University of California Irvi

One of the most important parts about studying history is the perspective it gives us on what is happening in our world and life today. We can look at current news and compare and or contrast it to something of the past and gain insight about it.

For this assignment you will find a current world news article (published within the past year) and relate it to an event, person or theme we have covered in our course. Come up with three clear ways the current event relates to the class and present your ideas to the class in a presentation (think of using Powerpoint, Prezi (链接到外部网站。), or Google slides (链接到外部网站。)). The presentation should be at least 5 minutes long and no longer than 10 minutes. You can find an example of a Current Event Presentation in the Course Information module.

There are a number of ways to record and upload your presentation, the easiest and cheapest (free!) is SCREENCAST-O-MATIC: (链接到外部网站。)

You can also record yourself speaking using the in-Canvas tools by clicking on the “Record/Upload Media” icon and then attach a slide presentation separately. YouTube can also be used to upload a video. You can be creative in how you create the presentation as long as we can audibly hear you and see some slides relaying the key points of your presentation.

Your presentation should include:

1. The name, publication, date and author of the current event article you chose.

2. A very brief summary of the article.

– Why did you choose this event? What is interesting or striking about it to you?

3. Analysis of how the current event relates to something specific from the course.

– Since we are relating it to a theme, person, or event, give a brief background summary of that. Then, you can do a compare/contrast type of analysis.

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The post must be supported by attached reading material, outside text, or internet reference. Robust commentary is expected. a minimum of 6 to 8 good paragraphs. Spirited comments are welcomed and each paragraph has to have 6 to 8 sentences.


Can gang membership be predicted – why or why not? What are the main predictive factors that increase the likelihood that an individual will join a gang? Which of these factors do YOU think is the most influential? Finally, what is the main limitation of the Seattle Study and why is this consideration important?

Some references:

The major flaw is that there no Hispanics included in the study. There were Asian, Black and White youth, so the study doesn’t help us in T gangs understand the whole mechanism that gets Hispanic youth involved in street gangs.

There are million reasons why youth join street gangs, In Hispanic street gangs there is a generational issues, cultural issue. The Seattle study did not purposely leave out Latino youth, the study cohort hand none. The research suggests for generational Hispanic street gangs there is a cultural issue, some researchers call it tradition and the fact that for about 30% of the Mexican street gangs the gang members belongs to same gang his/her dad/mother was in and the gang members parents were in the same gang their parents were. Today there are 5th generation Hispanic street gangs, 4 generation Black, 3rd generation Asian and unknown number of racist skinhead street gangs. Many parents I have spoken to consider street gang life for their children like many parents think of puberty, “I went thru it and survived, so will they”. In Hispanic gang families parents give a tacit approval of their children(s) involvement in street gangs, other parents identify with the struggle of being a gang member and to be honest some parents do not want their children to do better than them. These are called psycho-social risk factors.

The Seattle study plus the psycho-social factors of the Mexican/Central American cultures help explain why we see Hispanic street gang members in Mexico, central America and the US

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I’m working on a english writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Spring 2021

Posted to Canvas Coursespace on May 18, 2021

DUE before Midnight (11:59 p.m.), Thursday, June 3

via Canvas Assignment/Final Upload [by Word document or pdf]

Review the paper before Tuesday, May 25th

Email questions about the paper to Dr. Johnson before Thursday, May 27th

Plan to submit the paper before the deadline, to assure you can upload it.

Exams must be uploaded to the course assignment space so that Dr. Johnson can grade in SpeedGrader, via Canvas.

Please address any two of the following questions in 1-2 single-spaced, typed pages, for each question.

50 pts. Each (please number your responses)

1. How does Nike’s “Dream Crazy” campaign fit with Khan’s definition of “communicative capitalism”? Is the Baltimore Ravens’ Twitter statement also an example of communicative capitalism? Why or why not?

2. Michael Bennett argues that professional football “has yet to truly integrate.” Why does he say this is the case? Would Jay-Z’s partnership with the League (as discussed by Oates) support or refute this claim?

3. According to David J. Leonard, St. Louis’s “Cardinal Way” is coded as “white,” while Ice Cube’s Straight Outta LAoutlines a perception of the L.A. Raiders as a “Black” team. What are the key factors each of these texts identify as crucial to “racializing” place/the spatial imaginary?


Exams Rubric

Exams Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeTerminology Section

50 to >42.0 pts

A: Excellent

The definition of the term is comprehensive and shows synthesis of materials from readings, discussion, and screenings as well as the student’s ability to step back from the material and produce original connections and insights.

42 to >36.0 pts

B: Good

The definition of the term is comprehensive and shows clear synthesis of materials from readings, discussion and screenings.

36 to >32.0 pts

C: Adequate

The definition of the term shows comprehension but does not demonstrate clear synthesis of course materials beyond a straightforward definition and/or does not explain the larger significance of the concept.

32 to >20.0 pts

D: Not Adequate

The definition remains at a basic, descriptive level at best with no necessary correlation to course context or material.

20 to >0 pts

F: Fails

The term is not properly defined or understood and has no correlation to course context or material.

50 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEssay Section

50 to >42.0 pts

A: Excellent

The essay makes an interesting and thoughtful contribution to analysis of the text(s) with integration and synthesis of the theory and analysis that are both particular to the course material and its contexts and demonstrate that the student has stepped back from the material to produce original connections and insights.

42 to >36.0 pts

B: Good

The essay clearly synthesizes materials from readings, discussions, and screenings and clearly shows synthesis of course materials within context, reflecting a solid understanding of central arguments.

36 to >32.0 pts

C: Adequate

The essay engages with the theory/texts but does not necessarily show a clear synthesis of course materials beyond straightforward engagement and does not necessarily make connections across course materials.

32 to >20.0 pts

D: Not Adequate

The essay cherry-picks phrases from the text(s) rather than really engaging with them; or, references to the text(s) suggest that the author did not understand them.

20 to >0.0 pts

F: Fails

The essay does not address the question and/or shows no correlation to course context or material.

0 pts

No Marks

50 pts

Total Points: 100

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Write 4-5 pages in essay format — You can choose a few themes to discuss using examples from the book. In other words, quote the text 4-5 times. No more than 10 quotes — I would like to see some analysis of the quotes that you’ve picked to illustrate your ideas and to connect to the larger theme ofthe book.

Some themes from the Alchemist:

  • Theme #1. Dreams and Aspirations. Dreams and materializing them is one of the major themes of The Alchemist. …
  • Theme #2. Fate. …
  • Theme #3. Love. …
  • Theme #4. Unity of Spirit. …
  • Theme #5. Self-Discovery. …
  • Theme #6. Wisdom and Knowledge. …
  • Theme #7. Selfishness. …
  • Theme #8. Religion.
  • Theme#9. Symbols in the Alchemist
  • Some possible essay prompts:
    • Is it possible to live a fulfilling life without ever achieving one’s Personal Legend?
    • How does the story of Narcissus relate to the broader message of “The Alchemist”?
    • How do events such as omens and dreams support the novel’s theme?

    1. How does Santiago’s spiritual journey parallel the alchemist’s practice of transforming metal into gold?2. What are the weaknesses that Santiago sees in his flock of sheep, and how do they relate to the weaknesses of human beings who fail to pursue their Personal Legends?3. According to the book, is it possible to live a fulfilling life without ever achieving one’s Personal Legend? Why or why not?4. What role do forces of nature such as the wind and the sun play in Santiago’s journey?5. During Santiago’s stay in Tangiers, what does Santiago teach the crystal merchant, and what does the crystal merchant teach Santiago?6. During Santiago’s stay in Tangiers, what does Santiago teach the crystal merchant, and what does the crystal merchant teach Santiago?7. What stylistic strategies does Coelho use to make The Alchemist come across as a mythic, universally applicable story?8. What is the function of magic in The Alchemist, and what does the ability to practice magic symbolize?9. The prologue tells the story of Narcissus. How does this well-known myth relate to the main narrative of the novel?10. Many of the characters in the novel are motivated by money and material wealth. How does this motivation relate to the various religions in the text?11. How does the romance between Fatima and Santiago (and, to a lesser extent, the girl in the village) interact with the themes of self-belief and destiny?12. In a structural and a literary sense, what is the symbolic meaning of the ruined church?13. Santiago encounters magic and miracles throughout his journey. In what way do these experiences affect his own personal beliefs?14. The tribal wars present the greatest existential threat to Santiago and the alchemist. In what ways does the novel demonstrate the threat that they pose?15. Throughout the novel, numerous characters share their dreams. Analyze the various ways they imbue these dreams with meaning and how these meanings affect the course of the narrative. 16. Santiago reaches the pyramids and digs for his buried treasure. What is the nature of the treasure that Santiago uncovers in Egypt and in Spain?

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Question 1 (15 points): You have a max of 2 pages and 1/2 to answer all the questions. You may

draw your graphs by hand.

In some highly concentrated industries, a single (“dominant”) firm serves a majority of the market and a

group of smaller (“fringe”) firms supply the rest.

a) (5 points) Explain what is the difference between a monopoly and a dominant firm.

b) (10 points) Assume that total market demand for the oil market is given by:

QD = 200 – 2P. Assume further that the non-OPEC oil producers act as a competitive fringe with a

supply given by QS = ½P -12.5. The dominant firm marginal cost is given by MC = 10 + ½Q.

Use the dominant firm model discussed in the recorded lecture to answer the following questions.

1. What is the minimum price needed for the competitive fringe to supply positive units of Output?

2. At what price does the competitive fringe supply output to the entire market?

3. Derive the dominant firms residual demand function. Show all the steps.

4. Derive the dominant firm’s marginal revenue function. Show all the steps.

5. Show that the equilibrium price set by the dominant firm is P =$61.92 and the total market demand

is Q = 76.16.

6. At the equilibrium price set by the dominant firm, how much will the competitive fringe supply to the

market? Show it is Q = 18.46.

7. At the equilibrium price set by the dominant firm, how much will the dominant fifirm supply to the

market? Explain.

8. Show the above answers graphically.

9 The competitive fringe reduces the market power of the dominant firm

If the dominant firm wanted to try and eliminate the competitive fringe, how might the dominant accomplish this? Explain.

10. If the dominant fifirm eliminates the competitive fringe, explain how this will the market and the


Question 2 (20 points): Please fully explain your answer and clearly state if the statements are true or

false. Points are awarded based on explanations.

1.(4 points) In a two-player game, a Nash equilibrium is the outcome that maximizes the sum of the

players’ payoffffs. (you have one paragraph)

2.(4 points) In a Nash equilibrium in a two-player game, both players must have selected a dominant

strategy. (you have one paragraph)

3.(4 points) Repeatedly playing the Prisoner’s Dilemma may or may not result in a cooperative solution.

(you have one paragraph)

4.(4 points) In the models of oligopoly considered in the recorded lectures, the equilibrium price will be

strictly lower if there are n + 1 fifirms than if there are n fifirms. (you have one paragraph)

5.(4 points) In the models of oligopoly considered in the recorded lectures, consumers are no better offff

than in a perfectly competitive market. (you have one paragraph)

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1.In chapter 3 and chapter 6, both Lin Daiyu and Grannie Liu (Liu laolao) enter the Jia family compound for the first time, serving as a “tour guide” to introduce the reader to the Jia family. Then in chapter 17, Jia Baoyu enters the Garden (Daguan yuan) for the first time, once again, introduces the reader to the future “residences” where he and his female cousins will move into. Discuss what is respectively achieved in these three different introductory tours thanks to our tour guides’ different positions and unique perspectives.

2.One important characterization strategy the author employs to present his characters in the novel is “parallel/juxtaposition/contrast.” Take as a specific example chapter 21 “Righteous Aroma discovers how to rebuke master by saying nothing/And artful Patience is able to rescue hers by being somewhat less than truthful” 贤袭人娇嗔箴宝玉 俏平儿软语救贾琏 to demonstrate how effectively such a strategy is being deployed in the novel. Please note that the characters being compared/contrasted in this chatper are not limited to Xiren (Aroma) and Ping’er (Patience).

3.Describe the roles played by “overhearing“ in the development of the relationship between Jia Baoyu and Lin daiyu (as demonstrated in chapter 32). Imagine what would have been Lin Daiyu’s response if Baoyu had directly said to her what he said to Xiren and Shi Xiangyun. Please discuss the implications of this act of “overhearing” in the context of the “communication problems” and “lack of adequate language of love” that have plagued their courtship in the previous chapters.

4.n chapter 7, we are told that Baochai suffers from “a congenital tendency to overheatedness “ (热毒) and the only medicine that can be used to control it is called “cold fragrance pills” ( 冷香丸) . Then in chapter 8, the pills are mentioned again. This is also the chapter where Baochai deliberately has her maid mention her necklace (金锁), thus enabling the theory of the “marriage of gold and jade” (金玉良缘) to gain currency. Please discuss the symbolic implications of Baochai’s illness and the medicine used to control it in terms of a better understanding of the complexities of this character. You may also want to use examples from chapters 27, 34, 36 or any other chapters that you think are illustrative of such symbolic implications

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Asian American Film and Video Prompt for Final Essay-

6-7 pages in 12 p font, double-spaced

6 pages minimum and 7 pages maxà (if you are on a roll ?)

Citations are required for the film and the reading.


***Bring in BRIEF, RELEVANT Quotations from the articles attached to the films.***

  1. The film, Saving Face, according to Jennifer Cheng is about norms of respectability– i.e.: saving face in the community. “This unfinished moment of “people will think…” and Gao’s denial of Wil’s sexuality underscores the value Gao places on appearances and her concerns about how others will perceive her daughter (and therefore her and her entire family) …” (Cheng, 5).

Discuss how despite gossip (informal conversations that reinforce gender norms), Wil, and her mother Hwei Lan must challenge narrowly defined gender norms such as the good daughter, and the good mother to find their happiness.

Citation: Cheng, Jennifer. “You talk to your Mother About Us?”: Queerness, Gossip and Chinese American Respectability Politics in Saving Face.” The Foundationalist, 3:1, 2019, 1-14.

2.The film, The Fall of the I-Hotel gives the viewer a glance into the history of early Filipino immigration to the U.S. and provides present lives of elderly Filipinos. Eve Oishi, in her article “I-Hotel”, points out that poet and community activist, “[Al] Robles interviews Frankie, one of the residents, who keeps a photo album, of the women he has known in his travels…” Robles’ narration explains that laws preventing immigration of Asian Women combined with anti-miscegenation laws prevented family life for a whole generation of Asian Americans” (Oishi 139).

With examples of scenes or statements from the film, discuss some of the struggles that Filipino men confronted in the past and what the I-Hotel means to them today. Bring in relevant quotes from Oishi’s articleß this article will be sent in pdf on Canvas.

  1. In her article, “Home is where the Han Is: a Korean American Perspective on the Los Angeles Upheavals”, Elaine Kim discusses the events of Sa-i-gu /April 29, 1992. Kim writes that for the Korean American immigrant community, “…the initiation into becoming American, … requires that Korean Americans take on the country’s legacy of five centuries of racial violence and inequality, of divide and rule, of privilege for the rich and oppression of the poor. Within this legacy, they have been assigned a place on the frontlines” (Kim, 220)

With the above statement in mind, discuss the experiences and comments of the women in the film, Sa-i-gu — their expectations about America and their feelings of betrayal.  Bring in relevant quotes from the film and from Elaine Kim’s essay, “Home Is Where the Han Is.”

  1. Commenting on the role of memory in Lise Yasui’s film, A Family Gathering, Cassandra Van Buren writes about Yasui’s journey to recover memories about her grandfather and reinstate his dignity: “…she now understands the pain associated with the war years. Not only do those years bring back memories of theft…complete upheaval, incarceration, and destruction of their family unit” (Van Buren, 14). With specific examples, discuss the portrait of grandfather Masuo that Lise Yasui reconstructs through interviews with family members. Bring in quotes from Cassandra Van Buren’s article: “Family Gathering: Release from Emotional Internment” to support your discussion of the film.
  2. Quoting Michael Salzman on Native Americans and trauma, Jennifer McMahon makes this comment: “Rather than continue to celebrate the American cowboy, The Rider sheds light on the potentially adverse impact of cowboy/rodeo culture due to its glamorization of high-risk activities, and the way it may exert a coercive appeal on individuals who lack alternative means of social recognition and income (Salzman).”

With this statement in mind, give specific examples to discuss how Chloé Zhao represents Brady’s dilemma about his life as a rider. How does Zhao delicately connect Brady’s dilemma to issues of masculinity? For example, how does Brady see himself as a father figure to Lily, a best buddy to Lane, as a skillful horse trainer etc.? Bring in quotes from Jennifer McMahon’s essay, “Cowboy, ‘Indian’, Rider: Deconstructing Dichotomous Stereotypes in The Rider.”

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Reword this.

I found Professor Olson’s analysis about walls very interesting! He had a strong point about walls not being physically very effective but morse so as a symbol. Building off of that, I believe it also perpetuates a mentality of inequality. In nearly every example I could think of with walls being built that he discussed, it was for the purpose of separating two different people and preventing one from intermingling with another. Consequently, this inherently implies that one is better than the other (at least according to the people’s mindsets). This was certainly reflected in American with the proposed border wall with Mexico. Many people did not want to have migrants entering the US because they had negative opinions on them and what they would do in the US. According to those who held these beliefs, that would imply that they are inferior, creating a social hierarchal structure among those with this mindset. This is certainly reflected in several other ways in our world as well, such as through socioeconomic boundaries and cultural stereotypes. It is honestly difficult to determine which of them all came first or if they all started around the same time and strengthened one another. No matter the case, these mindsets of superiority and inferiority need to end since they have cause infinite problems throughout history (ex. colonization, slavery, imperialism, etc.). In reality we should just recognize each other’s ways as different but valuable (as long as they do not impede on one another’s rights).

Write this
In this week’s lecture we learned that institutional structures transform corporate interests over time by making changes to (1) the regulatory environment, (2) economic dynamics in an organizational field, (3) competitors’ calculations, and (4) consumer preferences. Give an example of this process referencing at least ONE of the changes described above.

Once done I will send you 2 students respones so that you can respond to them giving feedback.

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You don’t need a big intro or conclusion, it’s not an formal ‘ essay ‘– try to focus on analyzing 6 poems — page by page — ‘Paper/Assignment Two’ – for example, intro: you’re going to tell me that you’re going to analyze 6 of neruda’s poems, basically like a page per poem, where you discuss the meaning or the poem, the message, the symbolism, but also the structure, tone, etc.. your understanding, connect it to his life, his country, history, colonialism, latin-america, indigineous rights, soul, tyranny, love, time/space, etc ..—

I’m pretty flexible with the format —

In a 5-6 page paper, please analyze some of Pablo Neruda’s poetry. You should use about 6 poems or so to show me that you have studied his work. For example, take one of his love poems, one of his political ones, or one about indigenous people in his country, one show his love of the ocean, nature, poems that are very existential that you could examine. I’d like to see you write about the structure, or lack thereof, free-verse, tone, rhyming, symbolism, etc.. I want you to look at it structurally, number of stanzas, etc.., but more importantly, analyze the poems, try to find the meaning, or the message or the feeling you get after you’ve read the poems — again, it might take you once or twice to get the real feel of the poem. You are showing me that you can talk about the ‘body’ of Neruda’s work. For example, the ones we discussed, like ‘The United Fruit Company’ The Heights of Machuu Pichuu, The Ocean, The People, Tonight I Write the Saddest Verses, etc.. Through his use of imagery, especially nature imagery, and symbolism, Pablo Neruda intertwines universal themes like love, patriotism, nature, existence. etc..

Neruda has written surrealist poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and passionate love poems.

His poetry gave a voice to a population that felt ignored by their government and by the upper classes. The poems gave courage and pride to the struggling working class. Chilean workers memorized his works by heart and gathered to hear their poet recite his writing.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971 “for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams.”

In 5-6 pages, please examine, discuss and analyze some of his poetry –

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Students will work collaboratively in groups of 2-4 members (all with the same TA) to conceive and write their own manifesto to define what matters to them in media production today. Students will need to determine if their manifesto is based on politics, ideology, identity, aesthetics, technology, infrastructure, distribution, or another facet of film and media. They will determine what actions they advocate for film and media makers and if there are specific rules for adherents of the manifesto.

Suggested manifesto topics:

Best practices for reducing environmental impact of media production and distribution

Inclusive practices in production

New models of distribution in the age of digital networks and streaming

Making media after #MeToo

Making media after COVID-19

Alternative financing for media

Thinking beyond the auteur theory

Thinking beyond the national cinema framework

Thinking beyond the feature-length film

It is students’ responsibility to forge their own groups; it is not the TAs’ or professor’s responsibility to assign groups. Group members must all have the same TA but may be in different sections for the same TA.

Manifestos will be between 200 and 1000 words, as needed. Groups may opt to create a moving-image manifesto (under 10 minutes in length) instead of a written one, but it must clearly articulate its goals and cite any sources.

Grading Rubric

Total points possible: 10

Clarity of argument/purpose: 5 points possible

Creativity: 2 points possible

Attention to medium specificity, form, (infra)structure, etc that makes this a film and media manifesto: 2 points possible

Relevant and/or timely: 1 point possible


Grammar and spelling mistakes: -1

Not citing sources where relevant: -1

Submitting a solo (rather than collective) manifesto: -1

Late submission: -1 per day

Questions to consider for your manifesto:

What are your manifesto’s motivation, goals, and guidelines? Are these clearly explained?

Why do these matter to you?

Why is your manifesto relevant beyond you?

Are you focusing on preproduction, production, post-production, distribution, and/or reception?

Is your manifesto motivated by a political agenda? If so, what is it?

Are you arguing for something or against something?

Who is your manifesto speaking for?

Who is your manifesto speaking to?

What is the scale of your manifesto: for a small collective of filmmakers or for changing film conventions and industry practices at large?

Sample manifestos:

Assigned readings:

Julio García Espinosa, “For an Imperfect Cinema” (Cuba, 1969)

Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino, “Towards a Third Cinema: Notes and Experiences for the Development of a Cinema of Liberation in the Third World” (Argentina, 1969)

FECIP, “Manifesto for a Non-Sexist Cinema” (Canada, 1974)

Feminists in Media, “Womanifesto” (USA, 1975)

Additional manifestos:

Francisco X Camplis, “Towards the Development of a Raza Cinema” (1975)

Film Quarterly dossier on contemporary manifestos (spring 2019): (Links to an external site.)

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A philosophy of education is a set of beliefs about how children develop and learn. This is an individualized statement that is based on core values and beliefs. These are related to your beliefs about the nature and purpose of life, your role and calling in life, and your relationship and responsibilities to others. These also incorporate your beliefs about education and its purpose, the nature of children, learning styles, and the role of teachers. A philosophy of education is more than an opinion; it is based on theoretical frameworks, as well as empirical data. Understanding and applying this information is valuable, but ultimately you have to decide what you personally believe and why you believe that. Moment by moment, day by day, what you believe impacts what you will teach and how you will teach it.

Professional practice includes teaching with and from a philosophy of education which acts as a guidepost as you work with children and families. Your personal philosophy of education is a summary of your beliefs about how children develop and learn and how this is best supported through early childhood educational models and programming. You should incorporate your personal beliefs and philosophies and show evidence of your awareness of quality educational practices that support children’s learning and development by citing evidence from our assigned class readings (and/or other credible sources).

This is a 3- to 5-page statement of your personal beliefs about teaching and learning. This personal philosophy statement will be important to you as you create your educational portfolio, present yourself in job interviews, and select a setting that fits you. We will discuss these, begin work on them, and rework them through a writing workshop experience in class. A rubric is available below.


The following statements will help you get started in developing your philosophy. You do not have to include all of these things in your philosophy. They are intended to guide you as you begin to develop your personal statement.

Purpose of Education:

I believe the purposes of education are… because…

Education and schooling should…

I want for my students to…

How Children Develop and Learn:

All children have certain needs that must be met if they are to grow and learn at their best. Some of these needs are…

I believe children learn best when they are taught under certain conditions and in certain ways, such as…

Children follow some typical patterns of development across many different domains, including….

The Role of the Teacher:

Children learn best in an environment that promotes learning. Features of a good learning environment are…

The curriculum of any classroom should include “basics” that contribute to children’s social/emotional, intellectual, linguistic, and physical development as well as their affective stances towards learning. These basics include…

As a teacher, I would meet students’ needs by…

A teacher should have certain qualities and behave in certain ways. Qualities I think are important for teaching are…

Theoretical Foundations:

There are many different approaches to understanding the purpose of education that are informed by culture, history, and theory. Some of the thinkers that have influenced my philosophy of education are…

There are many different approaches to understanding how young children develop that are informed by research and theory. Some of the theories that have influenced my understandings are…

There are many different approaches to teaching young children that are informed by research and theory. Some of the theories that have influenced my approaches to teaching are…

After you have written your philosophy, evaluate it with the following questions:

Have I been honest with myself?

Does my philosophy accurately relate my beliefs about the purpose of education and schooling?

Does my philosophy accurately relate my beliefs about how children learn and grow, and how that is best supported?

Have I been comprehensive, stating my beliefs about what children should be taught, how children should be taught, the conditions under which children learn best, and what qualities make up a good teacher?

Do I support my philosophy and thinking with sound reasoning based on my personal and professional experiences, as well as my knowledge about Early Childhood Education practices, policy, and theory?

Is my philosophy understandable to me and others?

Are my ideas consistent with one another?

Have I accurately cited my sources and research that I’ve referenced?


Your personal philosophy of education should be 3-5 pages of writing (plus front/back matter such as a title page, abstract, and references), and it should be formatted as follows:

Title page


Philosophy Statement (3-5 pages)


Recall that all published materials should be word-processed (double-spaced, 12-point font, 1” margins) and professionally presented, adhering to the APA Style Manual (7th Edition).

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Can capitalism be made environmentally friendly? Why or why not? Explain your position (it doesn’t have to be the same as mine from lecture!).


Describe the social organization of connivence and how it leads to presentient environmental problems. Give an example ( that is NOT electric cars! I’ve already done that one!)

Please make sure to go beyond one-word answers and show us what you know.

Please remember to respond to someone else’s post as well. Be thoughtful! One- or two-word comments will not help your grade.

350-400 words.

Then reply to this students response.

Capitalism can be environmentally friendly but such a state is years from existence because the current risk to reward ratio for participation in the market outweighs that of a eco-capitalist state. Most citizens understand the environmental troubles that arise from their fast consumption models but they tend to shift the blame to the manufacturers or the nations state who house these manufacturers for not doing enough to prevent them from polluting the environment. However, it is precisely because of consumerism and the profits promised for servicing such demand that environmentally degrading practices continue to be used. The environmental damage would need to be reflected against those who participate in the demise of the environment to make them realize how much damage is truly being done.

An increase in regulation would be necessary otherwise, companies could not be held accountable for their actions. Regulation does not make the current economic system any less capitalist, in fact, government is necessary for such undertaking. When a nation begins to industrialize, there is heavy involvement from the federal government to subsidize, and create an easy path towards industrialization. The same concept applies here, where a failure of the markets must be administered by the government in order to ensure its success.

An example of a response should be like this, from another student.

Hi Manilo!

I completely agree with all of your points! I like how you brought up the issue of consumerism and its correlation toward environmental degradation. Consumerism is extremely toxic and damaging to the environment because of the high demand of products, which results in more environmental issues. Moreover, I agree that there should be an increase in regulation because that would force corporations to be held accountable for their actions toward the environment. Overall, great job on this!

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This week’s discussion builds on the material we’ve been working on all session.

1) Pick one scenario from the list below
    •.    1/2 hour break before the final competition of the e-sports national championship (you are the e-athlete representing school).

    •.    1/2 hour car ride to get to a job interview for a job you really want.

    •.    1/2 hour wait for your car ride home from a terrible party.  It’s 2 AM.

    •.    1/2 hour wait for your younger sibling at their martial art class, so you can give them a ride home.

2) Devise a 5 song playlist that will best help you through that 1/2 hour.

3) In your response to this prompt, list the songs/pieces in order.  In addition to the title, provide the year each song was written, who the performers are and where you first heard the song.  Provide a link to the song whenever possible.  DO NOT IDENTIFY THE SCENARIO.

4) In your response to a classmate, listen to their list to the best of your ability and try to guess the scenario.  Explain your reasoning.  How would you use your c;lassmate’s playlist?

Here is my five songs playlist

Blacc’s Green light was composed in 2011, with the main perfomer being Aloe Blacc. I first heard the song while I was scrolling through YouTube. Link:

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I’m working on a humanities test / quiz prep and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

1.For the purposes of this class, we will use “statement” and “proposition” to mean the same thing.

true or false

2.An argument may have an implied conclusion and implied premise(s).

true or false

3.This is considered the “what” of the argument.





4.The purpose of logic is normative; it is meant to tell us how people should make arguments.

true or flase

5.If we know that the premises of an argument are true, then we know the conclusion will be true.

true or false

6.Suppressed evidence and implicit premises are the same thing.

true or false

7.Which of the following are criteria by which we should evaluate arguments? (Check all correct answers.)

Whether the conclusion is vulnerable to new evidence.

Whether all the premises are true.

Whether we agree with its content

Whether the conclusion is at least probable, given the premises.

8.An inductive argument which leaves out evidence which, if known, would change the acceptability of the conclusion, is said to have _______ evidence.

9. In the following argument, the premises are _______ to the conclusion.

California is west of Nevada.
Nevada is west of New York.

Miami is in Florida.

10. Which of the following is a limitation of the Ch 2 evaluative criteria for arguments?

a. they may rely on intuition.

b. they are too concrete.

c.they are too complicated

d.they contradict each other.

11. These fallacies occur when the probability of the conclusion (given the premises) is lower than the arguer supposes.

Which of the following steps should we take when we encounter a fallacy?

(Check all correct answers)

a. tell the other person they committed a fallacy and thus lost credibility

b.determine where in the argument it happens

c. remedy it

d. identify it

13.These fallacies occur when the language used in the argument is misleading.formal fallacies


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  1. Answer this question … How does our First Amendment Rights (free press/speech, freedom of religion, freedom to protest, and freedom to petition the government) in the United States compliment, encourage and cultivate (build) and benefits and ALSO (the flip side!) hinders, blocks, discourage democracy?
  2. Do NOT fill up space by writing out the words to the First Amendment Rights (I know what they are!).
  3. Write (type) a one page essay (single-spaced) answering the question above. You do NOT have to follow MLA standards. Simply answer the question!
  4. BUT … when write your essay, you must include vocabulary, terms, names and concepts FOUND in our chapters. See an example list below! This will show me that you learned these words, terms, names and concepts!
  5. You can also include a current event (within this past year or two or three!) to support your thoughts or give examples to support your words.
  6. So again … one page essay (single-spaced), must be typed (which is easy for me to read).
  7. Check your spelling and grammar. I would like this paper to be near perfect! Even have friends and family members proofread it for you, to check for errors!
  8. Let me know if you have ANY questions! I’m here to help!

Below are some vocabulary, terms, concepts and names (examples) you can incorporate into your Final Essay. This is just a “starter kit” .. because there are hundreds more found in Chapters 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17!

Vocabulary, Terms, Concepts:

  • Mass Communication
  • Symbiosis
  • Social Media
  • Media Literacy
  • Inform, Enlighten, Persuade, Amuse (Entertain)
  • Marketplace of Ideas
  • Moral Concensus
  • Media Ubiquity
  • Investigative Reporting
  • Pentagon Papers
  • Rupert Murdoch
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Aliterate
  • Code of Ethics
  • Social Responsiblity
  • Situational Ethics
  • Potter’s box
  • Plagarism
  • Selective Editing
  • Staging News

Okay … so above are just SOME of the vocabulary, terms, concepts, even people, that you’ve read about in our chapters. There are hundreds MORE words in Chapters 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 that we’ve read through!

I want to see some (many) of those chapter words, terms, concepts, names – used in your one page essay, which will let me know that you understand what they mean, in applying it to answering the essay question!

Good luck and have fun researching and writing your final paper!

Again, let me know if you have any questions about this final assignment!

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please finish these questions after watching the videos please

1.Which of the following was offered as an example of continuous sample space?

Group of answer choices

amazon ratings

zip codes

blood types

cholesterol levels

2.In probability, which represents the union of the event A and the event B?

Group of answer choices

P(A or B)

P(A | B)

P(B | A)

P(sample space)

P(A and B)

3. In probability, which represents the intersection of the event A and the event B?

Group of answer choices

P(sample space)

P(A | B)

P(B | A)

P(A or B)

P(A and B)

4.The rule of the complement, for some random event E, is that

Group of answer choices

P(E) = 1 – P(not E)

P(E) = P(not E)

P(E) = 1 / P(not E)

P(not E) does not equal P(E)

5. In the box of chocolates example in which you eat the first chocolate you pick, the successive chocolate picks are

Group of answer choices






6. In the pool example, we concluded that events DF and IC are dependent events because

Group of answer choices

IC causes pool filters to get dirty faster.

we found that P(IC | DF) was different from P(IC).

a pool can have both IC and DF.

a pool can have DF and not have IC.

8.The confusion of the inverse is:

Group of answer choices

confusing P(A) with P(not A)

confusing P(A | B) with P(B | A)

confusing P(A or B) with P(A and B)

confusing P(A) with P(B | A)

9.If “6ft+” stands for a human height of at least 6 feet, then P(6ft+ | man) is the probability

Group of answer choices

of being a man but not one who is 6ft+ tall.

of being a man if the person is 6ft+ tall.

of being 6ft+ tall but not a man.

of being neither a man nor 6ft+ tall.

of being a man and being 6ft+ tall.

of being 6ft+ tall if the person is a man.

10. If “6ft+” stands for a human height of at least 6 feet, then we can see from the distribution of adult heights shown in the videos that

Group of answer choices

P(man | 6ft+) = 1 – P(6ft+ | man)

P(man | 6ft+) < P(6ft+ | man)

P(man | 6ft+) > P(6ft+ | man)

P(man | 6ft+) = P(6ft+ | man)

13.In probability, a traditional two-way table displays what inside the inner cells of the table?

Group of answer choices

conditional probabilities

joint probabilities

inverse probabilities

marginal probabilities

14. In probability, the rectangles making up a mosaic diagram are scaled to represent

Group of answer choices

marginal probabilities.

inverse probabilities.

conditional probabilities.

joint probabilities.

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I’m working on a social science writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

For this essay you will examine the political and public health dimensions of your community.

To do this, you will need to examine various outlets like social media and local news outlets for specific examples that show what measures your community or state government implemented to address the public health concerns associated with the pandemic as well as what plan your community or state government implemented to reopen the economy after a few months. You should search through various feeds like Twitter, Instagram, and even Facebook (even though young folks don’t use Facebook much, older people who run municipalities and organizations still do.) Most towns have a small local newspaper that uses social media but also has a website where you can read stories. You should also check larger newspapers like the Hartford Courant or New Haven Register (you may need an account to read more than just a few stories). Be prepared to scour these sources going all the way back to February or March 2020.

BE CAREFUL – base your analysis on reliable sources of information.In collecting data for this module you will be more likely to come across sources that are not based on the scientific data. Remember, states only need to have a rational and reasonable basis to believe there’s a public health risk to opening the economy too early or too quickly. There are lots of social media and news outlets basing their opinions on faulty claims and/or conspiracy theories. This is why it’s important to use reliable sources of information.

As you search through social media and local news, be on the lookout for examples showing what the state or local government did to control the outbreak in that area and what the state or local government did to reopen the economy. This is not a referendum on the policies; it’s just an assessment of what was done and not whether it was a good choice or not.

This module focuses more on the role of the local or state government in limiting the further outbreak of this pandemic. It does not focus on the specific economics of those decisions. That will be addressed in the next module.

Your essay should incorporate the following:

  • A reminder of the name of your community.
  • A reminder of the demographics of your community (you can use the same demographics data from the last essay unless I suggested you make some changes).
  • The plan by the state or local government to control the outbreak.
  • The plan by the state or local government to reopen the economy.
  • Examples showing those plans in action.
  • Your initial assessment regarding the effects of those plans.

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here is no need to consult sources other than course materials to successfully complete the assignment. Please use informal in-text citations that mention the name of the source following in the format of parenthetical citations with the source and the page number or section heading (abbreviating The American Yawp to TAY is ok). Do not cite or include any outside sources (unless an exception is explicitly stated in the instructions). The use of outside sources will result in significant point deductions. Please avoid quotations longer than two sentences. It is important to put your work in your own words in order to demonstrate your comprehension.

Assignment 1:

In a five paragraph essay (more info on this essay format here (Links to an external site.)) answer the following question:

Prompt :

Today, some Progressive legislators are calling for a Green New Deal. Just as the Green New Deal is meant to offer a State-led economic solution to the climate crisis, the New Deal was meant to mitigate the crisis of the stock market crash and the dust bowl. In your essay answer the following questions:

  • Introduction: Identify what the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the Dust bowl, and the New Deal were. Include a specific thesis that answers: How did the New Deal reorient Americans’ relationship to government?
  • In your body paragraphs: Support your thesis with at least three different specific examples in each of your body paragraphs. Examples must come from course materials and must include citations.
  • In your conclusion answer: Why are current legislators looking to the New Deal to address the climate crisis, and what is one thing you think they should learn from the New Deal?

Class material

The great depression

What the New Deal Can Teach Us About a Green New Deal

Assignment 2:

In a one-paragraph (4-6 sentences, 200 words max) response answer, WHO [what historical figures and populations relate to this event], WHAT [what happened], WHEN [approximately when this occurred], WHERE [a particular city, town, state, region?], WHY [why do we still care? what is the significance of this event/person? Cite at least one source from course materials to support your claims.

  • The topic:The Dust Bowl

Requirement: fully considers every element of who, what, when where and why. The assignment supports statements with relevant details from course materials. Statement of why/ significance displays thoughtful analysis, connection to broader events/ themes. Don’t need to write a lot.

Sample assignment: about the topic, “New Woman”

In the 1920s, the growing consumer culture and popularity of first-wave feminism challenged Victorian notions of modesty and self-restraint. Nationwide, a generation of “new women” emerged who expressed increased liberation through flapper fashion like bobbed hair, the pursuit of companionate marriage, education, and new forms of socializing like unchaperoned dating (TAY Ch. 22). Chapter 22 of the American Yawp notes that participation in this lifestyle was often inaccessible due to race, age, or socioeconomic class. The “New Woman” movement is significant because it reflects America’s changing culture including advancements in first-wave feminism like the 19th amendment, and a decline in biblical authority and sexual taboos.

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Reword #`

I was super interested in the lecture on intersections with race and class, mostly because I had just wrote about it in my essay this week. I felt that there are a lot of complexities that come when understanding how Bourdieu’s insights change when the element of race is added into the social space and group formations. We learned in past lectures that minorities are given a disadvantage due to historical events of oppression that have affected their lives today. This is where I find the complexity in adding this to Bourdieu’s analysis. Although minorities can be higher on the social hierarchy or in the social space diagram that Bourdieu had created, they can still be seen as pretentious or as lower to white people in the high class. It’s a given disadvantage to them from the historical oppression, which thus reflects onto how people can react to their success in life. Though racial equality is being fought to be better, some people don’t change and this issue still occurs, which makes the addition of intersectionality of race and class so complex for Bourdieu’s analysis of the social space and the social clusters within.

Reword #2
Up until I signed up for this class, I also fed into the notion that success was a product of one’s hard work. Though I did consider greater access to resources a factor in one’s success, I was taught that merit could make or break an individual’s life. Around the time we began discussing social class and economic differences, however, I found my perspective changing quickly. I previously discussed how my high school fit students into two different groups: the “AP” kids and the “CP” kids, but I never understood that these labels also implied differences in these groups’ economic statuses. After today’s lecture about the Myth of Meritocracy, I realized that “merit” was a double edged sword. Moving up in society is made easier by better quality education. Obtaining this education can be costly, but you’d need to have a stable job to afford it. Without the necessary education, you can’t afford it. The cycle continues like this, and people find themselves stuck trying to exercise social mobility.

Reword and rewrite # 3

The “smoking gun” model of social change looks at the short-term and assumes that the enacted policy has a direct effect on the intended outcome. This approach is understandably pessimistic because there is an overwhelming amount of policy passed that fails to reach the intended outcome.

The countermodel of the “smoking gun” model is the “bee swarm” model of social change. This model suggests that institutional structures are associated with long-term improvement, but it is not necessarily because it has a direct effect on social change, but a lot of environmental laws, policies, institutions, have an indirect effect on social change. Institutional structures appear ineffectual when looking at the immediate consequences (short-term), but looking from the macro perspective (long-term) shows that change does occur; it attributes this change not to just one policy, but to multiple policies. The bee swarm model says that you start with a global environmental culture which then leads to several things (e.g., environmental policies, social movement groups, IGOs, treaties, shifting public opinion, etc.) that culminate to cause social change. Looking at something like the shifting of public opinion on environmental matters alone may not result in social change, but together with other components like governmental policies, the formation of green parties and treaties, social change becomes more apparent.

The first policy is good at identifying the direct, short-term effects of policy. This is helpful when observing the immediate consequences, but lacks the ability to understand long-term effects of policy in creating social change. Because of this, it is has a negative outlook and assumes that most policies fail to accomplish their goals.

The second policy is preferable because it looks at the long-term effects of policy and believes that the effect toward social change indirect instead of direct. Because of this, it depends on the conception of a global environmental culture to determine if social change occurs and why.

Reword and rewrite #4

The enforcement perspective describes that states could pass environmental legislation but may not be effective. These treaties or laws are not effective because they are not taken seriously or they’re not enforced by the states/country. The lectures stated that these regulatory structures are more symbolic rather than effective because it’s going to bring the conflict to economic interests, therefore, there won’t be as much effect on the environment. There is a sense of lack of political will since applying these environmental laws is just for the “positive” image that states are looking into environmental issues, but there is no action. The managerial model shows that states/countries would like to follow/adhere to the policies but do not have enough resources to be able to do it. Resources can include shortages of trained personnel, effective procedures, economic resources, or bureaucratic capacity. This becomes an issue in less developed countries since they lack many resources, therefore, those policies are not a priority to them, and they will focus on other concerns. I think each perspective depends on each country since some may have issues on one thing and another has issues on the other. For example, the enforcement perspective can be used for the US to explain the ineffectiveness of institutions since many sub-state actors will disobey the state laws for their benefit. Using the managerial perspective in low developed countries, people may shift their concerns on local issues rather than focusing on the environmental policies due to the lack of resources. Overall, both perspectives bring questions on the participation of environmental policies and the action taken to address these environmental issues.

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Discuss how Asian organized crime influences and/or works with Asian street gangs. Highlight how Asian street gangs can be used by Asian organized criminal groups in the United States.

This is a sample from a few classmates that responded.

The Triad crime group has influence over street gangs in both gangs in Asia and the United States. They originally “seized control of the Chinese labor market” around 1850, and since 1900 have leaned into organized crime (Valdez, p. 24). They have divisions of both Chinese street gangs and American street gangs to enforce rules (Valdez, p. 24). They engage in opium smuggling and prostitution. The Triad crime group has a Ladder or vertical gang structure. No one person is the figurehead of the organization. However, there are a multitude of individuals and groups that make up the Triad.

The Triad crime group’s income can come from illegal practices and business done in the United States. They typically do crimes such as racketeering or money laundering (Valdez, Lecture 4 B) through underground markets and exchanges. In recent years, a majority of their money comes from counterfeiting clothes, music, computers (Valdez, Lecture 4 B). These are things Americans buy in major market cities, specifically Chinatowns. Pirated movies were also key to t Triads, and are common in and all gangs. Chinese street gangs are often the ones who sell these products and enforce their presence. They make sure those who need to sell their counterfeit products have their market and ensure other rivals will not ruin their income.

Another organized crime group in the United States is the Tongs. Tongs are “Chinese working groups that formed based on the type of work done” (Valdez, p. 25). They also have lower level gangsters to enforce their rules so their businesses can flourish. Regular street gangs can be criminally influenced to maintain power, and they help leaders call shots by not getting their hands dirty. Street gangs like Wah Ching and Ghost Shadows who are associated with the Tongs often establish turf, sales, and engage in violence (Valdez, p. 26). They sometimes even do contract killings. Some Tongs are tied to the Triad crime group, and both have their influences globally.

One example of Tong crime was the Hop Sing Tong. They came to America to influence and control the Asian street gangs. They were engaged in loan sharking, illegal gambling and sometimes drug sales (Valdez, Lecture 4 B). They catered to both Americans and the Chinese. The Hop Sing Tong were selling illegal fireworks, which were popular for 4th of July and Chinese New Year. Two street gangs, the Wah Ching and Joe Boys, became rivals over firework sales. This eventually led to a shootout, killing five people (Valdez, Lecture 4 B). One thing that makes the Tongs and other organized crime groups so difficult is that not all members are in street gangs (Valdez, Lecture 4 B). Some work legitimate businesses, while others are engaged in underground crime.

Another Asian crime group is the Yakuza. They are a Japanese organized crime group with a similar gang structure to the Italian mafia (Valdez, p. 25). The Yakuza are very active in America. They make investments for capital and other financial benefits in America, as well as using America as a source of weapons. The Yakuza also have street gangs that work for them and engage in violence, to maintain their power. They attack both their own communities as well as other communities with the street gangs. They have a worldwide organization with over 100,000 members which helps them operate in different parts of the world.

Asian crime groups often recruit smaller asian street gangs to do their dirty work. They work their way up and the street gangs sometimes can morph into organized criminal groups. The street gangs can also become branches within large organizations. Asian crime groups believe they are “not a street gang and the members will continue to get involved in more serious criminal activity” (Valdez, p. 11). This allows them to continue their influence in America and other parts of the world. Violence, like every other gang, is still important to these gangs. Asian crime groups are global, but have heavy influence in America.


Valdez, A. (2009). Gangs: A guide to understanding street gangs. Law Tech Publishing

Valdez, Al. (2021). “Lecture 4 B.” SOC SCI 164B: Domestic Gangs. University of California, Irvine, 11 Aug. 2021, Class lecture. 

Another sample

Discuss how Asian organized crime influences and/or works with Asian street gangs. Highlight how Asian street gangs can be used by Asian organized criminal groups in the United States.

For many years, Asian immigrants and refugees have come to the United States in search of refuge, jobs, and education. In recent years, there has been an increase in high school and college completion, with 90% of American adults completing high school (Valdez, “Lecture”). Upon entering the U.S., culture shock was the main perpetrator in the marginalization of Asian youths, which later influenced gang membership (Valdez 1). Many first-generation immigrant youths learned to adapt to Western culture while their parents and elders tried to maintain traditional values from their home countries. Consequently, this led to conflicts and provoked some Asian youths to stray away from their families. The social exclusion and victimization of these youths caused them to become outcasts within their own communities, which in turn led to the formation of Asian street gangs in America.

Compared to their Western counterparts, Asian street gangs are more mobile, flexible, and overall more sophisticated (Valdez 2). Most Asian street gangs are nomadic and do not claim a geographical-based turf, which contributes to gang mobility. Some gangs have even developed an informal network of contacts and communication across the world to facilitate travel and globalization. For instance, Asian gang members can be in California one day and Texas the next (Valdez 2). Today, many Asian street gangs still target other Asians with the same ethnic background, and many of them have become more organized and efficient when planning and executing crimes. Home invasion robberies, cellular telephone cloning, and fraud are just a few criminal activities that some Southeast Asian gangs carry out to make money.

Just as Western gangs are known for selling drugs, Southeast Asian gangs are known for home invasion robberies. The amount of planning and execution that goes into a single robbery is what separates and sets them above their street gang counterparts. Most Southeast Asian street gangs prey on their own people, and once a target has been selected, a thorough background check on the victim and family is completed before the robbery (Valdez 15). Asian gang members can also stalk their target and place the victim under close surveillance for several days before attempting the home invasion. This would allow gang members to gain information on the victim’s routines. Furthermore, home invasion robberies can result in physical and sexual assault, which is seldom reported because it is seen as taboo by Asian cultural and social standards (Valdez 17). In addition to these standards, violence and blackmail contribute to Asian street gangs’ success with home invasion robberies.

Many Asian street gangs have become technologically advanced, allowing them to be involved in non-violent crimes, such as cell phone cloning and fraud. Cell phone cloning steals a phone’s ESN and MIN by illegally capturing the radio wave transmissions from the phone of a legitimate subscriber and reprograms the ESN/MIN combination into another phone (Valdez 18). This essentially allows multiple people to simultaneously use the same telephone number, with gang members profiting off the cloned cell phones. Southeast Asian gangs are also involved in check and credit card fraud. Checks can be cashed by altering the information scanned into a computer, and credit cards can be fraudulently altered using a computer software (Valdez 19). This allows some Asian street gangs to work alongside organized criminal groups while making money with minimal criminal exposure.

Regardless of past rivalries, older members of Asian street gangs typically work together to commit non-violent crimes or act as the muscle for organized criminal groups (Valdez 23). With modern-day technology and easy access to the World Wide Web, Asian gangs can effectively use the Internet to commit non-violent financial crimes. They can use and manipulate technology to illegally obtain information to commit fraud or sell counterfeit products. Organized crime is a group of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to make money engaging in illegal activities (Valdez 29). In cases where organized crime is local, the group may need additional protection, and this is when street gangs are called in to be the “muscle.” Members of Asian street gangs may be hired by organized criminal groups to do the physical hardships and protect them from authorities.

Asian street gangs generally work with organized crime for monetary incentives. Unlike the formal leadership structure of Asian organized crime, Asian street gangs typically do not follow and have a well-defined leadership. Many Asian gangs are nomadic and do not claim turf. They do, however, see violence as a tool and use intimidation to blackmail their victims into keeping quiet from the authorities. Contrary to Western street gangs, Asian gangs often do a lot of planning and assessing before they commit a crime. In addition to home invasion robberies, trends also suggest that some Asian gangs are becoming more involved in non-violent crimes and working with organized criminal groups.

Works Cited

Valdez, Al. “Asian Gangs.” Gangs: A Guide to Understanding Street Gangs, 2011, pp. 1-32.

Valdez, Al. “Lecture Week 3A.” SOC SCI 164B: Domestic Gangs. University of California, Irvine, 2021. Lecture. 

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Prompt:  Prepare TWO questions for each guest speaker. Total Eight Questions for 4 speakers

You can prepare your questions ahead of time, if you wish, by viewing the websites and links provided below.

Write your questions in chat, during class, so that I know each student has prepared two questions for each speaker.

TWO speakers on Tuesday, July 13, Gunindu Abeysekera and Aditi Mayer

TWO speakers on Thursday, July 15, Gena Hamamoto and Monona Wali


In your WRITTEN assignment clearly indicate the name of the GUEST SPEAKER and repeat your TWO Questions attached to each name.

Total EIGHT QUESTIONS. BELOW YOUR QUESTIONS, ADD a line, OR two lines to let me know what you learned from each speaker.

Here are Bios and Links for guest speakers below:


Bios and Links for Guest Presenters on Tuesday, 

Bio for Gunindu Abeysekera (Guni)

Gunindu Abeysekera is a Queer Sri Lankan-American ethnic studies scholar, digital media storyteller, and community archivist. Guni’s work centers narratives of immigrant artists and activists and how they manifest memories of their homeland through their work.

His family immigrated to the United States from Sri Lanka in the year 2000 when he was two years-old, and he has lived in Orange County ever since. As a result, much of Guni’s personal and academic interests have involved the experiences of growing up in the South Asian American diaspora.

During his time as an undergraduate at UC Irvine in 2017, he and his friends founded UCI’s first ever South Asian Student Union (SASU), a space where students from all backgrounds can actively participate in both celebrating and unpacking the problematic aspects of their South Asian identities.

During his master’s in Asian American Studies at UCI in 2019, Guni created a documentary film to accompany his written thesis on the colonial-banned South Asian dance form, Bharatanatyam, and its relation to diasporic “nostalgia without memory.”

While anticipating a PhD in anthropology, Guni is currently developing an interactive archive for the Sri Lankan-American diaspora called “Project ISLAND: Introducing Sri Lankan American Narratives in the Diaspora.”

Here is the link to Guni’s website:


Bio for Aditi Mayer:

Aditi Mayer is a sustainable fashion blogger, photojournalist, labor rights activist, and frequent speaker on topics of social and environmental justice. Her work looks at fashion and culture through a lens of intersectionality and decolonization. 

In 2014, Aditi had her start in the sustainable fashion movement after learning about the Rana Plaza Factory Collapse. Seeing the fashion industry’s disproportionate on people of color globally, Aditi looked to understand the historical and sociopolitical underpinnings that allow the fashion industry to function in a colonial manner, rooted in exploitation and extraction of both labor and the natural environment. 

She serves on the council of State of Fashion, Intersectional Environmentalist, and has judged various fashion competitions, from Lakme Fashion Week to the Marie Claire Sustainability Awards. Aditi will be spending 2022 as a Fulbright National Geographic Digital Storytelling Fellow, spending one year documenting the social and environmental impacts of India’s fashion supply chain.

Links to Aditi Mayer’s website and more:

Aditi Mayer’s website below:

Here’s a recent feature in VOGUE about Aditi Mayer:

Here’s a piece Aditi Mayer wrote for State of Fashion that can provide as a good primer for her presentation:

Bios and Links for Guest Presenters  

Bio for Monona Wali

Monona Wali is a novelist and short story writer and an award-winning documentary filmmaker.  She received an M.F.A. from the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television in 1983 where she earned the Lynn Weston Memorial Prize. She is known for Maria’s Story (1990) and Grey Area (1982). Monona will present her film Grey Area on Thursday in class.

Her thesis film Grey Area was recently included in “One Way or Another: Black Women’s Cinema, 1970-1991” which Richard Brody described in The New Yorker as “The most important repertory series of the year.”

Her debut novel My Blue Skin Lover won the 2015 Independent Publishers Gold Award for Multi-cultural Fiction. Many of her short stories have been published in literary journals including The Santa Monica Review, Tiferet, and Catamaran.

She led writing groups for incarcerated juveniles through the Inside Out Writers Program for seven years.

She currently teaches writing and literature at Santa Monica College in Los Angeles.

Link to a review of the film Grey Area by Monona Wali, which she will present in class is available on this website:

Here is the link to Richard Brody’s review of “Grey Area” in the New Yorker.

This review will help you understand the film ahead of time.

Gena Hamamoto has not yet sent her Bio or any links.  

I found these links if they are of any help. These will give you some idea of the range of Gena Hamamoto’s work:

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University of California Irvi

Before you begin this assignment, please be sure to view the following course lectures: Rights and Civil Rights; Feminism and Gay Liberation in the 1970s.

The 1977 National Women’s Conference, held in Houston, Texas, intended to bring together a large cross-section of US women to determine a future governing agenda supportive of women’s rights. Participation in the conference was diverse in many ways; the participants came from across the nation and around the world and the conference included women of diverse racial, socio-economic, and ideological backgrounds. Some conservative women objected to the conference on whole, and staged a counter-conference at the same time in Houston.

KERA-TV, the public television station in Dallas, Texas, filmed the events of the conferences. For this assignment, you will view segments of the documentary.

Please view the documentary here (Links to an external site.). The documentary can also be accessed here (Links to an external site.). While students are welcome to view the entire film, for this assignment they may opt only to watch these two segments:



Please answer the following questions. Please draw on specific examples from the documentary in your response:

  • Who, according to the documentary, participated in the National Women’s Conference? What does the film — its narration, its images/visuals, its footage — communicate about the diversity and background of people who attended and participated?
  • Please describe at minimum two debates that took place at the conference over proposed motions/resolutions at the conference. What were arguments for and against the resolution? How do advocates/opponents seek to persuade of their positions?
  • Please describe some of the issues raised by women of color at the conference in their amendment to the minority women’s resolution.
  • Lottie Beth Hobbs defines the difference between the National Women’s Conference and the counter-conference in Houston as a “battle of philosophies.” How so? How were the values/philosophies of the people at the counter-conference distinct from those of the women who participated in the National Women’s Conference?

Please follow the following formatting guidelines for this primary source assignment:

Students are STRONGLY DISCOURAGED from consulting sources outside of course materials. However, if you do consult an outside source you MUST cite it and provide a bibliographic citation at the end of your paper. Failure to do so constitutes academic dishonesty.

  • Use 12 point Times New Roman font
  • Make sure your assignment is double-spaced
  • Submit your assignment as either a word document or a PDF or type your response directly into the assignment; other formats will not be accepted and will not be graded.

This assignment will be graded according to the following criteria:

  1. Does the assignment address all the questions posed?
  2. Does the assignment demonstrate a close, careful, and thoughtful reading of the primary sources?
  3. Does the assignment demonstrate a strong familiarity with course topics and themes?
  4. Are all the claims made in the assignment accurate?
  5. Does the assignment make sense? Are the ideas within it communicated clearly within it?

Note #: Please use mostly course material to be safe. I will upload a course ppts and here is an article possibly useful…. Thank you!!

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University of California Irvi

Hi this is the same discussion we had last time, however I got points deducted for not explaining the concept clearly. Please use APA format. I will provide you with the book and two previous examples. Please follow the examples and answer all 5 points in oder. This discussion is for chapters 13 and 14. please choose a concept that you fully understand and explain clearly. Follow the examples.

Post your chapter reflection under each of the four sections (500-700 words per post). Do make sure you write your posts in a Word document and then transfer it to Canvas in case you lose your writing in the transfer. Always use spell check before transferring your writing. The written material must meet a high standard for grammar, spelling and critical thinking.

Monitor your discussion thread and please let the instructor know of any problems. Please post the text directly into the thread rather than as an uploaded document.

In your lead post, respond to these questions or statements:

  • Identify one concept or idea in the designated chapters that you found most useful to you as you consider your role as a helper.
  • What particular ideas identified in the reading section do you think would be helpful in applying to a member or members of your own extended family or friends? Keep the identity of members confidential by referring to them with initials.
  • Complete your own research of an additional reading, article, chapter or book (separate from the course text) on this concept and write about it in your own words. Write about how the reading either endorses or critiques the concept in the textbook. You must properly cite the additional reading / source materials using APA format.
  • Record any reactions to the readings in each section.
  • Write down one question you were left thinking about on finishing the particular section for others in your assigned group or other groups.

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University of California Irvi


Instructions: Complete all of the following topics: 1 and 2. Your answers need to be primarily in your own words. Yours answers must be based on the reading and module only. In this assignment, include at minimum 1 quote and 1 Chicago Style footnote. download A bibliography is not needed in this assignment. Use a quote as evidence in your answer. Do not use a quote alone as an answer; points will be deducted if you do. Be detailed in your answers. When you bring a point up explain the point thoroughly. Using an example is a good way to further clarify a point. Write in complete sentences.

Topic 1:

Read about the Brown case in the Foner text Give Me Liberty! pages 755-756. Then, read the following Brown v. Board of Education. (Links to an external site.) Answer the Ws of the Brown v. Board of Education.

a. Why (did this case happen)

b. Who (include all of the following: who is involved, and who delivered the opinion in the case)

c. What (include all of the following: what is written in the ruling for Brown v. Board of Education/explain the reasoning in the decision/include the clause and the amendment used in the ruling)

d. When (did it happen)

e. Where (did it happen)

f. Why (is it important in American History; explain the long term impact of the ruling)

Topic 2:

Read the Voices of Freedom in the Foner text Give Me Liberty pages 760 and 761: From Martin Luther King Jr., Speech at Montgomery, Alabama (December 5, 1955) and From the Southern Manifesto (1956). Answer all of the following:

a. How do religious convictions shape King’s definition of freedom?

b. Why does the Southern Manifesto claim that the Supreme Court decision is a threat to constitutional government?

c. How do these documents illustrate contrasting understandings of freedom at the dawn of the civil right

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University of California Irvi

In a 3 to 5-page APA formatted written report (and a minimum of six [6] peer-reviewed

sources), address the following concepts by providing in-depth analysis and details:

? Is monitoring of Web surfing by managers ethical? (It is legal.) Support your answer.

? Is employee Web surfing ethical? Support your answer.

? Analyze why are computer systems so vulnerable?

? Analyze why should information security be a prime concern to management?

Useful resources:

Article 1

This article introduce Web-surfing issue from different prospective employer and employee and the way how they present the view how to say the problem.

Web-Surfing at work, Retrieved from

Article 2

This article concludes in the legal right perspective and how can be done to reconcile the issue and how to draw the line in order the minimized the cause

Stephanie Gallagher, Ethical considerations in monitoring employee internet usage, retrieved from

Article 3

This article gives recommandations on employer how to monitor employees actives and talks about the pros and cons whether to monitor or not.

Susan M. Heathfield, 2019, Surfing the Web at Work, Retrieved from

Article 4

This article discuss the internet use policy and balancing employer and employee perspective. The importance of how to balancing each party’s perceptive when to set the IUP.

Sharman Lichtenstein, 2011, Retrieved from

Article 5

The number of cases in the US employee has been electronic monitoring at work. From employee protective and the reaction to monitoring Web surfing.

G. Stoney Alder, Employee Reactions to Internet Monitoring: The Moderating Role of Ethical Orientation, Retrieved from

Article 6

Monitoring technology use on employee computers become more common however to understand the law and regulation is another factor to take look into it.

Max Freedman, 2020, Spying on your employees? Better understand the law first, Retrieved from

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Should have on own post and two response posts to two person.

A little creative writing in this discussion. Start with some listening.  Listen to the four covers of the Blues song Mean Old World, linked below.  For the first three, listen carefully for the way each four-bar group is split into two bars of vocal and two bars instrumental.  By way of contrast, note the continuity of the melodic line in Sam Cooke’s version.

Mean Old World – Little Walters (Links to an external site.)

Mean Old World – Eric Clapton and Duane Allman (Links to an external site.)

Mean Old World – an all-star cast featuring Chuck Berry on Vocals (Links to an external site.)

A transformation into a 16 bar gospel tinged pop song – Sam Cooke’s version (Links to an external site.).

For this week’s discussion

1) What strikes you as the most unusual or surprising changes that you experience in Sam Cooke’s transformation of the song? Is it more or less expressive than the other three?

2) In comparing the first three versions what element(s) did you find most memorable? Most authentic (heart-felt)?

3) add a fourth stanza (text below).  Your stanza should follow the AAB format below, and be thematically linked in some way to what precedes your writing.  You don’t have to be overly narrative but remember to keep it in first person.

For your response to your classmate, in addition to responding to their responses to questions 1 and 2, you will add another stanza , i.e. you will add a stanza to your classmate’s new stanza.   Try your best to respond to somebody who hasn’t already been responded to, but adding a fifth stanza would be OK if someone else has already responded.

Mean Old World

This is a mean old world, try and live it by yourself.
This is a mean old world, try and live it by yourself.
Can’t get the one you love, have to use somebody else.

I’ve got the blues, gonna pack my things and go.
I’ve got the blues, gonna pack my things and go.
Guess you don’t love me, babe, loving mister so-and-so.

Sometimes I wonder why can your love be so cold?
Sometimes I wonder why can your love be so cold?
I guess you don’t love me, gonna pack my things and go.

pick two person from classmate A, C, 1, 2. 

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The things you need to do are:

Reflection essay on your progress during the quarter (500 words). Consider the aspects: writing skill, new critical knowledge, new knowledge about film, things that were more eye-opening. 

One essay rewrite(choose from essay 1-3). Include brief paragraph explaining why you decided to rewrite that essay.

Three Writing exercises of the quarter.

Writing exercise 1

Description and Rationale:

Although we usually need multiple views in order to have a nuanced grasp of a film, oftentimes the impressions of the first screening will deeply shape our ideas and subsequent experiences with that film. Here we are going to practice thinking, writing, and fixating these first impressions. The goal of this exercise is to practice writing and consolidating your impressions right after a screening, and thus create a firm ground for future writing.

Usually, writing that invests in sensory details tends to be more convincing because it creates a deeper impression on the reader. We tend to remember and relate first to our immediate senses. Paying attention to the sensorial aspects of a film beyond its narrative not only engages the reader, but it also produces a richer text that is more “respectful” to the aesthetic complexity of a film.

In this exercise we will focus on this: the sensorial aspects of the film–color, light, atmosphere, sound, gestures, textures. Whatever stands out to you.

After watching K’Bela (Yasmin Thayná, 2015) please, answer the questions below.

  1. Write here three visual elements of the film that particularly caught your attention. Answer with short sentences or words.
  2. Choose five keywords that you think apply to the film.
  3. How would you describe the film to someone that has not seen it? Write a short paragraph.
  4. Describe one image/scene that, in your opinion, summarizes the film.

Writing exercise 2

Description and Rationale

This exercise is a practice on connecting conceptual ideas with a film. You will write a paragraph in which you will explain the decolonial aspects of K’bela. In other words, how and why K’bela can be considered a good example of a decolonial film.

The exercise: you will continue the paragraph from the opening sentences written below. Make sure to write a concise paragraph that states the relation between the film K’bela and the concept of “decolonial,” introducing examples that would be further developed and analyzed in the subsequent paragraphs. Consider how the film shows the body and which bodies are shown. Please, feel free to use your answers to exercise 1. You can also use this exercise as a base to your discussion board post of this week.


The Brazilian film K’bela (Yasmin Thayná, 2015) provides us with a good example of the “decolonial” in film. As María Lugones argues,……..

Writing Exercise 3: explaining Galt

Description and Rationale

This exercise is a practice of reading and writing. Here are three quotes from Rosalind Galt’s “Pretty as Troublesome Image” that contain core elements of her argument. This chapter is the introduction of an academic book, and was written in a dense conceptual style. The exercise here consists in two main tasks:

  • To grasp the gist of the quotes: the central concepts, the examples, the arguments
  • To rewrite the paragraph in a less academic style, conveying the central argument and concepts

Focus on the idea and change the wording. Think of strategies that might make the sentences more straightforward, such as cutting out jargon and too many references. You will be explaining the ideas to a “general audience” (imagine someone that is not an FMS major, or someone that is not in the School of Humanities).


  1. “The production of the pretty as a space of rhetorical exclusion depends heavily on its connection to the wrong kinds of bodies. Plato’s cosmetics instantiate a connection of the untrustworthy image with the deceptive woman that has dogged the history of Western art, and the devices and tricks of the cinematic pretty oppose an overly fussy feminine mise-en scène to the grandeur of the masculine exterior. Moreover, the classical binary of Attic authority versus overly flowery Asiatic rhetoric links decorative style both to the non-Western and, in the binary’s modern forms, to effeminacy and sexual perversion. The politics of the pretty is therefore always engaged in a critique of gender, sexuality, and race as these terms have been imagined and codified through visual culture.” (20)
  2. “The bodily politics of the pretty, as entirely formal constructions of aesthetic value, are usefully distinct from identitarian categories: the persistent denigration of decorative images in the languages of femininity, perversion, or orientalism enables us to think beyond a politics of representation and to see histories of bodily exclusion instead as underwriting the structuring principles of cinematic value.” (20 – 21)
  3. “Madame Satã, for example, narrates the life of João Francisco dos Santos, a 1930s Afro-Brazilian pop cultural icon who was a famous criminal, drag performer, and queer outlaw. The film’s use of lush cinematography and staging for João’s erotic and criminal lives as well as its presentation of his “exotic” drag performances as “Madame Satã” or “the Negress of the Bulacoche” tie a recuperative queer politics to a sometimes uncomfortable aestheticization of sexual and racial stereotypes. And yet this excessive stylishness is quite clearly at the heart of the film’s historical analysis. The burnished tones of a visual schema that aesthetically marks dark skin, bright costume, and nostalgic period lighting are as much a performative articulation as is the protagonist’s drag act.” (21)

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University of California Irvi

For this essay you will evaluate the level of social capital in your community.

To do this, you will need to examine various outlets like social media and local news outlets for specific examples that show how connected your community is. You should search through various feeds like Twitter, Instagram, and even Facebook (even though young folks don’t use Facebook much, older people who run municipalities and organizations still do.) Most towns have a small local newspaper that uses social media but also has a website where you can read stories. You should also check larger newspapers like the Hartford Courant or New Haven Register (you may need an account to read more than just a few stories). Be prepared to scour these sources going all the way back to February or March 2020.

As your search through social media and local news, be on the lookout for examples of elements of social capital like bonding, bridging, and linkages. Be on the lookout for examples of people sharing information and resources, providing assistance or establishing trust. My guess is there will be lots of examples including people making masks, providing food to front line workers, teachers driving by student homes, etc.

If the level of social capital is relatively high, then there will likely be lots of examples of cooperation, selflessness and unity, meaning members of the community will likely be wearing masks, practicing social distancing and staying at home. If the level of social capital is relatively low, then there will likely be examples of tension, selfishness and divisiveness, meaning residents will likely be anti-mask, not staying home and generally advocating for opening the state. This assignment is not meant to be a referendum on either of these viewpoints. Nor is it meant to be a venue for your personal, subjective viewpoints or even conspiracy theories. The purpose of this assignment is solely to assess the level of social capital in your community and therefore try to explain why your community tends to fall into one camp or the other.

Your essay should incorporate the following:

A reminder of the name of your community.

A reminder of the demographics of your community (race, median household income, college education, etc.). Also include the results of the last two presidential elections in your community, as this may be relevant for your assessment.

Several examples of the community in cooperation and unity or in tension and divisiveness.

Your initial assessment regarding the relative level of social capital in your community. How well does your community share the same values and beliefs? How much solidarity and togetherness do you feel in your community? Have there been tensions in your community regarding the stay at home order? Does the relative level of social capital fit with the results of the presidential election? If so how?

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University of California Irvi

You need to go through course materials before start work, because you must do something related to topics from this course!!!!!!! Follow the rubric, you satisfied the rubric, you can get full points(10) no less than 9!!!

I will give you the course materials when you bid this post.

According to Wikipedia (Links to an external site.): “An Internet meme, more commonly known simply as a meme, is a type of idea, behavior, or style … that is spread via the Internet, often through social media platforms and especially for humorous purposes. Memes can spread from person to person via social networks, blogs, direct email, or news sources. They may relate to various existing Internet cultures or subcultures, often created or spread on various websites. One hallmark of Internet memes is the appropriation of a part of broader culture, for instance by giving words and phrases intentional misspellings (such as lolcats) or using incorrect grammar (such as doge). In particular, many memes utilize popular culture (especially in image macros of other media), which sometimes can lead to issues with copyright.”

“There are two central attributes of Internet memes: creative reproduction of materials and intertextuality. Creative reproduction refers to “parodies, remixes, or mashups,” and include notable examples such as “Hitler’s Downfall Parodies”, and “Nyan Cat”, among others. Intertextuality may be demonstrated through memes that combine different cultures; for example, a meme may combine United States politician Mitt Romney’s assertion of the phrase “binders full of women” from a 2012 US presidential debate with the Korean pop song “Gangnam style” by overlaying the politician’s quote onto a frame from Psy’s music video where paper blows around him. The intertextuality in the example gives new meaning to the paper blowing around Psy; the meme indexes intertextual practices in political and cultural discourses of two nations.”

This assignment has two parts.

1) Create an Internet meme relating to the topics of this course.

2) Write 200-300 words describing a) why the meme is interesting, insightful, and/or funny, b) how it engages in creative reproduction of materials (e.g., repurposes previous meme formats, world news, etc.), and c) how it is intertextual (that is, how it combines different cultural phenomena in ways that produce new meaning).

Please turn in a single PDF that includes both your meme and the 200-300 words described above by the deadline specified below.

Rubric: Meme

Rubric: Meme

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMeme

4 pts


Meme is very interesting, insightful, and/or funny in addition to being logical and comprehensible

3 pts


Meme is logical and comprehensible, and somewhat interesting/insightful/funny.

2 pts


Meme is logical and comprehensible, but not interesting/insightful/funny.

1 pts

Needs Improvement

Meme demonstrates good effort but may not meet greater criteria

0 pts


No meme included

4 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis

4 pts


Clearly, imaginatively, and persuasively engages with why meme is interesting/insightful/funny; how it engages with creative reproduction; and how it is intertextual.

3 pts


Clearly addresses the relevant criteria, but not imaginatively or persuasively

2 pts


Addresses all three criteria, but has some logical flaws or confusing elements.

1 pts

Needs Improvement

Significant parts of the analysis are missing or difficult to understand.

0 pts


No analysis provided.

4 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting quality

2 pts


Text is error-free. Length is within 50 words of required length. Demonstrates successful use of conventions particular to a specific discipline and/or medium including organization, content, presentation, formatting, and stylistic choices.

1.5 pts


Text is nearly error-free. Length is within 50 words of required length. Demonstrates attention to a wide range of conventions particular to a specific discipline and/or medium including organization, content, presentation, formatting, and stylistic choices.

1 pts


Text has some errors, but they don’t impeded comprehension. Length is within 100 words of required length. Follows expectations appropriate to a specific discipline and/or medium for basic organization, content, and presentation.

0.5 pts

Needs Improvement

Text has many errors that impede comprehension. Length is more than 100 words above or below the required length. Attempts to use a consistent system for basic organization and presentation.

0 pts


Includes no writing to evaluate

2 pts

Total Points: 10

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University of California Irvi

Introductory Essay

The introductory Essay needs to be based on my initial research. I attached all my research bellow. Please read all the documents attached below and write the introductory essay based on that.

Your introductory essay should be 5-7 pages (roughly 2,000 words) in length. Your essay should discuss overarching
takeaways from your studies in light of readings from the course. You’ll be asked to cite a minimum of 8 sources,
including 2 outside sources pertaining to your specialized topic.

Introduction: Give a detailed introduction to your field site/community of practice that helps to orient the reader
to the coming studies and makes it clear why you took the particular interest in it that you did. Include a
paragraph or two (if substantial enough material to warrant a second paragraph) description of your initial
premise or question. Giving this a unifying narrative can be very helpful. For example, if your premise or questions
evolved over the course of your project, give an overview of how and why that premise changed. (You may want
to include concrete examples of how your exercises reflect your [evolving] research interests. If you include a
discussion of your evolving interests, you will want to consider how to carry this narrative through into your
discussion of your activities. See below.)

Overview of studies: Give an overview of the studies you conducted (including extra credit if applicable). You
should be sure to include a short discussion of your own questions or interests specific to each exercise; if
applicable in your case, one way of creating a conversation that spans paragraphs might be to frame it around a
narrative of how one exercise led to interests you picked up in the next; the evolution of a relationship or a change
in your fieldsite might be another way of approaching the organization of this section. However you organize your
discussion, you should give a concise explanation of the overall direction you took. Think about these questions: of
all the things you could have focused on about your site, what led you to focus on what you did? Of all the things
you subsequently saw, what drew you to document what you did? Of all the things you documented, what led
you to write up what you did? And, finally, and above all, how does what you documented and wrote up relate to
the broader (if tentative!) themes/subjects that you’ll be giving further elaboration in this essay?

Informing Ideas: You’ll want to devote at least a couple paragraphs to explaining the ideas informing the way you
approached these studies. For organization, you might want to consider dedicating a paragraph to describing
research related to your community or social phenomenon. For example, if you did your visual ethnography in an
online community, it would be very appropriate to have a paragraph dealing with useful research you’ve found
that parallels the kind of social phenomenon you’re studying. You might also want to have a paragraph that’s on
ideas informing your methodology and way of approaching the community you studied. To stick with the example
of online ethnography, this is where you could discuss readings that give tips for how to conduct virtual
ethnography. (This is where many of your citations will end up — including, perhaps, your outside sources.)
However you organize your discussion, you’ll want to make sure that you’re taking adequate time to explain the
ideas you’re presenting and to indicate how they pertain to your study as a whole.

Key takeaways/Conclusions: This should be distinct from the findings of your individual exercises. Be careful to
justify these conclusions so as not to traffic in unsubstantiated generalizations/stereotypes. Instead, looking across
your data you should be able to arrive at grounded assessments: observations that you can illustrate with
multiple examples given a reasonable, observation-based interpretation. (Some of these conclusions may be
tentative. If so, acknowledge it. You don’t earn more credit for acting certain of something you can’t properly
demonstrate than you do for hedging a conclusion you can give evidence for.) You may feature some of your most
interesting individual finds, but if you do so you should relate these to overarching observations. Importantly, the
function of this section should be to look across your data and draw inferences about the entire data set.

Work Cited: Include a works cited page, formatted according to a recognized standard (e.g. APA, Chicago, MLA).
See “what graders will be looking for” for more tips.
Citational Requirements
You must include at least 8 unique citations in your essay. Two of the works you cite must come from outside the
class and be directly related to your topic. Papers shared on the class website under “bonus readings” can count
toward your outside citations.
The works you cite must come from academic journals or published non-fiction books. These don’t have to be
anthropology journals, but if you’re looking for anthropology offers a
search engine for essays sponsored by the American Anthropological Association. Also, in Jstor and similar
repositories there are options in “advanced search” to limit your results by field. We highly recommend doing this
to get the most relevant results. Remember to sign in to UCLA’s proxy server so that you can access the resources
on these sites. Here’s a link to the UCLA Library’s guide:…
Formatting guidelines
Provide section headings.
Include a works cited page (in APA, Chicago, MLA or any other official format).

What graders will be looking for [20pts total]

The essay includes all five sections: intro, overview, informing ideas, key take-aways, and works cited. (You can
name your sections however you want, but they should be doing these five things.) [1pt]
The introduction gives (a) pertinent context for fieldsite, (b) clearly explains your interest and specific questions,
and (c) gives an overview of the way the research progressed/evolved. [3pts]
The exercise overview explains (a) the specific purpose of each exercise and (b) offers a brief summary of the
individual findings and questions which proved most useful as the research progressed. [3pts]
The key takeaways offer insights which relate to observations in the exercises but transcend them: overarching
conclusions should look across the different exercises to consider what we might conclude when the evidence is
taken in sum. [4pts]
There is an accurate and focused discussion of background research, concepts from class readings, and
methodological considerations which makes substantive use of citations (e.g. properly integrated into the essay in
such a way as to justify a decision, explain a key concept, or give clarifying and plausible context to a social
practice). [4pts]
There is the correct number and kind of citations, including adequate works cited formatting. [1pt]

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Below are two sets of questions that are intended to reinforce key concepts that have or will be covered in the next few classes. The first set is focused on evolution and how to use phylogenetic trees as tools for understanding the history of life on earth and the second is focused on the history of earliest life on Earth. Each questions is worth 5 points.

Evolution, Phylogeny and Reading Family Trees

Read the following pages on UC Berkeley’s Understanding Evolution site: (Links to an external site.)

  • Read from the introduction through “Mechanisms of Change”
  • Read “Macroevolution” and “The Big Issues” through “Diversity in Clades” (Links to an external site.)

  • Read through “Tree Reading Tips”

Complete the reading and viewing and then answer the following questions:

As discussed in class, through descent with modification, the common ancestor of all life on Earth gave rise to the diversity of life we see today. We did not discuss in any detail how “lineages” of life split to give rise to this diversity. This set of questions should help you understand lineage splitting. Note that we use the websites above uses a term “clade”. In the class on phylogentics, this was called a monophyletic group. So monophyletic group = clade.

  1. Briefly describe the concept of Natural Selection. Include the four elements discussed in class. (Go to the class slides)
  2. Briefly describe macroevolution. (1-2 sentences)
  3. What is a transition fossil (transitional form)?
  4. Look up transition fossils online and describe one example (don’t use whales). (1-2 sentences).

Use this figure to answer the question below:

Blue Green Red

Screen Shot 2021-11-01 at 12.58.30 PM.png

5. What color(s) on the diagram above represent monophyletic groups (clades)? What color(s) do(es) not represent a monophyletic group? What two colors can be combined to make a monophyletic group?

6. Using the OneZoom Tree of Life (Links to an external site.) exploration tool found here (Links to an external site.), navigate your way to humans. It may take a bit to get used to the tool. List five nested “clades” or monophyletic groups that include humans, starting anywhere you like in the tree. There is no single answer to this question. Remember that a clade is a branch of the tree and all of the smaller branches that are included on that branch.

7. Using the diagram here (Links to an external site.), which are more closely related? Explain your logic in 1-2 sentences maximum.

a. Crocodiles and amphibians

b. Crocodiles and primates

8. List the animals on this diagram that have 4 limbs (tetrapods).

9. What characteristic distinguishes the clade (monophyletic group) that includes primates and birds from the one that includes amphibians? Look up that characteristic using internet resources and describe it in 1-2 sentences.

Read this short article on cetacean (including whale) evolution (Links to an external site.)

and watch this short film on evolution (Links to an external site.)

10. List five pieces of evidence for whale evolution from land mammals (be specific, don’t just list the general lines of evidence like “comparative anatomy”. Give a specific example in that or the other categories.

11. Describe the bones in the front flipper of a whale. Are they more similar to a bat wing or a ray-finned fish fin (look this up if you need too).

12. From the film on evolution, what characteristics and behaviors do hippos and whales share? Name five.

History of life on earth

Use the following interactive to answer the questions (Links to an external site.)

Note: Here is a definition that will be important as we move on through the course material.

Adaptation: An adaptation is a feature that is common in a population because it provides some improved function.

Click on Stage 1 and read the “Environment” and “Life” tabs in the upper right

13. What major categories of life existed during this time?

14. List two pieces of evidence for life on Earth during this time. One sentence each (really).

Click on Stage 2 and read the “Environment” and “Life” tabs in the upper right

15. What major categories of life existed during this time?

16. What adaptation did eukaryotes have that allowed them to evolve and diversify during Stage 2 in this interactive diagram? (Answer is in the Life tab)

Click on Stage 3 and read the “Environment” and “Life” tabs in the upper right

17. What is the impact of relatively low and steady O2 levels on life during this “boring billion” years of earth history?

18. Click on Howie in the lower right. Briefly describe how chloroplasts evolved.

19. How did life evolve in response to the increase in O2 during Stage 4? (click on Howie and watch the video clip)

20. What caused O2 to increase in Stage 5? How did life on earth respond to this increase? 

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Throughout the quarter, you have contributed your understanding of concepts related to Sustainability and Technology via your work on the knowledge graph project. In Week 10, you viewed and reflected on a visualization of the collective knowledge generated by this project. This week, you will evaluate a randomly-assigned subset of the collective knowledge.

This  assignment is divided into two parts: you will work on reviewing beliefs generated by your fellow classmates in their knowledge graph assignments, and write a short reflection on your overall experience with the knowledge graph project.

Part 1: Peer Review

A .csv (comma-separated values) file is simply a text-based representation of a spreadsheet, where each line in the file indicates a row in the spreadsheet, and commas indicate where a new column should begin. For part 1, you will receive a .csv file to your e-mail.  It will contain a list of 45 beliefs randomly pulled from the collective knowledge base generated from all 3 of the knowledge graph submissions. It will be your job to decide whether you agree or disagree with each of the beliefs.

We recommend using Microsoft Excel to view and edit the .csv (if you don’t have Excel, Google Sheets would also work); however we ask that you submit your finished work in .csv format, not custom spreadsheet formats such as Excel’s .xlsx or .xls. We also recommend that upon receiving the file, you open it in a text editor first in order to familiarize yourself with the .csv format of data storage.

The screenshot below shows an example .csv file with just 10 statements as it appears in a text editor. Note that the first row of the file contains the column names. The two empty columns that you will fill in (“Agree” and “Disagree”) are represented by the two commas at the end of each row.

Part 2: Reflection

For this part of the assignment, you will write and submit a short reflection (at least 150 words; no upper limit) on the knowledge graph assignments. You may want to discuss the process you used to initially construct your knowledge graph for Assignment 1, how you decided what changes to make in Assignments 2 and 3, your experience interacting with the collectively generated knowledge graph in Assignment 4, your experience evaluating your peers’ content in the first part of this assignment, and especially whether any aspects of the knowledge graph assignments changed your perspective on the topics of this course.

Please submit your reflection writeup as a .pdf.


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Please complete the following in order (one by one) and send as soon as finished per writing assignment.

1) Need a no longer than 100 word executive summary for pre-marital counseling presentation attached (base it off slides 1-13) (please send around 7:30pm PCT)

2) Need a 200-300 word paper talking about the following prompt/argument for Tech Addiction. (please send by around 9:30pm PCT)

This paper addresses the issue of “tech addiction”: people glued to their phones and companies designing apps to keep it that way. Who should bear the responsibility of addressing this? Consumers, companies, or government? (I suggest write it on the government for putting a quota of allowed ads, scanning for click bait ads, and such). You should present a convincing argument, anticipating the opposing positions’ counterarguments. This is written for a higher- level audience, so clear and articulate writing is required.

As the demands to counter the “addiction” to mobile phones and tablets get louder, the industry has been addressing the issue but not satisfying everyone. Let’s say that an upcoming symposium will bring together different players to discuss how best to proceed: government officials, academia, industry, and articulate consumers.

People from varied backgrounds have been asked to share their insights. You are one of them. Your insights will be provided at the conference to familiarize attendees with the relevant arguments from different viewpoints.

You have been asked to write a paper (~300 words) addressing who should be responsible for initiating change in this arena… or perhaps you think there should be no change from the current free- market behavior aimed to maximize eyeballs, growth, and profits. Expect other submissions to have opposing viewpoints. Know that in this environment you will be judged inferior if your arguments and facts do not stand up to critical analysis. However, that does not mean you shouldn’t use powerful anecdotes, comparisons, and the like.

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read these 2 articles and write the responses.Each needs 1-1.5 pages.

There will be two short, 1-1.5 page writing reflections. You can turn them in at any point before Friday, August 13th at 11:59pm. Just turn in two writing assignments in total. If you want to write two in one week on each of the two readings we cover in the same week, feel free to do so. I just need two writing assignments from you by the end of the semester, at any point before Friday August 13th, at 11:59pm.


Here’s the format: for each short writing assignment, write 1 paragraph of summary and 1 paragraph of analysis that comments on what you’ve summarized from the piece. Done. You’re welcome to add more if you’d like, but at minimum, I need to see 1) that you’ve read the piece, and 2) that you have your own (respectful, non-abusive) thoughts about it.

I need to emphasize this: you can’t just give me a summary—you also need to give your own critical take on the reading. If you just give me 2 paragraphs of summary, it’s half credit., Likewise, if I get 2 paragraphs of your thoughts but no summary of what you’re analyzing, it’s half credit. I need to see that you’ve both read and thought about the reading, so summarize then analyze. Quickly lay out the part of the reading you’re addressing—describe it and the relevant point you’ll be picking on. Then, pose a criticism, offer a constructive comment for strengthening the argument (adding a premise or replacing one with a stronger claim), point out what’s wrong (does the argument commit any logical fallacies), ask whether the scope of the argument is appropriate (are they over-generalizing or under-generalizing), etc. I want to see that you’ve critically thought about the piece. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel, but I want to see that you’re engaged with the reading.

Since this course covers a semester’s worth of materials and only two writing responses, you’re free to pick any two readings from any day and week that suits you. All I ask is that you respond to at least two readings. Just be sure to come up with your two written responses by Friday, August 13th, at 11:59pm.

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Speech Critique (50 points / 12.5%)

This assignment is designed for you to apply the theory and skills you have learned in this class. You should plan on observing and evaluating a filmed public speech ONLINE (i.e., via YouTube, Vimeo, or other technology mediated. This assignment will average 5-7 pages of text (do not exceed 10 pages of text), the assignment will be in Times New Roman style font, font size 12, double spaced, 1” margins (on top, bottom, right, and left sides. Grammar and syntax play an important role in your ability to convey arguments. I will deduct 20% from your total score for every five (5) grammatical errors. I will NOT accept late assignments. Please submit this assignment in the designated submission portal.


Please note the type of speech you are criticizing (informative, persuasive…?). Also, note the context of the speech. In other words, did you view a school seminar, a discourse held in a house of worship, a political rally…? Explain. Describe the demographics of the audience.


Did the speaker provide a thesis statement? What was it? Did the speaker use attention-getting devices? What were they? How effective were they? Did the speaker provide the overview of the speech? In what form was it presented? Was it in narrative form? Outline form? Overall, did the speaker’s introduction allow you to anticipate topics within the speech? Explain.


How did the speaker support his/her claims? What type of evidence was used? Were the sources of this evidence credible? Why or why not? How closely did the speech adhere to the overview, if any, provided at the beginning? Explain.


How did the speaker finalize the claims? In other words, what links tied the speech? Were these links effective/ineffective? Why? Did the initial speech framework coincide with the concluding remarks? Did the speaker stray from the established logical frame? Explain.


How did the speaker’s style affect your overall reaction to the speech? For example, did the speaker’s use of eye contact, pitch, vocal rate…distract you from the intended message? How? What types of proofs were used to gain credibility? What other stylistic devices were effective/ineffective? Explain.


After assessing the various components of the speech, provide your recommendations for improvement. It is NOT acceptable to provide recommendations without elaboration. In other words, do not write, “…I didn’t like the speech…just because.” If you make a claim, then substantiate that claim. Use evidence from your text or lecture material. Always answer the WHY question.

you can pick any ted talk video you like, it just has to be over 12 mins, here is some examples you can choose from,or choose one youd like, just tell me before hand please.

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Reword and rewrite this students response. Make it seem as if its another student who wrote it. Should be around 300-350 words.

The many solutions that Nancy Fraser brings up are very important to think about especially in the context of today’s political climate. Many people advocate for one solution or the other, however, the most necessary solution for the issues of today’s society and economy would be understanding the different perspectives of the issues. I like Fraser’s way of explaining intersectionality a little more compared to Crenshaw’s way of explaining intersectionality because I feel that Crenshaw’s explanation is a lot more limited in thinking. Fraser’s “folk paradigms’ of justice has a lot more elaboration on the idea of intersectionality and how it works for all forms of identity. As well as using these paradigms to create solutions is very interesting. The way that there is no real solution but to understand the different perspective, tells a lot about how issues could be easily solved if people weren’t so stubborn and close-minded. If everyone kept an open-mind and tried to understand how others struggle with their own struggles based on their socioeconomic status or their chosen identity, I feel that we would come a lot closer to an equal and peaceful society.

In this week’s lecture, we looked at the claims that ‘capitalism’ helps save the environment and the position that ‘capitalism’ destroys the environment. First, the position that supports capitalism helps to save the environment said if the world economy becomes rich, people will use nature less. On the other hand, the argument that capitalism destroys the environment is that the capitalist economy creates a cycle of boom and bust, but people recklessly build many factories when the economy is booming. After all, people produce more than they want to buy, which means people are wasting.

I think the argument that capitalism destroys the environment is more convincing. Capitalism has flourished for centuries, exploiting nature. It is considering nature as an “unstoppable” source of resources for production or waste disposal. However, the Earth’s ability to ‘stand through’ the destructive effects of capital is now at its limit. The desire for capital to grow without stopping has led to the suspension of the complex natural cycle formed over millions of years. This led to a crack in the ‘matter metabolism’ between society and nature (to borrow Marx’s expression). This devastating trend is directly linked to the social and material deprivation of hundreds of millions of people suffering from poverty, unemployment, and unstable employment. Capitalism is accompanied by this destructive tendency to guarantee profit and reproduction.

Therefore, no matter how people can make capitalism environmentally friendly, I think the argument that capitalism destroys the environment is more convincing.

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A Naive Bayes model is assessing the following sentence: Get meds from Canadian pharmacies discreetly shipped to your door no prescription needed! Which of the following statements is true?


The model will be rendered ineffective by the word Canadian.


The model will assess each of the words in the sentence independently (i.e. regardless of what other words are in the sentence).


The model will look for suspicious multiple-word strings, such as discreetly shipped and no prescription .


The model will make a classification estimate for this sentence as either spam or ham without factoring in the overall percentage of e-mails in the training set that are either spam or ham.

Which types of predictors are generally most useful to include when building a multiple linear regression model?


Predictors that are highly correlated with the outcome variable and with other predictors.


Predictors with no clear correlative relationship with either the outcome variable or with other predictors.


Predictors that are highly correlated with the outcome variable, but not with other predictors.


Predictors that are negatively correlated with the outcome variable and positively correlated with other predictors.

The chart below shows the summary information for a simple linear regression model with iris petal width as the outcome variable and iris petal length as the input variable, with both measured in centimeters. What iris petal width would this model predict when the petal length is 10cm?

chart for Quiz 2 question 14









Imagine that AD699 has five new teams of students, as shown below. Each team was asked to rank lectures 1 through 5 on a scale from 1 to 10. A correlation table based on those rankings is shown below. Using the method for determining correlation distance that we use in AD699, which pair of teams will have the smallest correlation distance?

chart for Quiz 2 question 11









A survey was conducted in which BU students were asked about whether they walked or used Uber to get to class. 515 students were included in the survey. 152 of the students indicated that they sometimes walk, but never use Uber. 250 of the students sometimes use Uber. 205 of the students in the survey never walk to class. What is the probability that a randomly-selected student from this survey neither walks nor takes Uber?









You want to build a model using Naive Bayes, but some of your predictors are continuous numerical values. What can you do?


You can bin those values into different groups, and then treat each group as a factor.


You need to rebuild the model, with more emphasis placed on the variables.


The best thing to do here is to reframe the data as a table.


Nothing can be done here — you need to use a different algorithm.

An analyst is attempting to build a multiple regression model. Her model will include up to 7 possible independent variables, along with 1 dependent variable. She will need to explore the one-to-one relationships among the independent variables first, in order to reduce the risk of multicollinearity. How many total relationships among the independent variables does she need to explore?









、The Music Genome Project is based on what type of model?


Association rules.


Collaborative-based filtering.


Content-based filtering.


Exhaustive search.

In a k-nearest neighbors model with 4 pairs of binary dummies as predictors, how many binary dummy pairs should be used in the model?


Only one pair (if the data has not been normalized first).







Imagine that AD699 has five new teams of students, as shown below. Each team was asked to rank lectures 1 through 5 on a scale from 1 to 10. A correlation table based on those rankings is shown below. Using the method for determining correlation distance that we use in AD699, what is the correlation distance between team INDIA and team GOLF?

chart for Quiz 2 question 10









Imagine that AD699 has five new teams of students, as shown below. Each team was asked to rank lectures 1 through 5 on a scale from 1 to 10. A correlation table based on those rankings is shown below. Using the method for determining correlation distance that we use in AD699, what is the correlation distance between team INDIA and team GOLF?

chart for Quiz 2 question 10









Which of the following statements about tree-based models is NOT true?


Tree-based models can handle missing data well (i.e. without degrading the results of the model).


Tree-based models are especially good at identifying the relationships among predictors.


Tree-based models can handle the presence of outliers well (i.e. without degrading the results of the model).


In order to work well as classifiers, tree-based models require large training data sets.

In which of these models does an analyst start by including ALL of the possible independent variables, and then eliminate some of those variables, one at a time?


Stepwise regression.


Forward selection.


Ordinary least squares.


Backward elimination.

TRUE or FALSE: If Rectangle A has a higher Gini index than Rectangle B, then we can expect it to be less homogenous.

TRUE or FALSE: A hamming distance can be negative.

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Help me study for my Psychology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Two part discussion One is the lead post which is my discussion about the topic and than a response post to another students discussion. I will provide you with the book and an article to write this discussion for the book it is going to be chapter 10. I will also provide the instructions and once you accept two examples from other students so you can reply to one of them. 

? Lead post:

  • Identify 3 key practices in this theory and explain them. Identify how these practices are drawing and implementing on which constructionist principles. Share your personal opinions and situate your position on these items.
  • How does this theory conceptualize the self? How does it conceptualize change?
  • In approximately 500 words, give an example of this theoretical orientation that you could apply to your current or prospective field of work and explore any limitations of this theoretical orientation (diversity, work setting, population). Feel free to use examples from personal world as well (family, friends, etc.), but please dis-identify and do not diagnose. 

? Response Post:

In approximately 300 words respond to another person in your group about their key points listed. What did you learn by reading their response? What did you find yourself agreeing with and disagreeing with about what they were emphasizing and drawing attention to? Pay particular attention to their application of the theory and share if it fits with your own understanding.


Student 1

Three foundational tenets of narrative therapy are double-listening, scaffolding, and situating comments (Zamani, 2021).

When clients show up to therapy, they often start off explaining about a problem. A narrative therapist will listen to the client’s story but will also be tuning into the information that is absent but implicitly woven within the story (Zamani, 2021). This is the practice of double-listening. The goal is to pick out the pieces of the story that represent local knowledge the client might not readily identify as relevant or important. Narrative therapists believe these stories are integral to the client’s identity.

Narrative therapists use scaffolding techniques in order to meet the client where they’re at and then guide them to deeper understandings. Starting off with experience-near language enables the therapist and client to discuss desired outcomes. As they continue working together, the therapist will start integrating more abstract ideas that include identity construction and social influences. It is likely that folks come to therapy unfamiliar with narrative practices and scaffolding provides clients with the time, language, and overall conceptualization of how various socio-linguistic and cultural factors influence identity.

Situating comments stem from the understanding within narrative therapy that clients are the experts in their own lives. A way of minimizing a client’s “overprivileging” (Gehart, 2018) of the therapist’s comments, situating comments provide specific context emphasizing that it is just one opinion out of many. Providing this context is important for recognizing that information is not generated within a silo, but that socio-political, linguistic, cultural and many other factors influence its creation.

A key foundational tenet of narrative therapy overall is social constructionism, and the various practices listed above are directly drawing from constructionist principles. Narrative therapists believe that folks don’t have problems, but instead problems are thrust upon them when surrounding dominant discourses are in direct conflict with personal core beliefs. According to narrative therapy, dominant discourse is constantly playing a part in how people develop linguistically and socially. This influence can cause a disruption that leads folks to seek therapy. A therapist working within a narrative framework will utilize the tools in the subsequent paragraphs to help the client understand that the problem is separate from their personhood. Ways to mitigate the disruption include the client’s own understanding of how social forces play a part in how they understand, conceptualize, and story the problem. During the process, folks are encouraged to find local knowledge within their stories to redefine their meaning-making framework. This new perspective will hopefully provide them the opportunity to regain some balance in their lives.

There are many different practices within narrative therapy that I’m drawn to. I find a lot of value in honoring local knowledge, in requesting permission to dig deeper, and in sharing different ways of making meaning. The one nagging concern I have for narrative therapy is how the concepts of social construction translate linguistically and culturally to the folks I work with. A lot of the key practices in narrative rely on specific linguistic expressions like, “how do you make meaning of that experience?” or “how could you tame the problem” (Gehart, 2018, p. 437). However, I’m left wondering how to linguistically express the concepts of narrative therapy with folks who have been experiencing language deprivation throughout their lives. Something that I think will help is the concept of cultural democracy (Akinyela, 2014). Akinyela (2014) describes how metaphors found in narrative therapies might not hold meaning for folks of non-European descent. I think the same concept applies to folks who are not directly privy to incidental learning of dominant discourses. I think an important part of my work will be to respect the lived experiences of folks who don’t hear, and seek out local knowledge and practices from individuals who are part of the Deaf community.

This theory conceptualizes the self as having multiple identities that are influenced and shaped by dominant and local discourses. How someone stories their experiences is a result of how they interact with and perceive dominant discourses. Narrative therapists believe that there are multiple versions of the same story, and they work with clients to unravel additional strands of the story to identify additional, more useful meanings. In this way, they can increase the client’s sense of agency, and then support their discovery of ways they can control the trajectory of their lives. Change is conceptualized as a client using local knowledge to redefine what they want their lives to reflect instead of always falling into what dominant discourses define as “right” or “acceptable”.

I have been working with a student who has been talking a lot about their identity development as a mom who is Deaf and blind. This student and I work intimately together because of the nature of tactile communication, and I have been honored with her sharing of multiple stories. Recently, this student, we’ll call her Gabby, has been explaining how she doesn’t feel like a mother because her child doesn’t live with her. During one phone call, she described how she participated in Mommy and Me courses when her child was born, she created methods of taking care of him as a blind person that were “not normal” (her words), and how she would take him to daycare every day on public transport. As I write this retelling of her story, I recognize I am pulling out pieces that were more afterthoughts than parts of the story. As she cried telling me the story, she explained how she was regretful her child didn’t get a “normal” childhood and that she was questioning herself as a mother. From my perspective, she was using dominant ideas of “good” mothering as a mirror to reflect on her own experiences. I felt like this comparison was a big part of her distress and I asked if we could talk through some of her beliefs surrounding motherhood and family. She kindly agreed.

I asked if she could tell me about moments where she was felt like a good mom, and if she could describe why she thought they were good. She started talking about the moments described above and how important it was that her son was loved, cared for, and happy. Gabby described how even though she did things differently, she still was the one ensuring her son was safe and cared for. She explained how people at the day care center would ask her how she could take care of an infant as a person who was blind and Deaf. I asked her what her response was to them. She said that she always was proud to explain alternative methods for diaper changing or feeding. I then mentioned that those alternatives were probably not what dominant society would deem as “normal” but that they were exactly what she needed to do to care for her son. That was local knowledge that was incredibly valuable and should be honored.

Even though this was just a small part of a larger conversation, and I’m sure that there were more insightful and helpful things I could have said, I think that this was a moment where we co-edited her story to highlight instances of motherhood she didn’t find immediately recognizable. The conversation was incredibly meaningful to me and I hope we have more opportunities to re-story together.


Akinyela, M. M. (2014). Narrative therapy and cultural democracy: A testimony view. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 35(1), 46-49. (Links to an external site.)

Gehart, D. R. (2018). Chapter 10: Narrative and collaborative therapies. In Mastering competencies in family therapy: A practical approach to theories and clinical case documentation (pp. 427-448). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

student 2

Externalizing: I figured since the main technique of Narrative therapy was externalizing (according to Gehart (2018) anyways) it was one I needed to get down to allow for further understanding of the other practices. This idea was new and interesting to me. It was new to see the problem isn’t the person, that the problem is the problem. The actual linguistic tactics of it were what I found so intriguing about this concept. The idea that you create this alter-ego that is just the problem, and doing that by changing it from an adjective, to its own noun separate from the person was a new process for me. At first glance, this seemed a bit fluffy to me. Not the concept but the actual language of externalizing, of asking someone to “tell me the relationship they have with anxiety” that seemed just strange to me.

However strange and jarring I found the questions to be at times, I found that I agree with this view of people separate from their problems, a problem is not a whole person and is something separate to overcome, and even that is not the correct word. Perhaps to find a new relationship with, one that fits better with one’s preferred story. I love how this externalization reframes your mindset when looking at a problem and I like the attitude of externalizing.

I think another facet of this externalizing that threw me for a loop is it’s not a one-and-done type of technique. That it’s a process and takes time to learn to externalize the problem, that it is ongoing. You don’t walk into therapy and walk out a completely changed and resourceful externalizing person after day one. The idea that it takes time for clients to shift their perspective on themselves and the presenting problem, from having it, to seeing it as outside of themselves. The word choice of having a “relationship with depression” is strange to me. The idea that I don’t have anxiety, that I have a relationship with anxiety is strange to consider. But at the same time, I can think of a group of clients that this would absolutely work well for, but I will wait to discuss that a bit below.

I think the idea of “sides” of ourselves where the problem exists reminds me of Psychosynthesis Theory where we have many subpersonalities and the goal is to try and bring them together in a balanced whole or self. In Psychosynthesis, you look at the strengths of each subpersonality to create resources, whereas here it’s just to move the problem further away from “the self” (Lombard, 2014).

I can see how this type of technique cannot be forced and must be introduced as a possibility and see how the client responds. It reminds me of when I was introduced to tapping and FLASH Therapy. At first, I was very put off by how different a technique it was but then I later saw the value (Gehart, 2018).

I also was attracted to the benefits of externalization. Decreasing conflict and blame, undermining a sense of failure, and showing when there were alternative times where the client had an influence over this challenge or problem that they are facing. Identifying new avenues for reducing the troubles the problem can bring. I saw so many positives that I really was vibing with.

Adding just a bit more of my exploration with externalizing (there is so much and I feel like there could be a whole chapter or book on externalizing alone) I was very drawn to the metaphors used to externalize. This was interesting to me because a friend of mine visited me after we all were vaccinated and she, myself, and my girlfriend are all third culture kids, but they (herself and my girlfriend) are bilingual. They got into a long discussion about how direct and unimaginative music in English was, whereas in Russian and Vietnamese they use metaphors for everything to explain how they feel. This was also a new concept to me and it seems to fit very well with the idea of externalizing metaphors for relating to the problems. A few that caught my attention from the book were: walking out on the problem, going on strike against, defying, recovering, or reclaiming territory from the problem (this will also come into play with my fictional character), taming, and harnessing. These terms all seemed to ignite a passion in me to read them and feel in a space of strong support. Like a strong independent woman walking out on her problem? Like YAS honey! You don’t need it to sustain you anymore (sounds like I am sliding into a different theory here but bear with me)! And reclaiming territory, that within your story, you are the most important author and choose which points matter and which narrative is preferred. It got me pumped up, to say the least (Gehart, 2018).

The constructionist piece with Externalizing seems to clearly be language constructing reality. That by a simple shift from the problem turning from being an adjective to a noun, there is now a new sense of possibility and agency (Zamani, 2021).

Separating the person from the problem.

“When anger takes over”

Problem Deconstruction (investigative reporter)

I love the Problem Deconstruction from the social constructionist point of view. With this technique, the therapists are using deconstructive listening to help clients trace and locate the effects of dominant discourses and empower clients to make choices about which discourses they let affect their lives. I liked how Gehart (2018) referred to this as investigative reporting.

The therapist listens for “gaps” in client’s understanding of the problem and asks them to fill in details. Helping clients unpack their stories to see how they have been created and constructed, finding influences of dominant and alternative discourses throughout. These questions target problematic thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and attitudes by asking clients to think through: history, context, effect, interrelationships, and strategies. What is the history they have with the problem, what contexts influence the problem, belief, feeling etc? When is it most likely to happen? The effects of the problem, what has it done to your relationships? The interrelationships with other beliefs, thoughts, feelings, etc. Are there problems that feed this problem or make it more difficult (this felt a bit like inception)? Then finally strategies used by the problem, how does it influence you? (Gehart, 2018).

Again I am feeling like this relates the most to the constructionist principle or language constructing reality and determining what possibilities and choices are available to a person.

The Constructionist pieces here are discourse, context, identities, and I even see dominant vs local knowledge when looking at alternative narratives and which to accept. Discourse, context, and identities I see when we are looking at the narratives and what influences them, from many different angles and perspectives (Zamani, 2020).

Mapping the Influence of the Problem (and the influence of the person)

I thought mapping to be an interesting and new intervention as well. The idea of expanding the reach of thought of a problem to other people in the client’s life. Asking how the problem has been affecting the lives of the clients’ friends, family, and significant others moves the problem from just an internal dialogue to a relational one. I do however see the importance of once you start mapping the influence of the problem making sure to map the influence of the person, so the client feels a sense of their own agency in changing their story and finding hope. Maybe someone can help me out here? I guess I can see it from the point of view of separating the person from the problem and if we map the influence of the problem we should also map the influence of the person as they are two separate entities (Gehart, 2018).

Gehart (2018) discusses how mapping the influence of the problem questions look at how the problem has affected a variety of areas in the client’s life. Their physical, emotional, and relational health. How has this problem affected their close relationships, how has it affected others they interact with?

The mapping of the influence of the Person I think is actually quite powerful. It starts with externalizing. Flipping the script and looking at how the person has affected the “life of the problem”. Questions like, “When have the people involved kept the problem from interrupting an event or an area in their lives?”, “When were they able to keep the problem from taking over when it was showing up?” (Gehart, 2018).

Constructionist principles would be discourse about the person’s influence, what other personal factors are at place and affecting the story. I could also see context here as well as agency and change. I think that when you map the person’s influence they can start to see they have a part in shaping the narrative and are able to decide which way their story goes next, or how complex and “thick” their story really is (Zamani, 2020).

How does this theory conceptualize the self? How does it conceptualize change?

The conceptualization of the Self, I had a few thoughts. One, the person is their own being and not “a problem”. There is a “self” a true self that comes through in the narrative (changes based on context/ which narrative we are discussing), though there are multiple narratives therefore multiple valid alternative identities. I would assume in the context of autonomous, relational and narrative self that here we are discussing the the narrative self. Also, the way identity is constructed in stories is where the self is located, or so I thought I understood from the lecture (Zamani, 2021).

For Facilitating Change, Narrative therapists are looking at transformative interpersonal patterns (TIPS), using questions and teqniques to separate the client from the problem and the things that support the problem, like mapping in the landscape of action and consciousness, deconstructive questioning, and scaffolding. For all of these, therapists begin by exploring PIPs and SCIPs and then creating space in language where the client can envision a different narrative and identity (Gehart, 2018).

In reading Spitting Truth from My Soul (Heath, 2015) I was really struck by a few things that I related to in narrative and that I wanted to try myself. It was great to read a session and see how personalized narrative can be. That the therapist first took the time to connect with the client on a human level and see what they were doing and what they liked. And that little act of trying to connect and understand someone became such a monumental way forward in communicating and building a path of trust and collaborative in therapy. I have often tried to explain to friends, relatives, and my girlfriend what I feel when I hear rap and really listen for the lyrics. I hear empowerment, I feel strong when I rap a song, such as WAP by Cardi B and Megan the Stallion. I could easily relate to where the client and therapist landed on rap being a philosophical string of words of wisdom. This gave me ideas for my final client in this class. Where to even start with them and building that trust and communication. Understanding it doesn’t always happen on day one but that you can shock the client out of the “routine” of what they think therapy is (this reminded me of EFT a little). I love that. This was a powerful article. I also love the permission questions and asking for permission and really valuing the local knowledge and language of the client and showing them that respect.

I guess as this is the theory I think I want to use for the final paper in this class, I wanted to start to dive in here. So one area I want to focus on in the future is international student support, but another area that I have a passion for is celebrities’s being denied empathy and treated as not even human. I did my research methods paper on this Empathy: Denied topic. Since I will be counseling my book character Regina, I imagine that Narrative Therapy will be very helpful with her experiencing a relationship with fame and celebrity. I know I want to help her find her own narrative and story apart from the dominant narratives about herself that she is fed by the media and by fans. In looking at this goal (I know narrative doesn’t really have “goals”) there was a lot I saw in SFT that would be helpful as well as Narrative. But for picking just one, I think we have to start with externalizing before we can get to deconstructing the problem or mapping the influence of the problem or the person. I think my character has so much she has taken on as her “problems” and what she believes are flaws within herself. I would start with meeting her apart from the problem. Getting to know Regina. What does she like to do outside of work? What does she do for work? When does she feel the most fulfilled? Does she have any pets, what music does she listen to, etc.? The idea that there are times without the problem and it doesn’t always exist and therefore is not within her, are very strong Ideas I want to help her build. That she has a relationship with fame and celebrity, sometimes that is good and sometimes it is not. But that is also not who Regina is, that fame or celebrity are nouns and external from Regina. And our focus is on alternative stories and which is the preferred narrative of Regina’s identity. “Who do you want Regina to be?”

More questions might be, “Regina, I would like to ask you a few questions about your work and the impact that has on your life and your relationships. Would that be alright?”

And if she says yes.

“Great, thank you so much for being open to discussing those areas of your life today. Can you please tell me a little more about your relationship with fame and celebrity?”

I feel like I might have bitten off a little more than I can chew in my final client, but I am really excited about this project. I like the idea of working with that cognitive dissonance of when a personal story does not align with the dominant narrative within their culture. I like the idea that therapists are “question smiths”, inviting other things to consider (Zamani, 2021). I love that the main focus of Narrative is identity, that that we are giving back power to our clients. To engender hope that the story is one of always becoming and that the client is in charge of what dominant or alternative discourses they want to ascribe to. And it really gives my brain some gymnastics to try and go from the outside in, instead of the inside out. The world and context has more influence than we think and that gets lost a lot of the time (Zamani, 2021).


Gehart, D. R. (2018). Mastering competencies in family therapy: A practical approach to theory and clinical case documentation. Cengage Learning.

Heath, T., & Arroyo, P. (2015). Spitting truth from my soul: A case story of rapping, probation, and the narrative practices. Part I. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 34(3), 77-90.

Lombard, C. A. (2014). Coping with anxiety and rebuilding identity: A psychosynthesis approach to culture shock. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 27(2), 174-199.

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 This paper is for a counseling program. For the sources you can look them up online and I can provide you with the link to the book. I will attach the first three papers. I already provided some comments to the answers and you can expand on that and add some literature.

  • When did you first notice the idea of becoming a counselor?
  • (MY OWN COMMENT: I noticed the idea of becoming an academic counselor after I have been through many struggles in school and I had counselors who helped me reach this point. I also am the type of person who likes to listen to others share their stories and try to give some advice.)
  • What told you that it was important to you?
  • (It is important to me because I want to give back what I have received. I want to be there for other undocumented, immigrant students and also students from different backgrounds and I want to encourage them to pursue an education. My inner voice told me how important it is to support others who are doubting themselves it motivates see others succeed.)
  • How did your experience in this program impact your identity as a future counselor?
  • ( This program has taught me about a lot of perspectives and theories I was not aware of. It definitely prepared me to work with different kinds of people. I learned that the same method does not work for everyone. Each individual is different and I need to work with each one in a different way. I learned a lot about self awareness and how to be careful with my language. Something that is really important that I have learned is that the counselor or therapist is not always the expert but the client is in some cases. This is something I did not think of before. My identity as a counselor has completely changed because now I feel more prepared and excited to start my counseling journey. I was more self conscious before and did not have as much courage as now.)
  • What are you currently doing that is a reflection of your preferred ways of practicing counseling as a profession?
  • (Currently I am trying to do some practice sessions with family in friends to prepare myself to work with actual clients. I think the more practice I have the easier it becomes for it to flow. I also try to rely on theories that I have learned throughout the program).
  • What are some of the new insights you have gained through this capstone project? (Be sure to ground your insights in the literature by using citations.) (This project has helped me realize which theories work for me and how I need to use different methods for different clients. It also gave me an opportunity to talk to other experts in the field)

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Throughout the quarter we have experienced films that are part of important and moving trilogies, each one told by a distinct and singular artist. The trilogies and their stories and characteristics may be varied, but the form and structure of all the trilogies are similar: BEGINNING – MIDDLE – END…

With this form and structure in mind, I invite you to create and share the trilogy of YOUR story, with a beginning, middle and end…

Please write: 1) Your BEGINNING – who are you; where do come from; what experiences have shaped you. 2) Your MIDDLE – who are you today/now; what experiences are you currently having that shape your current point of view, philosophies. 3) Your END – who do you want to be/become; what is your vision of yourself. Dream your “ending” and future self.

I highly encourage you to think deeply and feel deeply as you write and dream and create YOUR trilogy…

In the end, I invite you to create and share your own heroic quest, search, journey…

And as always, please be deeply personal and jump into the writing of your trilogy with an open and generous heart…Please write a 6-page minimum FINAL PAPER (or more if you wish!) from the prompt below. The FINAL PAPER must follow the standard Modern Language Association (MLA) format: typed; double-spaced; 12 point; new times roman font: heading; title; running head with page numbers; list of works cited page; etc….

Here is a link for a reference:

kk, 1)I come from China. I have been studied in the U.S for 6 years. ( start from high school) I am here for a better university. I am an ambitious person until l meet my host family who take me to church and learn about Christians. The cultures here are also different. People spend more time taking care of their children and participating in their lives. These are the treats that I have never had in China. I gradually become a more kind-hearted person. Instead of pursuing fame, money, or a better university, helping others are much more important to me. I enjoy the time I work in the school bookstore, volunteer for others, donate to the homeless. 2) Now I am in a university that could teach me how to succeed in the future. Especially in this diaster, I realize money is important for everybody. I learn the backgrounds of Casco. What made Casco succeed is only earn 15% of the profit. It will greatly help the customers buy cheap and great products. To help more people, I need to be a better self. I could help others by reducing the unemployment rate and improving other people’s standard levels instead of donating. I realize more ways to become more efficient to help others. 3). I want to become a financial advisor in the future. I would like to help every people to achieve their dreams like “the wolf of wall street “.  I want more people to achieve their dreams and reach the real peace of the world. 

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udent Learning Outcome: Students will demonstrate knowledge of the elements and considerations required to start a new business. (Ch 5/6)

Review Discussion & Writing Assignment: Grading Criteria

Read: In this assignment, you will think to write about what it takes to start a business using concepts learned from chapters 5 and 6.

Pick a business you might want to start right now. Think about something you are good at or enjoy doing AND something you see a need for in your community or area.

You will need to support your claims with outside sources. Include citation/links at the bottom of your post.

I will grade you on whether you provide support or not. For example I want to start a dog walking business because I know a lot of people have adopted dogs during the pandemic and as we are becoming vaccinated as a population, more people will go back to work. OKAY, BUT WHERE IS YOUR EVIDENCE?

Like this. According to an ASPCA survey given during the first two months of the pandemic, adoptions were up 400%. (链接到外部网站。)

Ideas for small businesses or where to start: Maybe you are really good at algebra, AND you notice many students struggling during the pandemic. You can start a tutoring business. But think about how do you know there are students who need tutoring? (Must find outside source – something to support your answer)

Maybe you love shopping for deep discount sales, you can sell products online through retail arbitrage. (What products will you sell and how do you know they are actually moving?)

Do you love dogs? You can walk dogs as people are heading back to the office and during the pandemic, dog adoptions were through the roof. (Is this really true? Find facts to support it)

Are you are a talented dancer? You can give dance lessons if there is a need. (Are you sure you’ll have takers?)

Do you have experience in a niche area or field? Maybe you’ve been in a specific industry for some time, you can start a consulting business.

Take amazing photos? Do you make great chocolate chip cookies? You can sell baked goods, you can (fill in the blank.) You may read my College Micropreneurship Story here.

Task: Respond to this post for each of the following numbers

  • Using at least three bolded terms from the text (bold them).
  • Support your claims or estimates by facts or reasoning (give the reason why your idea is likely to work)
    • cite sources

  1. Name the kind of business you might choose (if you’re having a hard time choosing, feel free to choose something from above)
  2. Demonstrate who the market is for this business and why there is a good chance they are interested:
    1. Who is the target market? Specifically. Age range, gender(s), education level, income, likes, dislikes. Be clear on the market. Do NOT say, everyone. When you are selling to everyone, you are selling to no one, especially at first.
    2. How do you know they want the product or service? Look at other trends, likes, substitutes, etc.
  3. How much would it cost to start this business?
      1. Specifically, give a ballpark estimate based on costs associated with startup. Show those numbers here.
      2. (Where would you get the money if it’s more than you have?)
  4. Choose the type of business ownership you would start with and give one reason why
  5. Name one thing you’d do to protect yourself as a business owner

About 250-300 words

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  • Multiple choice (1pt each) – matching/multiple-choice questions on keywords as well as screenings (1-2 points each, roughly 20-25% of total grade)
  • Short Answer (4pts each) – 2-4 sentences on keywords and concepts (30-40%)
  • Essays (2 @ 20-25 points each) of 400-600 words on big topics and weekly themes (40-50%)
  • Short Answers Each short-answer question is worth 4 points and will ask you to do several things. Full credit is given for having all the required components the question asks for. So be sure when you’re answering the question that, for example on a question asking you to both distinguish one term from another and give an example of each, that you first define each term before moving on to the example (especially because if your wording on the definition is a little unclear, the example can help demonstrate your understanding of the term). While it’s true that the definitions of some terms can be found in PowerPoint slides, nearly all of them are taken directly from assigned readings. It’s important to show that you understand those terms by restating definitions in your own words, using them in complete sentences, and supplying examples or relating to other terms depending on what the question calls for. (in other words, it’s fine to refer to lecture slides, but if you cut and paste the text of slides word-for-word as your answer, you won’t get full credit)
  • Essay questions you will have some latitude in terms of what you write about on the essays and you’re encouraged to play to your strengths in doing so. Just remember that the two essays shouldn’t both focus on the exact same things. Of course, there may be a bit of overlap between the essays—you might even wind up mentioning a concept more than once. That’s fine…but if you find yourself writing about all the same readings, for example, consider shifting your focus.
    • You may exceed the 600 word limit by 100 or so words but the minimum of 400 words must be met for full credit (and successful responses will likely take at least that many words)
    • No need to write full intro or conclusion paragraphs, buta single sentence explaining the essay’s focus, like an introductory sentence at the top and topic sentence setting up each paragraph, is encouraged
    • DO break up into paragraphs and use a topic sentence for structure and write in complete sentences
    • No need to include a full bibliographic citation for class readings. DO include author / page# for quotes

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