating the good from the bad. Research shows that even the best and brightest students may hold some beliefs in pseudoscience. It also shows that if discussions about pseudoscience are not handled correctly, there can be a backfire effect where the example of pseudoscience is remembered but not that the claim is actually false (Impey, Buxner, & Antonellis, 2012; Lewandowsky et al., 2012). Describe pseudoscience and give a detailed example (PLEASE DO NOT USE ASTROLOGY AS AN EXAMPLE). Explain how you would teach about your example so that it is clear that it is pseudoscience.

People believe in some pseudoscience’s. These are projects and beliefs that people say are scientific and may look to be scientific at first, but they later prove to be false.

An example of a pseudoscience is the show Ancient Aliens. This show has the theory that Aliens/extraterrestrials have come to earth for millions of years and have left their mark through cave drawings and plot and crop farms. Each episode shows the crop farms or cave drawings and how the ancient aliens have left their mark on the earth, as well as giving a detailed piece of history to make it more believable. The episodes also describe the “evidence” and make it extremely specific to each tailored episode.

The way I would teach that Ancient Aliens is a clear example of a pseudoscience is first, the show exclaims that scientists have no true evidence about how the Bermuda triangle happened or how airplanes disappear. This is false, and given that information leaves room to believe there could be multiple false statements needed in the shows dialogue to “prove” the points they are tying to make.

Archeologists also have an issue with pseudoscience because Archeologists dig up the facts and try to present it in a way that seems interesting yet also is very factual. Since Ancient Aliens can be more interesting and authors can spin information to keep you hooked, it is a lot harder for real archeologists to improve their writing to keep it as entertaining. Therefore this leads to people watching shows that may not be very factual, although with the right exaggerations, can lead to outstanding reviews and beliefs.

I would also teach this in a way where I would encourage students to read about Archeology, go to ancient history museums that include dinosaurs, and learn about uncovering fossils to further their understanding of ancient times.

Saylor Academy. Research Methods in Psychology. Chapter 1, “The Science of Psychology,” page 4.

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  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a competent witness?

6 points


  1. For a conviction in a criminal court, the government must prove:

6 points


  1. All of the following are evidentiary in a court of law except:

6 points


  1. The police noticed a domestic violence situation occurring in a backyard while flying their police drone in a crime-ridden neighborhood. Within minutes, they also received calls from the neighbors who stated they saw the husband come outside and retrieve a gun from the trunk of his car and yell out “get ready to meet death.” This residence is a known drug house and is heavily fortified. Under what situation can the police enter this house without a warrant?

6 points


  1. Which privilege is perhaps the oldest of all of the privileges?

6 points


  1. Which amendment in the Bill of Rights is directly related to the Miranda warning?

6 points


  1. As an attorney, which evidence is not the best evidence to have in a court of law?

6 points


  1. All of the following are legal parameters of a photographic array except:

6 points


  1. The inevitable discovery rule is defined as:

6 points


  1. Which one of the following situations would have evidence excluded under the exclusionary rule?

When can writings or documents be used as evidence in court? Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

2. What types of evidence can be brought into court? Your response must be at least 75 words in length

3. What are two examples of evidence that can be used in court as long as the evidence followed the proper chain of custody? Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

4. What is meant by exclusionary evidence? Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

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A key purpose to this exercise is to identify ways data is transformed into information, through the use of the visualization, helping to extract meaning from the data. Familiarize yourself with the Global Burden of Disease 2010 site from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and other data visualization tools (see Learning Activities and Supplemental Resources). Look through the various data visualizations and experiment with the filters to adjust parameters in each tool. Now familiarize yourself with the available datasets. Search for a dataset that is associated to your favorite visualization tool (not all visualizations have a dataset that is available to download). Your choice should be one that is interesting to you and where the dataset correlates to the visualization. You will use the dataset and corresponding visualization for the remainder of this project.

Answer the following questions in your paper/presentation:

  • Very briefly describe your dataset and the public health concern it is connected to. This should be through, but brief.
  • When viewing the dataset by itself what information are you able to glean, if anything? Try sorting columns or filtering in a spreadsheet application like Excel.
  • Document your experience with the raw data, especially your thoughts or impressions of meaning related to data.
  • Next, focus on the visualization, recording your experience.
    • What filters did you adjust?
    • Were you able to click on individual data points to see their specific details?
    • Does the visualization have a “play” button allowing you to see the progress through time as an animation?
    • Was there an ability to zoom?
  • Take your interaction with these tools a step further to answer the overarching question:
    • How does the visualization of data help elucidate meaning, thereby transforming data?
    • To answer this question, be sure to compare and contrast your experience with the raw data against the visualization tool.

Be sure to include figures, tables, and charts (taking screenshots or a screencast could help) to convey your message. You are free to select the most appropriate tool for presenting the data and visualization you selected, along with your analysis and conclusions. You can use anything from office products (Microsoft Office, LibreOffice, Apple iWork) and their associated programs (i.e., Word, Excel, and/or PowerPoint) to video, screencast, screenshots, or web-based tools like Google presentations, Prezi, Powtoon, Emaze, or blog. Be creative.

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First, choose a psychological process or disorder to examine, then choose a biological line of investigation to pursue.

The psychological process might be something like aggression, sexual orientation, or attention; or it could be a disorder like Alzheimer’s disease, addiction, dyslexia or obesity.

The biological line of investigation could be hereditary (genetic) influences, drug treatments, brain localization, or cross-species comparisons. Combine one of them with the psychological process or disorder you chose.

Feel free to select something unconventional, such as memory transfer in Planaria or why so-called “brain food” or brain exercises work or won’t work. Anyone interested in how neuroscience is being “weaponized” using drugs, brain stimulation or brain training to enhance performance can find plenty of unclassified articles to use. You don’t have to avoid controversy. If sex differences in some area seem worth looking into, go ahead.

New areas of research include links between brain inflammation and mental health, predictive memory and default mode networks, epigenetic influences on behavior, highly superior autobiographical memory, and so-called smart or nootropic drugs.


The class project for this course is a written report, that addresses the biological study of a specific behavioral or mental phenomenon (normal or pathological) covered in the readings and videos. Please select a behavioral or mental phenomenon such as language or schizophrenia and then select a biological strategy for investigating it, such as hormonal or genetic mechanisms, neurotransmitters, drug treatments, or localization of brain processes by imaging. The project will be worth a maximum of 100 points.

Written paper. As an example, the theme of your report might be imaging approaches to the study of schizophrenia. Your paper should summarize fundamental issues, questions, and controversies and provide a general overview of the topic using the biological line of investigation you chose. It should also elaborate on your understanding of the brain processes that are revealed through imaging research in schizophrenia. To accomplish this, you will have to use recent research articles (published within the last five years) to illustrate relevant points. You may use any of a number of electronic databases to find research articles that deal with your topic, including the library and the Internet. The one requirement for the research articles that you select is that two of them must have appeared in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. You may wish to consult with the library staff or your faculty member to confirm whether a particular journal is peer-reviewed. 

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You will choose one article from databases provided you under the Library Resources tab go to the Databases A to Z choose P for the Psychology databases your article should not be older than 2011. Use the advanced search to access the time period. Be specific on your disorder such as focusing on treatment, causes, therapies, etc.

You will write a journal critique on one article about one psychological disorder of your choice: Schizophrenia (considered the cancer of mental disorders), Anxiety (the most common mental disorder of the United States), Depressive Disorder (Mood disorder), Bipolar (Manic episodes), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (thoughts and actions like handwashing), Personality Disorder (Narcisstic) and Dissocative Identity Disorder (Alters). This should be no more than 3 pages not including the Cover and Reference page Here are all the parts that should be included in the critique:

Introduction: to educate the reader on the topic/concept):

  • will define topic, other key terms, symptoms, statistics of occurrence and current information in the field
  • Main body: to explain the research conducted in the article, will state what you found in the journal article
    • What were the researchers trying to discover (i.e. what was the hypothesis or purpose)?
      • This is usually found at the beginning of the article.   Usually the hypothesis or statement of a problem appears at the end of the review of the literature, most often in the last or next to last paragraph.  The words that indicate  that it is a hypothesis are, “We will examine. . .” or “Our  hypothesis is . . .”  In a statement of a problem, the researcher may say, “We plan to  see if a relationship…,” “We proposed to observe…,” or  “The problem we proposed to study…”   (You must use your own words—do NOT use quotes).
    • How was the research conducted (research design or type of study)?
      • Is the research descriptive (case study, naturalistic observation, laboratory observations, surveys, tests), correlation, experimental, or developmental? For more information on research methods, refer to chapter 1 of your text. 
    • When and where the research was conducted?
    • How long did the study take?
    • Who were the participants? (number [N], age, sex, criteria to be a part of study)?
    • What did the researchers actually find in relation to their hypothesis/purpose? 
      • ARTICLE MAY STATE: The researchers found that  . . .
    • What limitations did the researchers reveal?
  • Summary/conclusion: to show critical thinking in regards to the research)
    • How does the information in the article integrate with information from class discussion, the text, and/or other information in the discipline?
      • TIP: It is a good idea to use the subject index in your text to look up the topic in your text.
    • What is your opinion of the research findings?
      • EXAMPLE: was this research well done or not and why?
    • Why is this topic/research important? (relevance/benefits to community and/or society)
      • EXAMPLE: A conclusion to a study that suggests a new therapy/treatment for children with ADHD might help the child struggling to perform successfully in school, which then improves her confidence, her relationship with her parents, siblings, and classmates. Write about the implications of this new treatment.
    • In what ways does this topic relate to your own personal experience and how is your experience in agreement or disagreement with the outcome of this study?
    • How has your opinion of this topic changed since your review of the study?

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Please provide an aside or constructive feedback to the following two Topics. Do you agree with the analysis presented? Why? Do you have some additional thoughts on the topic? Share them. When providing your feedback present the logic behind it.

Topic 1

1. Directions for your Main Entry: The nature – nurture debate has been

around for a long time and impacts a variety of areas of research to include personality psychology. Your task this week is to select one (1) of the following topics:

Out of the following topics I decided to go with personality theory and the relevance of twin studies. It captured my attention because my father is a twin. My dad and my uncle despite being far apart geographically are a copy and paste of each other over the phone and when we get a moment to fly back to Kenya to see the family. I have always wanted a twin but despite actually having one, I have a cousin who is a week older than me who I consider a twin. In saying my father and his brother are a copy and paste of each other, there are slight differences. They are both people persons, my uncle is more on the talkative and personable side. Take away the topic being interesting, due to the fact that you can be a twin and be semi different or completely different, I also picked the topic because it is relatable.

In the article it stated that there has been a lot of research that has shown that about half of peoples differences in personality traits is heritable. In the most recent studies, what’s been reported is that heritability is not fixed, but more so goes down across the life span. So most of the findings are inconsistent and it is yet unclear whether these trends are because of a waning importance of heritable tendencies, attributable to cumulative experiential influences with age, or because of nonlinear patterns suggesting gene and environment interplay. So the four twin samples from Croatia, Finland, Germany, and the United Kingdom, the examinations of age trends in genetic and environmental variance showed evidence for an increasing relative importance of life experiences contributing to personality differences across the life span.

Bratko, K. c. (2020). Apa PsycNet. American Psychological Association.

Topic 1

The study of personality seeks to understand differences in the traits of individuals as well as how those traits work together to create an individual. The similarities, or lack thereof, of personality traits between people and why those similarities or differences occur has always fascinated me. Ultimately one of the best ways to investigate how and why personality traits develop is through conducting twin studies. I come from a family with many sets of twins, including my mom and her fraternal brother, and I’ve always wanted to wandered if genetics played a role in their personality development. I chose an article titled “Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together.” (Tellegan et al.) that used a large sample of twins to investigate any affect genetics have on personality traits. The study included administering the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, MPQ, to three different types of twins monozygotic, dizygotic reared-apart, dizygotic reared-together. The results of the study concluded that having a similar growth environment was not as significant as most people think and that genetics did not show any evidence to playing a role in distribution of personality traits.


Teilegen, A., Lykken, D. T., Bouchard Jr., T. J., Wilcox, K. J., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54(6), 1031–1039.

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Need help with my Psychology question – I’m studying for my class.


Part 1: We’ve all worked in groups before and a lot of what you read in Chapter 11 probably rang true of your experience in them. Pull out four terms from Chapter 11 and apply them (with some explanation) to your experience in a group. This can be your experience of one group or different experiences in different groups. 

Interdependence is how much group members are reliant on each other to complete a task. At work we a broken up into groups and we are highly interdependent. Some of the people who have been at the office for longer have different qualifications. Without them, it would be impossible to complete any of our work projects. 

Social facilitation is when a person performs better in the presence of other people. I played several musical instruments in high school and performed in several different ensembles, but the thought of performing a solo basically debilitated me. In these situations, being in a group was the best way for me to perform. 

A divisible task is a task that can be divided in order to be completed. This makes me think of every school project ever. Powerpoint projects often divided by each person creating a different slide on a different subset of the overarching topic. 

Social loafing, when someone does not work as hard as they would if they were working alone, is another term that reminds me of school projects. It always seems that one or two people end up working harder than the rest. Ultimately, everyone gets the same grade, so some people choose to not work as hard as they would alone because they know there is someone else in the group who will pick up the slack. 

Also, answer the following (Saylor Foundation, n.d.): Consider groups that provide a particularly strong social identity for their members. Why do you think social identity is so strong in these groups, and how does the experience of identity influence the group members’ behavior?

I am choosing to answer this in relation to people who are grouped based on the sports team or athlete they support. When the team is doing good, there is a much stronger social identity among the members. In my opinion, they are proud of their team and may even feel that they had a role in helping the team get as far as they did. Because they are proud of an accomplishment of their group, they want to be seen and acknowledged of that accomplishment. This would increase their social identity. When a sports team loses, you may start to see less of a support behind the team. Maybe the fan chooses not to wear their jerseys or baseball caps. This shows a decrease in social identity. 

Part 2: Please choose ONE of the following to answer (Saylor Foundation, n.d.):

  • Review and critique the laboratory games that have been used to assess responses in social dilemmas. What are their strengths and the limitations?

The laboratory games that have been used are the prisoner dilemma games and the resources dilemma games. Both of these have the similar strengths and weaknesses. The first weakness, or limitation, is that they are set up in a lab setting. Prisoners in the real world could potentially act differently. Did they already make a pact as to if they were put up against each other, how long have they had a relationship, and what is the real world stress of having committed that crime done to their psyche? Take all of these factors and change the wording a little bit and the same thinking can be applied to the resources dilemma games. The strengths of these games is that they are the closest that will be reproduced to real world situations. There may be instances where the prisoner dilemma would be witnessed in real life, and we may study it after the situation is over, but science is not going to interfere with a criminal trial. As it refers to the resources dilemma games, I would see it as unethical to deprive a group of resources to see what happens when the resources are then reimplemented. You could probably do this with a part of the world that is already missing a specific resource, but it would be unfair to reintroduce something and then not be able to sustain resource production post-experiment. 


I had a group project in my PACE 111S class at UMGC with 4 group members including me. We had to complete a research team presentation on distractions and how to avoid them. All team members were supposed to contribute their ideas and collaborate to develop the team assignment. Our assignment was a divisible task since each member was assigned to work on their portion at the same time. One was assigned to summarize past research, one to edit for clarity, one to create the PowerPoint, and one to be the final reviewer. Through virtual brainstorming, our group members communicated to generate ideas for our assignment. At first, I was concerned about how we could complete our group project without meeting face to face since we lived in different parts of the country and were very diverse. However, during the group process our members had the same goal to get a good grade, so each member actively participated in our project. I think that we were more likely to share unique ideas because of this and we successfully completed our task better than we expected, achieving a process gain.  

The Amish are a group of people with a strong social identity. The Amish’s follow a very traditional, conservative lifestyle, and their social identity differentiates them from the rest of secular society. Their social identity is very strong as their group norms and beliefs are specifically focused on preventing secular values from influencing group members and the community. The group’s social identity greatly impacts member behavior, as being Amish requires an unwavering rejection of any behaviors that are considered secular.

Part 2

Consider a time in which you were involved in a social dilemma. How did you respond to the problem?

The Army provides money to pay for housing, known as basic allowance for housing (BAH). We usually live in an apartment and have some extra remaining money even after paying utilities. However, at our recent station, we had to live on the base. On the base, the housing company takes all our BAH regardless of the amount of the utilities we use or the number of family members in the household. (In our case just two people). Our utility bill is usually a very small amount. Since we moved on the base, I did not want to save electricity or water, because regardless of how much I use, the company will take all our BAH money. I think this situation is similar to the harvesting dilemma. Since the utilities on the base are free, everyone is likely to overuse them without concern about the impact to the community later. Perhaps one day, future residents will have to pay overage charges because of how much utilities are being used now. Nevertheless, I still feel I should conserve energy for society, so I will likely limit my utility use anyways. 

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I’m studying and need help with a Psychology question to help me learn.

Please provide an aside of 100 – 200 words for Section 1 and Section 2 below. 

Section 1

The research poster that I have chosen for this topic is a meta-analytic investigation on if treatment as usual is harmful for borderline-personality. The research poster also covers the results, methods, discussion, and introduction for this study by the students at Pomona College. I believe this research poster is important in understanding whether usual or normal treatment can affect or harm a person with borderline-personality. However, although this research poster has it’s strengths, it also has a few weaknesses as well. One weakness of this research poster is it lacks supplemental information to help the reader understand and have a closer look at the experiment that was conducted. Another weakness of this poster is that it does not have a summary or conclusion of the experiment which deprives the reader of a deeper understanding of the experiment that took place and the opinion of the author of the research poster. On the other hand, this research poster has strength in providing the reader with an introduction that allows the reader to understand the purpose of the experiment and research that was conducted. Another strength is the author includes the outcomes of the experiment that was conducted, which allows the reader to undertstand the results of the experiment.


APA. (n.d.). Style and Grammar Guidelines. Retrieved August 1, 2021, from

Pamona. (n.d.). Psychological Science Presentations & Conferences. Retrieved August 1, 2021, from

Wikipedia. (2021, July 22). APA style. Retrieved August 1, 2021, from

Link to poster : 

Section 2

The APA poster I reviewed was “Predicting Intimacy: Differences and Similarities Across Gender and Sexual Orientation” (Schepler et al., 2020), which was presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association’s conference in 2020. It can be viewed here (although the image is not high-resolution and could be difficult to read if not enlarged):

This poster presented information gathered as part of a study on whether people of different genders and different sexual orientations (heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women) felt intimacy in their partnerships and what factors they felt contributed to that intimacy (factors such as positive and negative interactions with their spouses, emotion work, empathic responding, and positive and negative actions toward them from their spouse). The researchers concluded that positive interactions between spouses were reliable predictors of intimacy for all four groups, and also that women (both heterosexual and homosexual women) differed from men in other areas reviewed as potential predictors for intimacy. However, the researchers cautioned that the results were limited, since causality was not clear (e.g., it was possible that greater levels of intimacy caused the positive interactions, rather than the reverse). 

Strengths of this poster, in my opinion:

  • I thought the clinical implications were very interesting and were clearly explained.
  • The directions for future research clearly described the limitations, such as a lack of clear causality.

Weaknesses of this poster, in my opinion:

  • The poster was very text heavy, and data were not presented visually, which means a person has to get very close to the poster in order to get a glimpse of the content and results—not always easy to do in conference poster-session settings where there could be crowds, food, beverages, etc.
  • I found that I had to review the “Procedures” section several times to recall what the abbreviations used in the “Results” section meant. This could be difficult to do in a poster-session setting where other people were standing nearby and reading sections I needed to read, as well. I would recommend information in each column be organized so that you don’t need to return to the first column in order to understand the second or third column. It might not be an issue if the abbreviations are commonly known to the conference-goers, but these were not all abbreviations I had seen previously.

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